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Bioterrorism Free Essay Samples Outline. Are you an under-graduate, in College, Bachelors or under-taking your Post graduate studies and need someone to help write your essay or research? We offer premium quality essay writing help. All our papers are original, 0% plagiarized uniquely written by our dedicated Masters specialists. My Essay Services is an papad business plan experienced service with over 9 years experience in research writing of over 97,000 essays over the years. You will receive a plagiarism check certificate that confirms originality for any essay you order with My Essay Services. Fill the calculator on admissions essay your right to begin placing your order now! Bioterrorism, for this paper, is defined as the deliberate release of biological agents or bio agents to cause harm to the environment or people. Due to papad technological advancements, the number of literature review and research, biological attacks has skyrocketed globally. The increased attacks culminate from the availability of business, tools and materials that are engineered in laboratories.
Bacteria, viruses, fungi or parasites are some of the biological agents that are used for such intentions. Environmental Problems. These bioagents have the business power to affect humans in isearch research some ways, ranging from allergies to serious effects such as disease or death. It is important to note that most of these agents are found in nature but are altered in laboratories to make them more potent on their targets. Bioterrorism is a major worry for most nations as it can be very hard to detect and contain once an attack happens. During the recent decades, the improvement in biotechnology and genetic engineering has made it easier for scientists to create such agents increasing the threat of bioterrorism (Mugavero et al., 2015). Some of these biological agents can be spread quickly through, air, water or even in the food we consume. Gwerder et al., (2001), found that bioterrorism is one of the most dangerous events that can occur in modern day society due to its characteristics.
According to the author, terrorists may release bio weapons to attack various sites to enable the spread of the business plan virus to other individuals. Research. For instance, terrorists may attack a worksite to enable the virus to papad spread via air or water to harvard of learning the community, or through secondary infections to plan other workmates. According to Riedel, bioterrorism is not a new phenomenon as it was used in the past during warfare, as early as 600 BC infectious diseases were recognised to have adverse effects on problems essay people and the military (2004). In the early days, cadavers and animal corpses were used to spread diseases in the enemies’ territories. Areas that were used for drawing and collecting water were also contaminated weakening the opposition. A good example of bioterrorism in earlier times is the Caffa siege of 1396 in modern day Ukraine. The Tartars who had experienced a plague used the corpses of papad business plan, their dead colleagues to spread the disease outbreak in the city.
This move subsequently led to the death of more than 20 million people in Europe and some parts of North Africa marking one of the greatest instances of bioterrorism documented to date. Equally important, smallpox has also been used by military personnel to wipe out their enemies. For example, in pollution problems the 15th century, Pizarro delivered contaminated clothing to the South American Natives to eliminate their presence. Moreover, Amherst, who controlled the papad plan British forces in North America, decided to use smallpox to eradicate the Indians who were very hostile to the British army; as a result, a considerable number of fomites were evident, and pollution problems essay, this paved the way for the British army to execute their mission. In 2001, the US suffered Anthrax attacks, which were later determined to business be acts of problems and solutions, bioterrorism. This attack came shortly after the papad business 9/11 bombings of the same year. In this attack, letters containing Bacillus anthraci, the environmental and solutions essay bacterium, which causes anthrax, were mailed to several media stations and two senators. That attack left five people dead and more than 15 others infected with the papad plan disease. Further investigations into the issue lead the FBI to declare that Bruce Ivins, who had been a government scientist as the primary culprit in the attack.
The studies and method of surveillance by thesis clothing the FBI did however not convince everyone that Irvin, who had already committed suicide in 2005, was behind the business plan attacks. Following these attacks, the US Congress hurriedly passed the Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act of 2002. Among the significant changes that the thesis law introduced, is the requirement for organizations involved in the food industry must register with Food and Drug department. Papad Business. The law also requires food importers to provide the government with notice whenever a shipment is to baylor essay arrive. Cases of outbreaks of bioterrorism attacks are still being documented to papad business plan date. The latest case of suspected bioterrorism is the Zika virus, which was reported in early 2016.
This virus was found mostly in the tropics where an infected Aedes mosquito, which transmits the disease, was found. The Zika virus can be passed from pregnant women to their unborn child hence a great danger to the health of both. In the international scene, the virus interfered with the planning of the recent Rio Olympics in Brazil, making some athletes to withdraw from the games. Many countries have boards, which have the mandate of detecting and responding to bioterrorism attacks to prevent or minimise the threat of bioterrorism, especially on the food system. Applied Entomology and Training Programs (AETPS) bodies, work in close collaboration with health departments in the US to answer to diseases outbreaks, other natural calamities, and bioterrorism.
The health department and AETPS are required to ensure that there is an efficient infrastructure for carrying out routine inspections. According to Sandhu et al., (2003) there were more than 1300 cases related to bioterrorism reported in the US. Although the threat of bioterrorism is mainly in the food industry, hospitals can also be susceptible. Rejection. The US government, for example, provides funds to business local authorities to aid in preparedness. The bulk of this money is intended for hospitals.
In addition to funding, the thesis clothing government also came up with other measures to prevent bioterrorism. One of these measures is community involvement. Community involvement includes educating the public on bioterrorism, its dangers, and papad business plan, prevention and isearch research paper, mitigation methods. It requires the whole community to participate in the case of any emergency of this nature. Hospital staff education is another vital area of focus.
Hospital staff education involves training staff on programs such as AETP, how to provide care to bioterrorism patients and drugs to administer. Another step initiated by the government is papad plan constant disease surveillance. Perhaps the most important step, this helps in early detection of impending bioterrorist attacks and helps in mitigation of these attacks. In dealing with the threat of bioterrorism, it is important for bodies given that task to think along the lines of what possible targets exist. As seen in the Caffe siege, which killed more than 20 million people, bioterrorism attacks can cause severe damages when the threat is not detected earlier. Since, a possible bioterrorism attack would aim to cause as much fear, damage and death as possible and would be aimed at a large population, it is, therefore, important for government agencies to put emphasis in such areas. Though not all agents can be altered for bioterrorism, it is important to conduct further research on essay the remedies for all of the documented bio agents. The legislation also has to be restrictive on persons who are allowed to be in contact with bio agents as they may also use their knowledge to cause harm, as it was the case with Ivin in 2001. Some of the bio agents that terrorist might be interested in due to their functionality; availability and efficiency of destruction are mentioned below. Anthrax is caused by a bacterium by the name Bacillus anthracis and is exceedingly infectious. Anthrax is business found mainly in cattle, specifically herbivores but can be transmitted to when there is contact with humans.
As a bioterrorism threat, the case study method first record of anthrax was in the early 20th century. The Japanese also used it in the Second World War by contaminating the water sources in China. It is not easy to detect as it has similar symptoms to other diseases such as influenza and papad business plan, it has a mortality rate of more than 75%. It is advisable that health authorities be informed as soon as possible when there is suspicion of anthrax as it kills in an average of literature review, 36 hours from the development of symptoms. Smallpox is a viral disease that can also be used be used in bioterrorism.
Unlike, anthrax, smallpox can be transmitted by coming into contact with an infected person. There is a vaccine for smallpox, and the World Health Organization recommends routine immunisation although the disease was eradicated in the 1980s. In the papad business plan context of a bioterrorism attack, smallpox may be misdiagnosed since health care workers have not been exposed to the disease since its eradication. The terrorist may also use smallpox due to the few numbers of laboratories with the capability of detecting the disease; thus, it would take a long time before it is contained. Nordin et al., (2008) recommends three strategies for the surveillance of bioterrorism threats and attacks: classification of certain health information, augmenting institution review boards and the establishment of health information agencies. Review And Research Paper. Following the 2001 attacks, Nordin et al. propose the synchronisation of all medical records and a system that reports real-time information on health issues. A Real-time feed of information they reckon, will help in early detection of bioterrorist attacks and curb the spreading of the same.
Classification of individual health information will also contribute during an business plan intentional assault, as the enemy will not be privy to the government’s activities. In addition to that, privatisation of such information will reduce access to rejection information on bio agents since the terrorist’s goal to cause harm although issues of ethics and plan, suspicion may arise between the government and its citizens can use such knowledge. Synchronisation of medical records helps in keeping records of university admissions, attacks, patients, vaccines and symptoms of diseases caused by such bioagents. This also helps in predicting future trends in bioterrorism. Health information agencies will provide people with symptoms of the business plan diseases and measures to take in case of suspicion or diagnosis.
According to baylor university admissions essay Yahav et al., most countries are more susceptible to bioterrorism attacks than conventional forms of warfare (2013). The paper also estimates that more than a quarter of the population in the US could be affected if an papad business anthrax attack happened. These statistics show the destructive nature of bioterrorism and expose the unpreparedness of the health sector. In the event of an outbreak of a disease such as smallpox, it may be hard to determine whether an outbreak is and research paper due to natural calamity or an act of business plan, terror. We have also seen that diseases such as smallpox and anthrax may be difficult to rejection of liberalism diagnose since they have symptoms of other diseases. Papad Business Plan. Bioterrorism can also be spread through air, food, water or in some cases contact with infected persons. It is with this understanding that governments around the world should do more to reduce the risk of bioterrorism because the literature review and research threat has its origins from early years and continues to increase because of higher technological developments. Centers for treatment should be increased to reduce a possible overflow of patients during an attack. Methods for establishing whether an attack is natural or premeditated should be put in place to aid in the prevention of further attacks. Papad Business. The public should continue being sensitized on the bioterrorism and other related health issues for them to react quickly in case an attack occurs.
Medical practitioners need to isearch research paper be updated on new practices for prevention and treatment of bioterrorism cases. Lastly, funding used for research on biotechnology should be increased to business plan help come up with better solutions in the future. Admissions Essay. Gwerder, Laurie Jean, MS,R.N., E.M.T., Beaton, Randal,PhD., E.M.T., Daniell, William,M.D., M.P.H. (2001). Bioterrorism: Implications for the occupational and environmental health nurse. AAOHN Journal, 49(11), 512-518. Mugavero, R., Sabato, V., Basso, M., D'Amico, W., Benolli, F. (2015). Bioterrorism: New technologies for global emergencies and public health. Journal of papad, Information Privacy Security, 11(4), 262-273. Harvard Study Method. Nordin, James D,M.D., M.P.H., Kasimow, S., B.A., Levitt, M. J., M.B.C., Goodman, M. J., PhD. (2008). Bioterrorism surveillance and privacy: Intersection of HIPAA, the papad business common rule, and public health law. American Journal of isearch research, Public Health, 98(5), 802-7.
Riedel, S. Papad Business Plan. (2004). Biological warfare and defense, bioterrorism: a historical review. Proceedings (Baylor University. Business. Medical Center), 17(4), 400–406. Rejection. Sandhu, H. S., Thomas, C., Nsubuga, P., White, M. E. Papad Plan. (2003). A global network for early warning and response to infectious diseases and bioterrorism: Applied epidemiology and training programs, 2001.
American Journal of Public Health, 93(10), 1640-2. Yahav, I., Barnes, S., Golden, B., Wasil, E. (2013). Pollution And Solutions. Early detection of bioterrorism: Monitoring disease diffusion through a multilayered network. Papad Business Plan. IIE Annual Conference.Proceedings, , 2561-2570. Client: (Berlin, G.K., CA) Topic title: Leadership shortfalls in Blue Chips
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kurds essay Numbering over 22 million, the Kurds are one of the largest non-state nations in the world. Their homeland, Kurdistan, has been forcibly divided and lies mostly within the present-day borders of Turkey, Iraq and Iran, with smaller parts in Syria, Armenia and Azerbaijan. The greatest number of Kurds today still live in Kurdistan, though a large Kurdish diaspora has developed in this century, especially in the main cities of Turkey and papad business plan Iran and more recently in Europe as well. Between 10 and 12 million Kurds live in Turkey, where they comprise about 20 percent of the population. Between 5 and 6 million live in Iran, accounting for close to 10 percent of the population. Kurds in Iraq number more than 4 million, and comprise about 23 percent of the isearch population. In the modern era, the Kurdish nation, with its distinctive society and business culture, has had to confront in all of the “host” states centralizing, ethnically-based nationalist regimes -- Turkish, Arab and pollution Persian -- with little or no tolerance for expressions of national autonomy within their borders. While the business modes and scale of oppression have varied in time and by place, the conditions of Kurds share some important features. First, the clothing Kurdish areas overlap nation-state borders: They thus acquire significance for “national security” and are vulnerable to interference and manipulation by regional and international powers.
Second, the Kurdish regions of these countries are usually the poorest, least developed areas, systematically marginalized by the centers of economic power. Third, the dynamics of assimilation, repression and Kurdish resistance in each country have affected the direction and outcome of the Kurdish struggles in the neighboring countries. A fourth shared feature, and the focus of papad business this essay, is that these Kurdish societies are themselves internally complex, and fraught with differences of politics and ideology, social class, dialect and, still in a few places, clan. In spite of a long history of struggle, Kurdish nationalism has not succeeded in achieving its goal of independence or even enduring autonomy. Do recent events require us to change this assessment? In 1992, a Regional Government of Iraqi Kurdistan was established, but it is economically besieged and functions very much at the sufferance of a Western military umbrella. In Turkey, a ten-year-old armed struggle has effectively defied the unrestrained efforts of the Turkish state to impose a military solution, but a political solution acceptable to the Kurds does not appear imminent. The Kurdish movement, in contrast to many other national liberation movements, has experienced a persistent contradiction between its traditional leadership and the relatively developed society it seeks to liberate. Only to the extent that this may be changing does the future hold some promise for Kurdish aspirations. Today, about half the population lives in urban centers, and feudal relations of production in rural areas have almost disappeared.
Yet the politics and ideology of much of the baylor university admissions leadership can hardly be distinguished from the worldview of landed notables of the past. One reason for this may be that Kurdish nationalism emerged as an ideology long before the papad plan formation of the harvard method Kurds as a nation, not in a middle-class milieu but in a largely agrarian society with a powerful tribal component. From the sixteenth century to papad business plan, the mid-nineteenth century, much of admissions Kurdistan was under the plan rule of independent and autonomous Kurdish principalities that produced a flourishing rural and thesis defense clothing urban life in the seventeenth century.  Kurdish destinies changed radically around this time, when the Ottoman and Persian empires divided Kurdistan into spheres of papad business influence, agreeing on a border in 1639. In order to research paper, protect their sovereignty, the business plan principalities supported one or the environmental essay other power, and for most of the next three centuries a prevailing war economy destroyed the agrarian system, devastated villages and towns, precipitated massacres and led to forcible migrations of Kurds and the settlement of Turkish tribes in parts of papad Kurdistan.
All of this inhibited further growth of urban areas and study of learning settled agrarian production relations, reinforcing tribal ways of life. Although the war economy retarded the consolidation of the Kurds as a nation, the destruction and suffering stimulated apolitical consciousness that was unprecedented in the region. This emerged first in papad the realms of language and literature when, in the sixteenth century, Kurdish ulama broke the monopoly of Arabic and Persian languages over thesis defense, literary production. In 1597, Sharaf Khan, prince of the powerful Bidlis principality, compiled the first history of Kurdistan, Sharafnameh . Although written in Persian, this text presents historical data on the degree of independence enjoyed by different Kurdish states. Thus, the first chapter is about the dynasties that enjoyed the privilege of royalty; the second deals with rulers who did not claim royalty but sometimes struck coin and had khutba (Friday prayer sermons) recited in their names, and so forth.  The most important literary manifestation of political awareness was Ahmad-e Khani (1651-1706), who in 1694-1695 rewrote the Kurdish popular ballad “Mem u Zin” in the form of papad business a poetic narrative romance. “Why have the literature and research Kurds been deprived, why have they all been subjugated?” he asked. He rejected the view that it was because they were “ignorant” or “without perfection.” They were subordinated, rather, because they were “orphans,” i.e., without a king who would unite the discordant principalities and form an independent kingdom. Although they excelled in qualities of munificence and bravery, the princes refused to unite under the suzerainty of a Kurdish king.
Khani is explicitly modern in his conceptualization of the Kurds as a nation. He referred to Kurds, Arabs, Persians and Turks as milal (plural of milla ) not in the then-prevailing meaning of papad business “religious community” but rather in an ethnic sense.  The second apostle of Kurdish nationalism, Haji Qadiri Koyi (1817?-1897), was also a mullah and poet, but even more secular. By the time he was composing his fiery poems in the late nineteenth century, the remaining principalities had been overthrown by the Ottoman and Persian states. Koyi attacked the study of learning sheikhs and mullahs who did not care for the Kurdish language and the notables who ignored the destinies of their people. Living his last years in cosmopolitan Istanbul, he was familiar with the papad business nationalist struggles and the material advancement of modern nations. He constantly advocated use of the Kurdish language. Although his own medium was poetry, he urged the Kurds to publish magazines and newspapers. Khani and Koyi’s propositions amount to a political manifesto: The Kurds are a distinct people with a distinct language, homeland and way of life. The road to emancipation is the formation of an independent and unified Kurdish state. Ideologically, however, Khani spoke for the ruling princes and sought liberation in unification under a powerful king.
By contrast, Koyi’s ideas reflected budding modern social forces within Kurdish society.  He advocated both national liberation and transformation of thesis Kurdish society. Although these modernist ideas were constantly repeated in poetry and business journalism, social forces capable of translating them into political parties and platforms did not enter the scene until the baylor university 1940s.  How can we account for papad business plan this lag? For one thing, the fall of the principalities had not been due to the rise of new social forces, and did not by literature and research paper any means put an end to feudal relations and tribalism. Rather, the system of Kurdish principalities was overthrown and replaced by business two centralizing although loosely integrated imperial regimes in Istanbul and harvard study method of learning Tehran. The vacant leadership of the princes was filled by the sheikhs, notables and remnants of princely families who retained property and influence. These are the elements that continued to shape the nationalist struggle until the mid-twentieth century. Papad. In spite of the diversity of revolts in harvard method of learning the first part of the century, their struggle was for a purely nationalist agenda aiming to replace foreign rule by papad business plan a native rule that would keep traditional structures intact. Democratic rule, the demands of the baylor essay peasantry for land and water, the hopes of urban masses for plan a decent life and the freedom of environmental pollution problems and solutions women were ignored.
Militarily, the village and the mountains were the papad business main sites of environmental pollution essay armed resistance, and the leadership tended to rely on papad business outside powers rather than on a strategy of social transformation of their own societies. When opportunistic outside support withdrew, they gave up the struggle. The first organizational break with feudal and tribal politics occurred in 1942, with the formation of the Society for the Revival of Kurdistan (known as Komalay J. K. or Komala, the Kurdish word for society or league) in Mahabad, Iran.  Its leadership and membership were largely drawn from the urban bourgeoisie, large and small, educated youth, and nationalist-minded members of the of liberalism essay clergy and papad business plan landed aristocracy. Komala became the case of learning Kurdistan Democratic Party in 1945 in order to establish an autonomous republic in part of the area then in the Soviet sphere of influence. The Kurdish Republic of 1946 was the nationalist movement’s most important achievement in modern state-building: although it did not claim independence, it had a president, a flag, a cabinet and a national army. Kurdish was the official language. It was ruled by a party whose leaders were drawn mostly from the plan ranks of the urban petty bourgeoisie, and which showed respect for essay the rights of minorities and certain rights of women.  Although formed within the borders of the Iranian state, hundreds of Iraqi Kurds took an active part in the military and civil administration, including Mustafa Barzani, who became a prominent military leader.
The national anthem was a poem composed by a Kurd from Iraq. The US and Britain viewed the Kurdish and Azerbaijan republics as extensions of Soviet influence, and supported the Shah’s military campaign against them. Soviet troops withdrew from Iran in May 1946, and seven months later Iranian forces forcibly suppressed both autonomous republics. Business Plan. Kurds throughout the world still celebrate duy rebendan (January 22), the university admissions essay foundation date of the republic; its anthem has been adopted as the national anthem; portraits of Qazi Mohammad, the head of the republic, today decorate public and private spaces in areas controlled by the Regional Government of business Kurdistan in thesis defense Iraq. Following the business plan fall of the admissions Kurdish republic, Kurdish Democratic Parties formed in Iraq and later in Syria and Turkey. The majority of papad leaders and activists were from the modern intelligentsia, but included anyone who was committed to nationalist aspirations. Each party aimed at isearch achieving autonomy for its respective part of business Kurdistan and democracy for the country of which they were part. This was due both to political expediency and to the influence of communist parties in the opposition movements of Iran, Iraq and Syria. The 1950s were years of major political upheaval in the Middle East. In Kurdistan, feudal relations of production suffered major setbacks, largely due to peasant uprisings and later to land reforms initiated by the central governments.  A visible change in environmental and solutions Kurdish society in this period was the papad business plan rise of the urban population due to the land reforms and the wars in the countryside. Newly freed peasants moved into Kurdish cities, where the method of learning lack of industrial enterprises seriously hindered their transformation into wage laborers.
While some rural migrants engaged in papad business plan seasonal or temporary construction work (contractual or wage labor), others ended up in street vending activities. Some migrants maintained their village ties by working in thesis towns while continuing to farm for family consumption.  The differentiation and specialization in papad business plan urban economies introduced new social strata. A small Kurdish working class formed in the oil industry, construction and a few factories. Small workshops required auto mechanics, electricians, printers, mechanics, plumbers and baylor university admissions painters, while services and transport employed many others. Plan. A modern bourgeoisie emerged, comprising mainly professionals rather than entrepreneurs -- doctors, nurses, engineers, teachers, bank managers, lawyers and of liberalism essay journalists. Business. Migrant labor -- male and female -- traveled as far as Ankara, Baghdad, Istanbul, Tehran, Isfahan and Europe. The traditional intelligentsia, mainly ulama and educated landed notables, was displaced by a growing modern intelligentsia. Thesis Defense Clothing. Another feature of changing social relations was the increasing access of urban women to education, and their participation in social, economic, political and cultural life outside their homes. These transformations left their impact on the nationalist movement, expanding its social bases and increasing political, ideological and organizational tension.
The urban intelligentsia eventually made their presence felt in the countryside, the papad traditional domain of the university admissions landed aristocracy -- this time not as nationalists who sought protection but rather as political and military leaders. This marked the beginning of a bitter struggle within the business autonomist movement. Conflict between old and new broke out in early 1964 in admissions the Kurdish Democratic Party of papad business Iraq. The KDP was headed by a politburo composed of leftist-minded nationalists and a traditionalist tribal leader, Mustafa Barzani. Isearch Research. He had a reputation for business courageous struggle against the Iraqi state, had been a military leader in the 1946 Kurdish Republic, and spent 11 years of exile in the Soviet Union. Factions of the landed notables, threatened by Baghdad’s land reform and other radical measures, supported the autonomist movement, but were apprehensive about the radical politics of the politburo. Isearch. They supported Barzani, who cared little for party organization or peasants’ unions. The conflict erupted when Barzani, without the knowledge of the politburo, signed what members considered to be a humiliating deal with a weak Iraqi government. The conflict was not over tactics only, but rather over the question of business plan democracy, the role of party organization, and the social component of the movement. But while modernists maneuvered to contest Barzani’s abuse of power, he quickly mobilized peshmerga (guerrilla) forces and replaced the university modernists with a loyal politburo. Unprepared for what they called a coup d’etat, the modernists lost the initiative and took refuge in papad business plan Iran. 
Between 1964 and 1975, the isearch paper reformists failed to achieve hegemony in the movement, in spite of considerable support especially in urban areas. In 1966, they entered an alliance with Baghdad against Barzani. Business Plan. Following the 1968 Baath takeover, Baghdad and Barzani agreed in 1970 on an autonomy plan to be implemented within four years. The modernists again joined the Barzani camp, although a group who described themselves as Marxist-Leninist came together with urban intelligentsia to form an underground organization that later took the name of the Kurdistan Toilers’ League (KTL, or Komala). Baghdad stalled on implementing autonomy, making Barzani increasingly receptive to US, Israeli and Iranian offers of support should the KDP take up arms again. Essay. In 1974, Baghdad unilaterally decreed a Kurdish autonomous region on its terms and launched a military offensive.
When Tehran and Washington abruptly terminated support for the KDP in March 1975, following an agreement between Baghdad and Tehran, Barzani announced the collapse of the armed struggle. In the absence of business plan any plans for retreat, thousands of peshmerga surrendered to Iraqi forces, while 100,000 to thesis defense clothing, 200,000 peshmerga and papad business plan their families and supporters fled, mostly into Iran. The KTL and other leftists had long maintained that the isearch research KDP, with its traditional structure and social base and autocratic leadership, could not successfully lead a campaign for Kurdish self-determination. Together with Jalal Talabani, a leading Barzani critic within the KDP politburo, they formed the Patriotic Union of Kurdistan (PUK) in June 1975 and resumed armed struggle inside Iraqi Kurdistan. Business Plan. Their success motivated Iran and Turkey to encourage the remnants of the Barzani leadership to resume guerrilla activities in Iraq as well.  The KDP had its main strength in the Dohuk governorate (Badinan region), while the PUK had the upper hand in the governorates of Erbil, Kirkuk and Suleimaniya, which covers more than 75 percent of the Iraqi Kurdish population. (Kurds in this latter region speak a dialect called Sorani, which is baylor university also spoken by most Kurds in Iran; Kurds in Badinan speak Kurmanji, which is also spoken by most Kurds in Turkey.) The period after 1975 was one of heavy repression. Iraqi forces destroyed hundreds of villages in order to create a “security belt” along the borders with Iran, Turkey and Syria, and resettled the papad business plan inhabitants in camps in southern and less mountainous areas. Baghdad also bought support by distributing some of its rising oil revenues, although productive investments were channeled to the center and south of the country. With the outbreak of the Iraq-Iran war in September 1980, both regimes tried to use the Kurds against each other.
Baghdad, forced to concentrate its troops on the southern front with Iran, stepped up military conscription, and in the north recruited new lightly armed militias, which Kurds referred to as jahsh (little donkeys), headed by rejection essay traditional clan leaders. Differences of ideology and political practice as well as tactics produced periods of heavy clashes between the PUK and the KDP. The two came together, at Tehran’s urging, as the Kurdistan Front in July 1987, just prior to Baghdad’s genocidal Anfal offensive. By 1987, as Iraq began to gain militarily in its long war with Iran, it moved to impose a “final solution” in the Kurdish region. ‘Ali Hasan al-Majid, a cousin of business plan Saddam Hussein, took over as head of the thesis defense Baath Party’s Northern Bureau, with full authority over state and party resources in that region. Baghdad progressively transferred infantry and plan armored units from the southern front to baylor admissions, the north where, together with tens of thousands of jahsh militiamen, they carried out the Anfal campaign in eight stages from February to September 1988. In early March 1991, following Iraq’s defeat by the US-led coalition, popular uprisings erupted first in the south of Iraq and then in the Kurdish cities, towns and business plan complexes. The PUK and KDP quickly moved to take control. They declared a general amnesty, inviting the jahsh commanders to join, and in less than three weeks took over virtually all of Kurdistan.
In the environmental and solutions weeks that followed, though, Iraqi forces retook much of this territory. After millions of Kurds fled to the mountains bordering Turkey and Iran, Western forces intervened to set up a small “safe haven” zone around Dohuk and Zakho, in the Badinan region dominated by the KDP, and, subsequently, a “no-fly zone” above the thirty-sixth parallel. The KTL, despite its formative role in the PUK, was overshadowed by the personality and plan influence of Talabani. Baylor University Admissions. After the fall of the Soviet Union, and then the formation of the papad business plan Regional Government of environmental pollution Iraqi Kurdistan in 1992, the KTL dissolved itself into the PUK. Today the KDP and PUK run the government jointly, with small radical and communist groups and newer Islamist groups on plan the margins.  The 1961-1975 struggle in Iraq overshadowed the Kurdish movements in Iran and admissions Turkey.
Although the armed resistance in Iraq initially contributed to the revival of the KDP in Iran (KDPI), Barzani argued that Kurds in Iran should delay their struggle until the KDP had achieved meaningful autonomy in Iraq. In exchange for limited support by Tehran, he ordered those Kurdish activists from Iran who had escaped into papad business Iraqi Kurdistan to stop anti-Iranian activism. One faction followed Barzani, but a group of activists split to form the KDPI/Revolutionary Committee. The Iranian army was able to crush their resistance, helped when Barzani closed the borders. The rest of the KDPI leadership remained in Baghdad and Europe until the Pahlavi monarchy was on the verge of harvard of learning collapse in business plan late 1978. During their absence, Kurdish society and politics had changed.
In 1969, a group of radical intellectuals came together as the Revolutionary Organization of Toilers of Kurdistan, better known as Komala, similar to and helped by the KTL in Iraq. Rejection Of Liberalism Essay. Komala, opposing both pro-Soviet tendencies and the urban guerrilla emphasis of some Iranian revolutionary groups, worked to form peasant unions after the Islamist revolution and acquired much popular support among Kurdish peasants and youth. As in business Iraq, organizational conflict reflected the emergence of new social forces and radical perspectives in the nationalist movement. The KDPI denounced Komala’s activities to organize the peasantry and recruit women, arguing that issues of class struggle should await the achievement of autonomy. The KDPI began armed assaults on the leftist groups as early as 1980, and in rejection of liberalism essay 1984 launched a confrontation against Komala that continued for several years and took a heavy toll on both sides. The KDPI has since split, weakened by papad plan the assassination of two general secretaries.
Unlike Iraq, where the KTL eventually dissolved into paper the modernist front, Komala has maintained itself as an alternative to KDPI with its call for a socialist Iran in which Kurdish rights to self-determination will be honored. However, much like KTL, Komala has not been able to papad, liberate itself from the burden of traditionalism, or to turn the nationalist movement into a social revolution or a people’s war. Since 1984, the thesis leadership and much of the business plan organization of both parties has been based in Iraqi Kurdistan. Although both Komala and KDPI formally demand autonomy within Iran, an increasing number of Kurds in Iran and Iraq are arguing more openly in favor of independence, pointing to the failure of negotiations, and numerous deals between the Kurds and various central governments, government associations of Kurdish leaders, and changing international relations.  Turkey’s Kemalist regime was intent on building a Western-type secular nation-state based on Turkish national, linguistic and cultural identity. The Kurdish response was a series of revolts throughout the 1920s and 1930s led by a combination of landlords, tribal chiefs, sheikhs and urban-based intellectuals. By 1939, the last of these was brutally repressed, leading many to believe that the Kurdish “problem” had been solved. Hundreds of thousands of isearch Kurds were forcibly deported to western Turkey. By the early 1960s, however, nationalist struggle resumed, encouraged by the upsurge of Kurdish nationalism in Iraq and led by younger Kurdish intelligentsia both in Kurdistan and in Istanbul, Ankara and other Turkish cities, which by then had sizable Kurdish, populations.
The political spectrum and agendas, while diverse, were influenced, as in Iraq and papad plan Iran, by university essay leftist and communist formations. The period between the military coups of 1960 and 1980 is business plan characterized by recurrent crises within the Turkish state, cycles of defense repression, and continuing proliferation of papad business Kurdish political and cultural groups in Kurdistan, in Turkish cities, and isearch research among Kurdish workers in Germany. Unlike Iraqi Kurdistan, in Turkey most Kurdish organizations in the 1970s espoused socialism. The military regime following the 1980 coup was able to business, suppress most of these organizations. The Kurdistan Workers’ Party, better known by its Kurdish initials, PKK, survived the research paper repression following the 1980 coup, and launched its first attacks against Turkish military targets in 1984. The PKK is distinguished from other Kurdish political parties by its social base, which includes a sizable portion of workers and peasants. Papad. It advocates both socialism and clothing independence for greater Kurdistan, and puts a priority on armed struggle. In the past, it has avoided cooperation with other Kurdish political organizations. Papad Business Plan. The PKK has been open to women’s participation, and now claims to harvard study method of learning, have thousands of women in its ranks.
Although it has benefited from some Syrian aid, it has effectively relied on the organized support of the Kurds in plan Kurdistan and in rejection of liberalism the diaspora in Turkey and abroad. While the PKK is not the only Kurdish political organization in Turkey, its ability to papad plan, sustain a campaign of armed struggle against pollution essay, the well-armed Turkish army has won it a leading position and plan popular support in both urban and isearch paper rural Kurdish areas, as well as in the Kurdish diaspora. It is difficult to reach a firm assessment concerning the prospects for the Kurdish movement. The present circumstances -- the survival of the PKK-led movement in Turkey against extraordinary Turkish state repression, and the existence in plan Iraq of a Western-protected Regional Government -- are unprecedented. Yet the obstacles confronting a political resolution of the “Kurdish problem” are no less daunting than before. In Turkey, the state has launched the most recent of its “final offensives” designed to crush the PKK. The scale of repression and devastation has been awesome. Turkish human rights organizations report that many hundreds of villages -- some estimates go as high as 900 or so -- have been “depopulated” and many razed to the ground since the isearch paper beginning of 1993. Scores of journalists and human rights activists have been abducted and tortured, killed or “disappeared.” The ability of the PKK to papad, survive to this point, and to sustain itself largely on the support of Turkey’s Kurds rather than outside powers, indicates that its claim to represent a new kind of leadership may be well-founded. Unlike in Iran and Iraq, where the movement is led by isearch research rival parties, the independence movement in Turkey is led by a single organization, one that can boast leading the longest uninterrupted armed resistance in modern Kurdish history.
Also, while the Kurdish parties of Iran and Iraq have not been able to undermine the oil-based financial and business plan economic power of those states, the PKK has been able to of liberalism essay, strike at Turkey’s economy, particularly the vulnerable tourist industry. In addition, Ankara is anxious to become a full member of the European Union, and if the current offensive fails, it may be persuaded by the Western powers to grant the Kurds some concessions along the lines of token linguistic and cultural rights. But any policy that falls short of business genuine autonomous rule is likely to fail. Although the PKK has indicated it is willing to negotiate on the basis of autonomy, Ankara remains determined to and research, crush it. In Iraq, many Kurds view the Regional Government of Kurdistan, with its elected parliament and papad business authority over law enforcement units, as an edifice of review and research genuine autonomy. The experience of the papad plan Regional Government is important; elections and the relative freedom of political expression and association have been politically invigorating. Defense Clothing. Many Kurds insist that they prefer the excruciating economic deprivations they must endure now to any return to rule under Saddam Hussein. This state-building experiment, though, is threatened not only by external foes -- including Tehran, Ankara, Baghdad and Damascus -- but also by internal conflict.
After several years of cooperation in building the Regional Government, the KDP and PUK began a new round of serious fighting in May 1994 -- ironically on the thirtieth anniversary of the 1964 Barzani putsch against the KDP politburo. As of the papad business plan end of May, interventions by Kurdish government officials and by the Iraqi National Congress (the Iraqi opposition front of which the two Kurdish parties are the largest and militarily most significant part) had been unable to halt the killing. Kurdish public opinion inside and outside Kurdistan has accurately assessed this as a potentially suicidal civil war. It must be emphasized, as this essay has tried to do, that this conflict, much like that in South Africa between the African National Congress and Inkatha, is rooted in the persistence of review paper traditional regionally based power in the face of a rapidly changing sociopolitical map. In Kurdistan, while the Regional Government confronts economic blockade and political boycott by neighboring states, the two major parties have themselves weakened it by papad business plan dividing government offices into their respective spheres of influence. Popular outrage has escalated in Kurdish cities as the two sides have continued to fight. In late May, women marched from Suleimaniya to Erbil, the seat of the Regional Government, demanding that the killing stop. Like other, earlier mass actions including the uprising of rejection of liberalism March 1991 in Iraq, this illustrates the papad plan growing readiness of urban masses to challenge traditional authoritarian leaderships and to demand accountability from the self-centered political parties. In Iran, the regime has won the military contest against the autonomist movement, although Komala and the two KDPI factions continue guerrilla operations even in the cities. Thesis Defense. The Islamist groups organized by Tehran are seen by most Kurds as collaborators.
While there are no prospects for plan autonomous rule under the Islamic Republic, any serious crack in the state structure in Tehran will bring Kurdistan under the environmental pollution problems control of the papad business Kurdish parties once again. Kurdish demands for self-rule constitute a democratic pursuit that is incompatible with the despotism and ethnic-based nationalism of the Middle Eastern states. Clothing. As for many of the democratic and revolutionary movements in the region, Kurdish rights to self-determination continue to be their blind spot. In circumstances of uneven political and economic development, Kurdistan has offered valuable opportunities as a base for liberation that goes beyond Kurdistan. That these opportunities have not been seized demonstrates the weaknesses of these movements as well as the problems of Kurdish nationalism.  Towns and cities have been a permanent feature of Kurdish life. In the mid-seventeenth century, Bidlis had a population of about 26,000 with some 1,200 shops and workshops, five madrasas and business 70 maktabs , and a sizable group of ulama . Although trade was flourishing in these towns, they were, much like pre-industrial medieval European cities, under the domination of the landed aristocracy. Ideology in this context is meant as a more or less coherent set of ideas -- political, philosophical, aesthetic, literary, religious -- that can be attributed to a social class or group.  Although sources ignore the role of lower classes in history, we know, from the earliest recordings of popular ballads in essay late nineteenth and papad plan early twentieth centuries, that the peasantry was conscious of the question of state power. See Amir Hassanpour, Nationalism and Language in Kurdistan, 1918-1985 (San Francisco: Mellen Research University Press, 1992), p. 56.  See articles “ Milla ” and “ Millet ” in The Encyclopedia of Islam , vol.
7 (1990), pp. 61-64.  For references to rejection of liberalism, the works of Khani and plan Koyi, see Hassanpour, pp. 66-99.  “Modernist” refers here to a political agenda calling for case study method an end to feudalist and tribal relations, modern education, economic development and political freedoms. This trend, first recorded in Koyi’s poetry in the late nineteenth century, was radicalized in the 1940s and 1950s under the papad business influence of the Communist movement.  Later formations in Iran and Iraq also had the word for “league” in their names and also became known as Komala. They have no organizational link with the Komalay J. K.  Britain and the Soviet Union entered a tripartite agreement in 1941 with Iran by which their forces occupied the southern and northern parts of Iran respectively for the duration of thesis clothing World War II.
The primary objective of Soviet support for the Kurdish and Azerbaijan republics of 1946 was the security of its southern borders, and Moscow chose to business, accommodate Tehran rather than encourage Kurdish autonomy or independence. For a brief survey of the Kurdish Republic, see Amir Hassanpour, “The Nationalist Movements in Azerbaijan and Kurdistan, 1941-46,” in John Foran, ed., A Century of Revolution: Perspectives on Social Movements in Iran (University of isearch research Minnesota Press, forthcoming).  According to business plan, Hanna Batatu, the 1948 revolt in ‘Arbat village was “the first uprising of its kind in the Iraqi countryside -- an uprising against the landed sheikh instead of under his leadership -- and in this sense set the tone for the fervid, if intermittent, agrarian unrest of the 1950s. The Old Social Classes and the Revolutionary Movements in Iraq (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1982), p. Defense Clothing. 614.  The scope of capitalist development in Kurdistan has been debated among communist organizations in papad Iran and Turkey but, interestingly, not in university admissions essay Iraq.
 The history of this important conflict has not been adequately studied. According to a contemporary account, Barzani represented “historically and objectively the last traces of tribal and papad patriarchal mentality in the very bosom of the Kurdish nationalist movement.” Serge Gantner, “Le mouvement national kurde,” Orient 32/33 (1964/1965), p. 101. Literature Paper. The same issue includes the KDP politburo’s critique of the deal.  The PUK maintains that this was in order to abort a potential leftist hegemony of the Kurdish movement. See the KTL organ Komele 6 (Fall 1979), pp. 21-22.
 At the KDP’s Eleventh Congress in 1993, some groups and individuals who had split after its collapse in 1975 rejoined the party, which renamed itself KDP United.  A Party for Independence of Kurdistan (Parti Serbexoyi Kurdistan) was formed in 1990 in the diaspora.
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There are many factors that supposedly caused war to break out in Europe of papad business 1939. This essay is will take a look at long term factors such as the shortcomings of Versailles and the weakness of the League of Nations as well as short term factors such as the rise. World War 1, which occurred from 1914 to 1918, is one of the literature, largest wars in world history. Business Plan! The major causes of World War I are nationalism, imperialism, militarism, alliances between European nations, and the conflict in the Balkan Peninsula. The assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand was the immediate. Can There Ever Be A ‘Just War ’ The question as to whether there can ever be a war that is justified entirely by the just war theory is a somewhat more difficult question than it would appear on the surface.
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World War 2 (WW2) was a global war that lasted from rejection of liberalism essay, 1939 to 1945 and it originated from early conflict within Europe. It involved many of the leading powers of the World including the great powers and became. Motivations for World War 1 - Theories of War. A11 – Intro to business International Relations September 17, 2013 World War I was the first war that was considered to have occurred on an international scale. Not only baylor was every major European power sitting at the chess table, but the business plan, war managed to baylor essay draw in players from countries belonging to nearly every.
Discuss How Muir and Fell Respond to the Issue of Nuclear War in Their Poems (August 6th 1945 the Horses) respond to the issue of nuclear war in their poems”. In their respective poems, nuclear war is business plan, a theme that is never fully addressed directly by either poet. Both Muir and Fell use a combination of imagery relating to the natural world in order to present nuclear war in a way that suggests to the reader. affect the outcome of the Spanish Civil War ? Part A: Plan of the Investigation In this investigation, “How foreign involvement affected the Spanish Civil War ?” will be evaluated. In this investigation the two sides that fought in the war , Republican and Nationalist, will. ? New Weapons of World War 1 World War 1 brought new weapons that change the way this war was fought. These new weapons were created specifically to fight this war . The new weapons were the machine guns, the tanks, the flamethrowers, the rifles, poison gases and planes. Machine guns caused many.
? Mexican-American War Jacqulyn De La Torre HIS/110CA 3/16/2015 Hadley Ajana Mexican-American War United States and Mexico were two nations headed in baylor university admissions essay opposite directions. Mexico struggled to papad maintain a stable government and protect their land. Defense Clothing! The United States had a strong government and was. ‘World War One was the result of a series of unintended and disconnected events.’ Does this opinion adequately explain the business plan, causes of World War One? It is understandable that historians ponder on what exactly caused a war that destroyed Europe’s economy, cost the lives of 37 million men and involved.
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Debugging AM335x Suspend-Resume Issues. This page is geared toward Linux developers using the AM335x family of embedded processors. Papad Business. Many of the topics contained in the page, however, will still apply to users of other operating systems. The goal of this page is to give users some insight into common issues they might bump into, as well as tools to help identify issues. First and foremost you must be certain that your hardware is configured appropriately. In general: Consult the baylor essay data manual for a general diagram of how the memory should be connected to the AM335x. When using a single 16-bit external memory device, there is no need for VTT termination for business plan, the address/control lines. VTT termination adds additional cost and complexity to the board, so if you are only using a single 16-bit memory then you should not use VTT termination. If you're using dual 8-bit memories with VTT termination, pay very careful attention to the terminations, i.e. some signals get pulled to VTT while others are pulled to VDDS_DDR. If using VTT termination and thesis defense, want to control the business plan LDO (TPS51200 or equivalent) then you must select a pin from and research paper GPIO bank 0. Plan. A pull-up on DDR_RESETn is not recommended since we want reset to be asserted (low) during power-up.
Since most peripherals are turned off during DeepSleep0, it is necessary to specify the state of each and literature review paper, every pin associated with the PER domain. There is a very helpful spreadsheet focusing on this topic on business, this wiki page: Optimizing AM335x IO Power in DeepSleep0 Any GPIO wakeup sources must utilize bank 0 of the GPIO For your main clock (e.g. 24 MHz, etc.) you can use either a crystal or a LVCMOS square wave clock. There is a power benefit to isearch research, using a crystal because there is papad business plan, hardware inside the chip that can shutoff the crystal entirely during DeepSleep0. When using a square wave clock there is isearch paper, unfortunately no mechanism for automatically turning the plan clock off and on, which results in defense clothing additional current consumption. Configuring the papad I/O values for DeepSleep0. The dts file allows you to enter separate values for normal operation as well as sleep.
The actual run-time change is driver dependent. There is environmental and solutions, a call to pinctrl_pm_select_sleep_state that is usually in papad plan a suspend handler within the driver. It is generally the baylor last thing done before sleep. Therefore the IP should be ready to be shut off and not doing anything in preparation of papad business plan having its clocks disabled. As a general note, the mux mode does NOT need to be changed for DS0. A different mux mode needs to be chosen only in the case where the spreadsheet from Optimizing AM335x IO Power in baylor admissions essay DeepSleep0 dictates that a mux change is needed. In these cases you should use the spreadsheet to find a mux mode that it likes in order to achieve the necessary state on the pin. Changing the mux mode does not reduce power consumption, so there's not a general need to business plan, do it. Essay. The only reason to do it is in cases where there is a conflict, e.g. the pin drives low during DS0 but you need to have it high. The pin muxes were not designed specifically for run-time transition, so there is a small possibility of introducing a glitch on the pin during the transition. Papad Business. So in general changing the muxes can/should be avoided.
Controlling the Power Management IC during DeepSleep0. Once the DDR3 is in self refresh, the vdd_core rail can actually be lowered to 0.95V to save even more power. This can be achieved through the scale-data.bin files that are part of the firmware. Beagle Bone Black Suspend/Resume Fix. The DDR IOCTRL registers are being corrupted during the thesis defense suspend/resume sequence.
The following patch introduces code to business, save/restore those registers during a suspend/resume sequence. This actually improves upon the older approach where hard-coded values were being written by the M3. With this new patch, customers with customized IOCTRL values (i.e. based on IBIS analysis, etc.) will have their values preserved. Processor SDK 2.00.00 through 2.00.02 all use the same patch as Processor SDK 1.00: This resolution to this issue (Split 335x and 437x ddr io ctrl handling) is part of Proc SDK 3.01. Here is the official patch, which should be pulled to the firmware from Proc SDK 3.00: Alternatively, just grab the binary from university admissions Proc SDK 3.01. There are two main things to validate: That all of the domains powered down as expected.
That the IO values correlate with your spreadsheet. Verifying all domains transitioned. When you begin the suspend sequence you see something like this: It's actually during resume that you can see whether or not all the power domains transitioned as expected. After hitting a key on the console to resume you will see something like this in the case of a successful suspend/resume sequence: If you get the message in papad business green above, then things appear to be in university admissions essay good shape.
In the case of a failed suspend/resume sequence, it will look like this: In the case all power domains did not transition you will need to plan, use JTAG to determine which power domain and clocks are still alive. Harvard Case Of Learning. Please refer to the section Checking the state of the power domains and clocks further down the page. A script has been developed to make this job much easier. The other major place for power consumption to occur is with the I/Os. If for example, an external device is driving an plan, I/O pin high, but the internal pull-down is configured, then you are going to literature paper, have constant leakage on that pin. Hopefully you have gotten this all correct when filling out the spreadsheet from Optimizing AM335x IO Power in DeepSleep0. And furthermore, hopefully everything has been entered correctly into the device tree so that the pins are in business the proper state.
More often than not, given so many pins, there are a few mistakes lurking. To find the mistakes the best approach is to measure each pin with a multimeter and record the corresponding voltage in Column U of the spreadsheet. Do they all match the isearch paper expected state? If they don't match, or you have an in-between level then you need to revisit that particular pin. There could be a mistake on the board, in your spreadsheet, or in the software. These mistakes all have a cumulative impact. Note: Floating pins consume significant current. Business. For any pins where you are disabling the internal pull during DeepSleep0 you need to be absolutely sure that the review and research pin is being driven to a known state by an external device. When probing a floating pin with a multi-meter, the. 1Mohm impedance to business, ground is often sufficient to pull a floating pin low and paper, hide the papad fact that you have a floating pin.
Investigating a mystery hang using no console_suspend. There are scenarios where a mis-behaving driver (usually a newly integrated driver!) can introduce issues. If the crash happens while the UART is essay, disabled, you won't see any of the output. One method of checking for this type of issue by setting console_suspend to no: Note: With this configuration, the business plan console cannot be used as a wakeup source!
Alternatively you could use a GPIO bank 0 wakeup, etc. In this way, if a driver crashes during the problems essay suspend/resume sequence, you should be able to see the plan kernel panic, which will help you track down the issue. Inspecting the SoC state immediately prior to entering DeepSleep0. One of the main difficulties of debugging issues pertaining to DeepSleep0 is that you have limited visibility once everything (or nearly everything) is turned off! When entering DeepSleep0, the Cortex A8 will turn off many clocks but the final steps of turning off the admissions various power domains is handled by the wakeup controller (i.e. Cortex M3). After it has turned off all the power domains, the final thing it does is to turn off the clock to the wakeup domain itself. Papad Plan. Once that clock is turned off you no longer have JTAG connectivity. The main goal of this particular section is to enable you to connect to the M3 at the point right after the M3 has attempted to pollution problems and solutions, turn off all the power domains, but right before the papad wakeup clock is turned off such that you can still use JTAG. So in order to do this, we will need to modify the power management firmware to put a spin loop at the place where we want to connect with JTAG. Downloading the Power Management Firmware.
If you look in the software manifest for university essay, a Linux SDK, there is a line that tells the corresponding firmware version. For example, in Processor SDK 2.00, it mentions amx3-cm3 version 1.9.1 from git://git.ti.com/ti-cm3-pm-firmware/amx3-cm3.git;protocol=git;branch=ti-v4.1.y. So you can do: So now you have a local version of the Cortex M3 firmware. Make the following edit: Next, go to the root directory of Processor SDK 2.00: Edit the Makefile there in the base directory.
Right after the linux_clean rule you can insert these rules: Note: Make sure that the papad business plan indented lines are with TABS and not SPACES or these rules won't work! Now from isearch your SDK base directory you can clean and build with these commands: That will generate the executable amx3-cm3/bin/am335x-pm-firmware.elf which should be copied into the /lib/firmware directory of the plan AM335x root file system. M3 Firmware Binaries (with jtag spin loop) For quick usage you can use a pre-built firmware with the university spin loop integrated.
It needs to papad, be copied into the AM335x file system in the /lib/firmware directory. Connecting to thesis defense clothing, the M3 during suspend. Once your modified M3 firmware is in the file system you can initiate a suspend to DeepSleep0 (DS0): In CCS perform the following steps: If you have not already created a Target Configuration File, go to File - New - Target Configuration File. Select your JTAG probe and your device.
In the Target Configurations window (View - Target Configurations), right-click on your Target Configuration and select Launch Selected Configuration. In the Debug window that launches, right-click on your target configuration and select Show all cores. Right-click on M3_wakeupSS_0 and select Connect Target. Note: If you're having trouble with connecting to a core it might be due the debug clock being turned off. Papad Business. If that's the review and research paper case, reboot your board and from the console you can poke the CM_WKUP_DEBUGSS_CLKCTRL register by executing devmem2 0x44e00414 w 0x12500002.
We are connected to the highlighted Cortex M3, and the goal at this point is to interrogate the Control Module and plan, the PRCM in order to isearch paper, verify that everything is truly powered down, and to find sources of power consumption. Validating the State of the DDR Bus. One of the more complex areas managed by software is the DDR interface. There are many registers related to this configuration and business plan, so a script was written to help scrape these values from memory and thesis defense, decode them to provide insight. Once you have managed to halt the M3 and connect with CCS during the suspend path, you can follow these steps: Download am335x-ddr-analysis.dss. Launch the scripting console by going to View - Scripting Console. Load am335x-ddr-analysis.dss in the scripting console by executing loadJSFile path-to-dss-file/am335x-ddr-analysis.dss. It will use the business plan Debug Access Port (DAP) unobtrusively behind the scenes such that the Cortex A8 is never halted. It will generate a am335x-ddr-analysis_yyyy-mm-dd_hhmmss.txt file on admissions, your desktop.
Things to check in the output file: DDR_PHY_CTRL_1 reg_phy_enable_dynamic_pwrdn should be enabled all the time (active and papad business, sleep). Paper. The ddr_cmd0/1/2_ioctrl and papad plan, ddr_data0/1_ioctrl registers should have the same value before suspend and after resume. The ddr_cmd0/1/2_ioctrl and ddr_data0/1_ioctrl registers during active operation should have all pulls disabled. The ddr_cmd0/1/2_ioctrl and ddr_data0/1_ioctrl registers during sleep should have a pullup on ddr_resetn and pulldown on ddr_cke. Checking the paper state of the power domains and clocks. Download am335x-ds0-analysis.dss and am335x-ctt.dss. Launch the scripting console by going to papad, View - Scripting Console. Load am335x-ds0-analysis.dss in the scripting console by executing loadJSFile path-to-dss-file/am335x-ds0-analysis.dss. A file named am335x-ds0-analysis_yyyy-mm-dd_hhmmss.txt will be created on environmental pollution essay, your desktop.
Cortex A8, Graphics, and PER are supposed to all be off. Generally if there's a problem, it's something in PER. In some cases, this file might tell you precisely what failed (e.g. TIMER7 active). In other cases (e.g. L3 active) you will need to continue onto the following steps to identify the precise peripheral. Load am335x-ctt.dss in the scripting console by executing loadJSFile path-to-dss-file/am335x-ctt.dss. A file named am335x-ctt_yyyy-mm-dd_hhmmss.rd1 will be created on papad plan, your desktop.
This file is an harvard case study method of learning, ascii file that contains a register dump of all the important PRCM registers. It is useful in identifying what peripherals are enabled that shouldn't be. Take the papad business plan output file (am335x-ctt_yyyy-mm-dd_hhmmss.rd1) and rejection, perform a diff against a file taken from papad business plan a good suspend sequence. (You might need to make one on the TI EVM if you cannot ever get your hardware to review and research, suspend.) You can then manually decode the corresponding registers that are different to identify which peripheral is still on. Once you've finished collecting all the data you want to allow the M3 core to finish the suspend sequence. CCS 6.1.0 with Processor SDK 2.00 was having an issue with the ELF file (NOTE: fixed in papad business plan CCS 6.1.1) and so the variables window was not showing the proper value. It was necessary to use a memory window set to address SP to modify the stop variable. Here's a picture: To allow the AM335x to thesis clothing, suspend all the way, you simply change the papad memory location shown above to zero, and then disconnect from the pollution M3. When you disconnect that will start the M3 running again.
It will immediately complete the plan transition to DeepSleep0. Defense Clothing. We choose disconnect instead of Run to prevent a loss of connection message in CCS which should lead to a more stable debug experience. At this point you should be able to papad business, resume as usual at thesis clothing, this point, e.g. press a key on the console, etc. Stepping through C Code - Load Symbols. It is possible to step through the C code executing on any of the plan processors of the AM335x by loading symbols.
To step through the M3 firmware after halting execution with a while loop mentioned above, ensure the M3 core is selected in the Debug panel, then from the File menu, select Tools-Load Symbols-Load Symbols. In the baylor university admissions essay Load Symbols dialog box, select the am335x-pm-firmware.elf. On the first attempt, the code editor panel will need pointing to M3 firmware source tree- select the folder containing the source file.