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belle de jour essay (aka 'Bella di giorno') Catherine Deneuve’s porcelain perfection hides a cracked interior in one of the help, actress’s most iconic roles: Sverine, a Paris housewife who begins secretly spending her afternoon hours working in a bordello. This surreal and erotic late-sixties daydream from essay provocateur for the ages Luis Buuel is an examination of m essay help desire and sad essays about fetishistic pleasure (its characters’ and m essay its viewers’), as well as a gently absurdist take on contemporary social mores and class divisions. Fantasy and statement for macbeth reality commingle in this burst of cinematic transgression, which was one of Buuel’s biggest hits. When Belle de Jour was first released in 1967, CV was a lot younger, the world of film was less jaded, and the subject matter here was unquestionably titillating. U Of M Essay Help? Today, when sadism/masochism has become common subject matter for ad campaigns aimed at the teenage market, we look at this film with different eyes. About My Dream? If the shock value of Belle de Jour has been mitigated, director Luis Buuel's artistry has not.
Indeed, since we are no longer shocked by the film, or see its subject matter as the u of, novelty it once was, we are better able to evaluate it in its own terms. Buuel tells the story of an upper middle class housewife, in a loving but sexually frigid marriage, who acts out her fantasies by becoming a prostitute in a brothel. The film moves back and forth between current reality, flashback, and essay about my dream holiday our heroine's fantasies, often leaving it to the viewer to determine which mode is operational. The heroine, played with smooth finesse by Catherine Deneuve, has a particularly strong affinity for bondage, domination, and submission. Buuel stays detached from the u of help, proceedings, nonjudgmental, coolly unemotional. On the thesis statement for macbeth paper, surface he gives us glorious color, handsome settings of lush interiors, and help chic (even today!) costuming by Yves Saint-Laurent. Doctoral Admission Essay? All this provides stark contrast to m essay help, the darker sexual fantasies, the edgy threat of violence, the sleazy underworld of tragic sex-for-hire. There are moments of comic relief, but the u of m essay, humor here is holiday dark, too. Posters and Lobby Cards. Optimum (Optimum Buuel Box) - Region 2 - PAL vs.
Warner (Bunuel box 1) - Region 2 - PAL vs. Miramax - Region 1 - NTSC vs. RusCiCo. - Region 0 - PAL vs. Studio Canal (Studio Canal Collection) - Region 'B' - Blu-ray vs. Criterion - Region 'A' - Blu-ray. Big thanks to Ole , Arvid and Ashirg for the DVD Screen Caps! 1) Optimum (Optimum Buuel Box) - Region 2 - PAL L EFT. 2) Warner (Bunuel box 1) - Region 2 - PAL - SECOND. 3) Miramax - Region 1 - NTSC - THIRD. U Of Help? 4) RusCiCo. My Dream? - Region 0 - PAL - FOURTH. 5) Studio Canal Collection - Region 'B' - Blu-ray - FIFTH.
6 ) Criterion - Region 'A' - Blu-ray - RIGHT. or available individually. Optimum Blu-ray Edition: Studio Canal Blu-ray Edition in u of Germany: 1.66:1 Original Aspect Ratio. Holiday? Average Bitrate: 5.25 mb/s. PAL 720x576 25.00 f/s. 1.66:1 Original Aspect Ratio.
Average Bitrate: mb/s. PAL 720x576 25.00 f/s. 1.66:1 Original Aspect Ratio. Average Bitrate: 6.99 mb/s. M Essay? NTSC 720x480 29.97 f/s. Tragic Hero Lear Essay? 1.66:1 Original Aspect Ratio. Average Bitrate: 8.10 mb/s. PAL 720x576 25.00 f/s. 1080P / 23.976 fps Dual-layered Blu-ray.
Disc Size: 47,153,415,610 bytes. Feature: 28,673,574,912 bytes. Video Bitrate: 30.68 Mbps. Codec: MPEG-4 AVC Video. 1080P / 23.976 fps Dual-layered Blu-ray. Disc Size: 41,608,665,461 bytes. Feature: 29,547,091,968 bytes.
Video Bitrate: 3 4.97 Mbps. Codec: MPEG-4 AVC Video. NOTE: The Vertical axis represents the bits transferred per second. The Horizontal is the time in minutes. U Of M Essay Help? Optimum (Bunuel box 1) Warner (Bunuel box 1) French, English (Dolby Digital 2.0) French, English dub and Russian voice-over ( all Dolby Digital 5.1 ) DTS-HD Master Audio English 1032 kbps 2.0 / 48 kHz / 1032 kbps / 16-bit (DTS Core: 2.0 / 48 kHz / 768 kbps / 16-bit) DTS-HD Master Audio French 965 kbps 2.0 / 48 kHz / 965 kbps / 16-bit (DTS Core: 2.0 / 48 kHz / 768 kbps / 16-bit) DTS-HD Master Audio German 932 kbps 2.0 / 48 kHz / 932 kbps / 16-bit (DTS Core: 2.0 / 48 kHz / 768 kbps / 16-bit) DTS-HD Master Audio Spanish 952 kbps 2.0 / 48 kHz / 952 kbps / 16-bit (DTS Core: 2.0 / 48 kHz / 768 kbps / 16-bit) Dolby Digital Audio Commentary: English 192 kbps 1.0 / 48 kHz / 192 kbps. Widescreen anamorphic - 1.66:1. #8226; Commentary by professor Peter W. Evans. #8226; A history of the escape, film - French documentary from 2002 (29:39). #8226; Trailer (with burned in English subtitles). #8226; 3 trailers of other Optimum releases. #8226; 16 pages booklet, half about Buuel / half about Deneuve. #8226; Poster reproduction in postcard size for each movie in m essay help the box. 8 Slim transparent Keep Cases in about my dream holiday solid box.
Widescreen anamorphic - 1.66:1. M Essay Help? Production Company: Buena Vista Home Vid. #8226; Commentary by Bunuel Scholar Julie Jones. #8226; Original U.S. Theatrical Trailer 1995 Re-Release Trailer. DVD Release Date: January 22, 2002. Escape? #8226; Trailers for 3 films: That Obscure Object of Desire, Discreet Charm of the m essay help, Bourgeoisie and Melville's Un Flic (all available in 16:9 Ruscico DVDs). Sad Essays? #8226; Filmographies and u of help short biographies in Russian for 11 personalities. #8226; 23-minute documentary about Bunuel in Spanish. #8226; 8-minutes interview with Jean-Claude Carrire and. Doctoral? #8226; 1-minute interview with Michel Piccoli (both in French). #8226; The documentary clips can be found in m essay help a documentary A proposito Bunuel, where Bunuel tells about himself in a voice-over and interviews. The documentary is firemans essay escape plan available in Region 1 on the Criterion The Discreet Charm of help Bourgeoisie DVD.
NOTE: No English subs or Menu choices . DVD Release Date: Summer 2002. Studio: Studio Canal. 1080P / 23.976 fps Dual-layered Blu-ray. Disc Size: 47,153,415,610 bytes. Feature: 28,673,574,912 bytes. Video Bitrate: 30.68 Mbps. For Macbeth Research? Codec: MPEG-4 AVC Video. #8226; Commentary by professor Peter W. U Of? Evans. • The Last Script - 1:34:33 documentary on our daughters ourselves Buuel. M Essay? English Subtitles. Life? • A Story of Perversion or Emancipation? English Subtitles (29:39 in PAL) • Story of of a Film - PAL 1/2 hour. • Trailer with English subs (3:00 in PAL) • 20-page booklet - essay by Derek Malcolm.
Blu-ray Release Date: November 3rd, 2009. U Of Help? Custom Blu-ray Case. Studio: C riterion. 1080P / 23.976 fps Dual-layered Blu-ray. Disc Size: 41,608,665,461 bytes. Feature: 29,547,091,968 bytes. Video Bitrate: 3 4.97 Mbps. Codec: MPEG-4 AVC Video. • Audio commentary featuring Michael Wood, author of the BFI Film Classics book Belle de jour. • New video piece featuring writer and sexual-politics activist Susie Bright and film scholar Linda Williams (18:09) • New interview with screenwriter Jean-Claude Carrire (10:22) • Segment from the about my dream, French television program Cinma, featuring interviews with Carrire and actress Catherine Deneuve (7:17) • Original and rerelease trailers. M Essay Help? • PLUS: A booklet featuring an essay by about critic Melissa Anderson and a 1970s interview with director Luis Buuel. Blu-ray Release Date: January 17th, 2012. U Of? Transparent Blu-ray Case.
CLICK to order from: or available individually. NOTE : The below Blu-ray captures were taken directly from the Blu-ray disc. Lear Essay? ADDITION: Criterion Collection - Region 'A' Blu-ray - December 11' : There isn't much I can see in u of regards to statement for macbeth paper, consistency vs. the Studio Canal Blu-ray . M Essay Help? The Criterion has occasional bolder and brighter colors, their bitrate is essay marginally higher and they have more information - on all 4 sides - in the frame. At times it also looks darker and skin tones are frequently warmer. One factor that I made more of a note of - was the Criterion shows more fine grain. If forced to u of help, choose I'd say I prefer the Criterion in-motion, but that is looking at it with a very discerning eye and I suspect most will be pleased visually with either HD video transfer. Criterion remain authentic with a linear PCM 1.0 channel mono track at 1152 kbps.
Everything is admission essay clean and clear without flaws. There are optional English subtitles on u of help the region 'A'-locked Blu-ray disc. Supplements are impressive with an excellent new audio commentary featuring Princeton professor Michael Wood, author of the about life, BFI Film Classics book Belle de jour . That Obscure Object of u of m essay help Desire is a new 18-minute video piece featuring writer and sexual-politics activist Susie Bright and film scholar and UC Berkeley Professor, Linda Williams author of Screening Sex . Essay? They discuss Belle de Jour 's representation of feminine sexuality and u of fantasy, and sad essays about its themes on masochism, power, and m essay help desire in terms of director Luis Bunuel's surrealist aesthetic. There is also a new 10-minute interview with screenwriter Jean-Claude Carrire, who worked on several films with Bunuel, but none of their collaborations was a bigger success or more influential than Belle de Jour . Tragic Hero Essay? There is help a 7-minute segment from the French television program Cinma , featuring interviews with Carrire and actress Catherine Deneuve on the set of Belle de Jour . King? It was directed by Frederic Rossif and first aired December 23rd, 1966. We can view the u of m essay, original and firemans essay escape plan rerelease trailers and u of m essay help there is a liner notes booklet featuring an essay by about critic Melissa Anderson and a 1970s interview with director Luis Buuel.
Another tumultuous Criterion release. Those patient fans with region 'A'-locked systems will rejoice at help, the detail put into doctoral admission, this Blu-ray release. I feel like I consistently see new things in Bunuel's film every time I watch it. The Criterion is a brilliant package and one we can give our full endorsement. ADDITION: Kinowelt - Studio Canal Collection - Region 'B' Blu-ray - November 09 : Firstly, what the help, hell do you have to do to get one of these editions? I had great difficulty getting the Optimum - so, as I knew the Studio Canal would be the exact same transfer - I simply order that as I began to get impatient with my Optimum order unfulfilled. Once again this starts with a list of essay about holiday country options of u of m essay which Australia and the United Kingdom are choices. Essay My Dream? This is another Blu-ray from The Studio Canal Collection and should be the same transfer with the same subtitle and audio options - and the same video transfer size. They are coded for u of m essay region 'B' (like Last Year at Marienbad ) - as we presume the other two Blu-ray editions are.
If we can discern any significant differences we will post them here. In my opinion this is one of the most important Blu-rays of the year. This looks like the same print source as the French Warner - but it is now in 1080P and at film speed (not PAL). It looks, in a word, 'magnificent' to my eye - some minor blemishes still exist but nothing to deter from the beautiful colors, paler flesh tones, and visible grain structure of the film. It preserves the 1.66 aspect ratio.
Like the about, other Studio Canal Blu-ray releases - these are 'international' in the sense they have 4 different language DTS-HD Master tracks - here in Belle De Jour all in 2.0 channel and m essay there are many subtitle options. M y Momitsu has identified it as being coded only for Blu-ray region 'B' (NOT 'A' as well). Doctoral? SD supplements are in PAL and we still get the excellent commentary from professor Peter W. Evans. Also included are the m essay, older half hour, French, A history of the film documentary from 2002 (with optional English subtitles). New beyond the Optimum edition are fascinating 1 1/2 hour The Last Script documentary on firemans essay escape plan Buuel and u of the A Story of Perversion or Emancipation? piece - plus, of course, the 20-page booklet - essay by Derek Malcolm. The disc is tragic king lear also BD-Live functional. Another easy recommendation that should garner multiple votes in our year end poll. Purchase without fear. This Blu-ray is the u of, 'real deal'. NOTE : Beware the thesis for macbeth paper, Canadian Alliance version HERE as it has no extras and m essay does not even offer English subtitles!
ADDITION - Optimum - Feb 2007 - It isn't too much, but to firemans plan, my eye I think the m essay, Warner is slightly sharper than the new Optimum. It is possible that black levels have been minimally boosted but the essay about, image overall is a tad smoother as well. We can, of course, dismiss the other two releases for u of help image (Miramax and sad essays life RusCiCo). It is help certainly not a deal breaker and thesis for macbeth research paper the Optimum has some valued supplements plus the subtitles are removable (where the m essay, Warner's are not). Essay Escape Plan? Extras: Commentary by u of help professor Peter W. Evans, a history of the film - French documentary from 2002 (29:39), trailer (with burned in English subtitles), 3 trailers of other Optimum releases, a 16 pages booklet, half about Buuel / half about Deneuve and about holiday a poster reproduction in postcard size for each movie in the box. T he Optimum Luis Buuel Collection has 8 titles - That Obscure Object Of Desire , The Discreet Charm Of The Bourgeoisie , Diary Of A Chamber Maid , The Phantom Of Liberty , Milky Way , Tristana , La Joven (aka La Jeune Fille ) and Belle De Jour and is a good bargain if you consider the price for, example, the Criterion editions.
Fans who have not shelled out yet for digital Buuel (or only a few) will consider this package an easy decision. Help? Bottom line is thesis for macbeth research paper that the u of, Optimum has been transferred with decent elements and research paper is a good purchase. NOTE: We are not sure if the u of help, booklet/poster is included with the single release. ADDITION - Warner - July 2005 - Pictures speak louder than words and it is quite obvious that the firemans essay escape plan, Warner PAL Boxset is the one to get easily eclipsing both other images. The only unfortunate part of the Warner are the burned in m essay help subtitles, but still a no-brainer purchase with the Boxset including Diary of a Chambermaid and The Milky Way . About? The Miramax 1.66:1 transfer is u of m essay identical to Criterion's previous laserdisc, which marked the first home availability of this title in the U.S. The audio commentary of the R1 DVD is by noted Buuel scholar Julie Jones, a professor in the foreign language department of New Orleans University. Its a pretty close call with the image of these 2 DVDs. The Miramax is not anamorphic either and our daughters slightly sharper, but the RusCiCo has less scratches and damage. M Essay Help? Obviously the lack of English subs for the RusCiCo will limit its marketability, but if you understand French then this is the disc to get. Essay About My Dream Holiday? Optimum (Optimum Buuel Box) - Region 2 - PAL. ( Warner (Bunuel box 1) - Region 2 - PAL - LEFT vs.
Miramax - Region 1 - NTSC - MIDDLE vs. RusCiCo. M Essay? - Region 0 - PAL - RIGHT ) Criterion - Region 'A' - Blu-ray. Firemans Essay Escape Plan? CLICK EACH BLU-RAY CAPTURE TO SEE ALL IMAGES IN FULL 1920X1080 RESOLUTION. U Of M Essay Help? Criterion Blu-ray Subtitle Sample. 1) Optimum (Optimum Buuel Box) - Region 2 - PAL TOP. About Holiday? 2) Warner (Bunuel box 1) - Region 2 - PAL - SECOND. 3) Miramax - Region 1 - NTSC - THIRD. 4) RusCiCo. - Region 0 - PAL - FOURTH. U Of M Essay? 5) Studio Canal Collection - Region ' B' - Blu-ray - FIFTH. 6 ) Criterion - Region 'A' - Blu-ray - BOTTOM. 1) Optimum (Optimum Buuel Box) - Region 2 - PAL TOP.
2) Warner (Bunuel box 1) - Region 2 - PAL - SECOND. Sad Essays? 3) Miramax - Region 1 - NTSC - THIRD. 4) RusCiCo. - Region 0 - PAL - FOURTH. 5) Studio Canal Collection - Region ' B' - Blu-ray - FIFTH. 6 ) Criterion - Region 'A' - Blu-ray - BOTTOM. 1) Optimum (Optimum Buuel Box) - Region 2 - PAL TOP. M Essay Help? 2) Warner (Bunuel box 1) - Region 2 - PAL - SECOND. 3) Miramax - Region 1 - NTSC - THIRD. 4) RusCiCo. - Region 0 - PAL - FOURTH.
5) Studio Canal Collection - Region ' B' - Blu-ray - FIFTH. 6 ) Criterion - Region 'A' - Blu-ray - BOTTOM. 1) Optimum (Optimum Buuel Box) - Region 2 - PAL TOP. 2) Warner (Bunuel box 1) - Region 2 - PAL - SECOND. 3) Miramax - Region 1 - NTSC - THIRD. 4) RusCiCo. - Region 0 - PAL - FOURTH. 5) Studio Canal Collection - Region ' B' - Blu-ray - FIFTH. King? 6 ) Criterion - Region 'A' - Blu-ray - BOTTOM. More Blu-ray Captures. 1) Studio Canal Collection - Region ' B' - Blu-ray - TOP. U Of M Essay? 2) Criterion - Region 'A' - Blu-ray - BOTTOM.
1) Studio Canal Collection - Region ' B' - Blu-ray - TOP. Lear Essay? 2) Criterion - Region 'A' - Blu-ray - BOTTOM. U Of M Essay Help? 1) Studio Canal Collection - Region ' B' - Blu-ray - TOP. 2) Criterion - Region 'A' - Blu-ray - BOTTOM. 1) Studio Canal Collection - Region ' B' - Blu-ray - TOP. 2) Criterion - Region 'A' - Blu-ray - BOTTOM. Doctoral Essay? 1) Studio Canal Collection - Region ' B' - Blu-ray - TOP. 2) Criterion - Region 'A' - Blu-ray - BOTTOM.
1) Studio Canal Collection - Region ' B' - Blu-ray - TOP. 2) Criterion - Region 'A' - Blu-ray - BOTTOM. Recommended Reading for m essay help Buuel Fans (CLICK COVERS or TITLES for more information)
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How to Tackle the "Why Us" School-Specific Essay (with Examples
Let’s End the Big 4 or Bust Myth Once and For All. It’s recruiting season on help campuses all across America; that special time of year when accounting students get a taste of admission essay what it’s like to be a five-star middle linebacker — minus the m essay help “hostesses,” envelopes stuffed with cash, and any semblance of athletic ability. For you soon-to-be graduates deciding on sad essays your first employer, however, recruiting season isn’t all fancy meals and free pens. It’s stressful, dammit; and generally speaking, the greatest source of consternation is whether the m essay help accounting industry boils down to “Big 4 or Bust.” While I’d love to tell you this distinction is hero lear, overblown, it’s simply not true. M Essay! Because despite what I’ve been told by a long line of sympathetic yet clearly disappointed women, size really does matter. So with that in mind, should you be eliminating all but four options from your job search? Well, if you go to the Big 4, you’re likely to make a little more money and work a few more hours, so there’s that. The rest of the decision will come down to what kind of person you are.
Perception Dictates Reality. My first job was with Arthur Andersen, my second with PwC. I’ve now been with WithumSmith+Brown for ten years, which is nearly double the time I spent at my first two stops combined. Yet whenever I’m asked to provide my professional bio, I always manage to shoehorn my experience with the Big 5 4 into the first two sentences. Essay! Why? Because it matters. Right or wrong, the general consensus is while not all of the people at the Big 4 are the brightest in the industry, all of the u of brightest people in the industry are at the Big 4. Sad Essays Life! Signing on with a KPMG or DT will bring you a level of gravitas that, try as they might, the firms outside the Big 4 simply can’t match.
And as I’ve experienced, even after you’re long gone, the years you spent with the Big 4 will afford you instant credibility, even if, like me, you spent the majority of u of help those days hoarding Cliff Bars from the doctoral admission breakroom and plotting the murder of u of help your senior manager. Is the perception of the Big 4 as the best of the best fair? Of course not. A lot of tragic hero lear that perception was created by the big firms beating everyone over m essay the head with just how great they are. Statement Research Paper! A freestyle rap battle has less obnoxious arrogance and self-congratulation than the standard Big 4 recruiting pitch. Deserved or not, ultimately, perception dictates reality. There’s a reason the majority of help CFO and tax director positions require Big 4 experience; the perception is firemans essay, that only those who’ve tested their mettle with the big boys are prepared to handle those roles. That’s not to say that opting for a smaller firm will eventually disqualify you from all but the hottest and noisiest jobs. But the reality is, without the Big 4 on your resume, you may find that some doors are much harder to open. Maybe you don’t want to be a CFO or a tax director. Maybe your primary concern is u of m essay help, finding a job where you can learn as much as possible during your formative years while you figure out if public accounting is for you.
And maybe you prefer to statement research paper, learn via hands-on direction and a lot of personal one-on-one time with your supervisors. If that’s the case, going to a smaller firm is u of help, likely a better fit for you. As I wrote above, there is an abundance of essay escape plan smart people in the Big 4. The problem, however, is that at the giant firms, the people who are best positioned to u of m essay help, teach you what you need to be successful - the managers — are the least likely to have the time to essay, do it. When you’re a manager in the Big 4, it means that you are the point person for m essay, a long list of clients, responsible for the detailed review work that partners are too expensive and staff too stupid to do, and admission you’re supposed to bear the burden of developing the next generation. It’s the most exhausting activity one can engage in, outside of help soccer. Something’s got to admission essay, give, and because managers are under constant scrutiny as to whether they belong on the partner track, it’s sure as hell not going to be client service or placating the decision makers. It’s going to be the development of the manager’s underlings: i.e., you. At a smaller firm, while managers have the same responsibilities as their Big 4 counterparts, competition to make partner isn’t quite as fierce as it is in m essay help the large firms. In addition, because smaller firms tend to lack the formalized training programs for staff (more on that next), greater emphasis is placed on the managers to develop their staff and seniors. As a result, managers at essay my dream holiday a regional or local firm should have considerably more time to u of, hold your hand.
Or prefer to be left alone? If, however, you hate dealing with people (like me!) and prefer to learn without one-on-one interaction (like me!) then the doctoral bigger you go, the better off you’ll be. Because say what you want about the Big 4, but they have wonderful, formalized training programs. At AA, we would get shuttled off to St. Charles for a week to m essay help, learn oodles of tax law.
At PwC, we had similar, intensive training weeks that were designed specifically for our experience level. And just recently, a former co-worker of my dream holiday mine went to work at EY, and when he asked for some reading material about the niche he would be working within, EY sent him two three-hundred page manuals on the matter, both authored by EY experts. That ain’t happening at a 40-person firm. So if your preferred method of learning has more to u of m essay help, do with reading quietly and less to do with a senior’s coffee breath, head to the Big 4. Protect yourself from yourself. If there’s one recurring theme throughout your twenties, it’s shitty decision making. Trust me when I say that neither your Instagram photos nor your carefully placed tattoo would indicate that you should be trusted with any decision of import.
And this makes going straight to the Big 4 a dicey proposition. Admission Essay! Because if you head off to PwC or DT, they’re going to ask you to m essay help, commit to either audit or tax, despite the rather seemingly important fact that you don’t know anything about either. Escape Plan! Yeah, you can eventually switch if you change your mind, but let’s be honest, if you don’t pull the chute on your first choice within the first six months, you’re not going to want to u of m essay, deal with starting all over again much beyond that. Generally speaking, however, a smaller firm will allow you to dabble in both audit and tax for essay plan, several years before eventually choosing a focus. Based on my conversations with the young staff at WS+B, this is the primary reason they landed at a regional firm; to get a feel for where they may find an area of interest within public accounting, rather than being asked to jump in with both feet to help, untested waters. So if you have lingering doubts about your area of interest, going smaller is research paper, your best bet.
If you’re certain that you’ll be involved with tax return prep in some capacity, however, consider whether you would prefer to see the light of day in winter or summer. At smaller firms, getting a return done before the m essay original due date is a badge of honor, so for reasons I can’t comprehend, these firms will typically work you into submission from January through April rather than just file a piece of paper that, you knowbuys you an extra six months. To the contrary, the sad essays April 15th tax season in the Big 4 is an afterthought; nearly everything gets extended, which means that while your winter shouldn’t be too stressful, you might find yourself spending Labor Day weekend in help the office while your small-firm counterparts are lounging oceanside. I’m a firm believer that everyone should get to statement for macbeth, feel like a Big Fucking Deal at some point in their life. To throw on a nice suit and u of help eat at a fancy restaurant and wash it all down with a private box at the Knicks game, without spending a dime of your own money. Ourselves Essay! And nobody does luxury like the Big 4. When I was with AA in Denver, people would routinely grab you during the middle of the day to go check out a couple of u of m essay help innings of the Rockies game from the firm’s club seats. Every Friday, some partner would open a tab during happy hour to bid farewell to the latest defect. Post-project celebration dinners required tips that with four digits.
I’ll confess: while all this was going on, I felt like the Pope of admission Chillitown. And you know what? That’s OK. Because for the overwhelming majority of u of help us, our college years were spent barely scraping together enough cash to holiday, keep the fridge stocked with Busch Light. M Essay! To suddenly be thrust into statement for macbeth a life of open bars and free filets is u of m essay help, understandably intoxicating. But it won’t last. Essay My Dream! As unlikely as it may seem at 22, you’ll eventually meet someone, move in together and maybe make some babies. Before you know it, human nature sets in, and the lure of free drinks and u of box seats won’t seem nearly as enticing as Netflix and a good night’s sleep. And when that day comes, a good part of what attracted to you to sad essays, the Big 4 will be lost forever, along with your youth, innocence, and stable blood pressure. But until that day comes, there’s no harm in relishing in u of the Patrick Bateman lifestyle, minus the axe murders. Essay Plan! Go the Big 4 and live it up.
Obviously, there are other things you’ve got to take into consideration: big city versus small town, the opportunity for m essay, niche services like MA or consulting at escape the Big 4, and the potential for more work-life balance at a small firm (though I don’t necessarily see that to be the case). But keep an eye on the items discussed here, and you just might wind up happy with your first job. For a year or two. U Of M Essay Help! Then you’ll be ready to read this. Big 4 Choices choosing a firm Recruiting season Small firms Author Tony Nitti Posted on October 22, 2014 November 30, -0001 Categories Students Tags Big 4, Choices, choosing a firm, Recruiting season, Small firms. I’ve yet to firemans essay, be impressed with the m essay work product I get from a small/local/national firm. Take that however you want. Tax return(s) filed by the deadline?
Audited F/S to the bank? Their purpose has been served. Have you ever crossed paths with GT? If your company is in one of GT’s CHOSEN MARKETS, their professionals will dazzle you with their INSTINCT FOR GROWTH and our daughters ourselves create a DYNAMIC work-product. I work for a large financial institution in internal audit and while I did think of help going big 4, I am very glad I did not. I chose this route because of my interest in firemans essay escape plan the field of banking, work life balance (I still work over 50 hours most weeks but no crazy busy season), and the compensation package.
I get to m essay help, work on interesting projects (interesting as accounting work is) and I’m gainiging experience that will help me down the road make internal/external career moves. Not knocking Big4 but there are other options out there to ourselves essay, have a challenging and ultimately financially rewarding career in accounting. How cute. As a senior auditor in the banking/capital markets group of a B4 firm, I rarely if ever hit anywhere close to the 50 hour mark outside of season – sounds like you either 1) got robbed, or 2) bought into the BS that we work ridiculous hours here. Despite the self-reported awful hours in audit, it usually simply isn’t the u of m essay help case so long as you have a competent manager with whom you can create an adequate audit plan ahead of time, and who doesn’t expect useless face time. Those are some big if’s. I have only come across two of statement for macbeth research those managers in 3 years of public and m essay help one of them was overruled by a dumb ass senior manager that felt face time was next to doctoral admission, godliness.
I think you situation is the exception not the rule. I’ll give you that, my friend. Sometimes it’s also luck of the draw on help clients, since they want the about my dream holiday facetime too, to feel like our fees are justified. I don’t know where you’re at but we worked a shit ton of hours even outside busy season at KPMG in the Southwest. M Essay! Especially if you get a client with a 6/30 or 9/30 year end.
Also left KPMG for another Top 20 firm and our daughters ourselves essay I wasn’t going home before 7pm during “non-busy season” many many times. Now that I’m in industry I really only u of m essay help work late 3 days a month, and life is grand. TL:DR “While I’d love to tell you this distinction is overblown, it’s simply not true. Because despite what I’ve been told by a long line of firemans escape sympathetic yet clearly disappointed women, size really does matter.” If that’s the case then they should call ME Big12Veteran . Ouch… someone get me some cold water for that burn. What good is all that well-rounded experience and knowledge if you can’t use it to m essay, get a top position in thesis paper the big leagues of private industry?
A “great opportunity” that is help, “fast moving” Sounds like something Chipman would like to answer with DYNAMIC and admission GROWTH. “Big leagues of private industry”? Aren’t you the guy who always talks about m essay help, B4 being your only job with no intentions of leaving? Talking about great exit opportunities when you don’t plan on taking them just adds another level to firemans plan, your douche-baggery. As far as I can tell, the best thing about your life is u of m essay help, posting on here like some kind of self appointed B4 guru. You got me. I’m so embarrassed.
Well the for macbeth paper fact that you replied in m essay help 3 minutes kinda proves my point about your exciting life. In the literally thousands of sad essays life comments I’ve left on this esteemed site, I don’t think I’ve said one time that I have an exciting life. But rock on, bro. You must have a really exciting life if it gets your rocks off to anonymously pick internet fights with another anonymous person on u of an accounting-related message board… Companies are probably lining up for your “profession judgment” with no audit manual!! Using your sample size example, there is a reason audit firms have audit manuals, and essay my dream holiday that’s for consistency across their engagements. How awful do you think it would be to be to explain to an inspection team where you tested 15 samples for this daily control but another team at your firm tested 50 for a similar daily control?
There are plenty of areas to u of m essay help, exercise your judgment on a B4 team, and doctoral essay those are usually the areas that require judgment, such as estimates. Happily took an officer for a F200 company Rotational Program making 15% more than what Big 4 pays starting out u of, around here. There’s more than one path to my dream holiday, the top. That’s what, $7,500-$8,200 per year as starting pay? I’ve known plenty of people who did such 2 year programs: they rotate you and u of help try and pigeon-hole you into one singular role…I’ve got plenty of friends who did that song and essay about holiday dance then decided it wasn’t for them and weren’t able to get anything more than a senior accountant role anywhere else. Meanwhile there’s people I know who are leaving Big-4 with 4 years experience getting job offers in m essay help the $90k to $110k range. Sad Essays Life! I’ll take that 45% – 50% pay increase after four years over that starting 15% and whatever marginal increase you get in that time period any day. Lots of people want to argue the merits / advantages of Big 4 experience. I’ll say this: it may not always help, but it sure as hell will never hurt either.
Those really good private industry positions just about u of m essay help, require measurable Big-4 experience, and even if they don’t the people who have the final say certainly weigh Big-4 experience higher than just about ourselves essay, any other. The intern rotation program trumps the u of m essay help Big4. Interns are preselected and about trained from the bottom up. If your rotation strands you in u of m essay a senior accountant role, then you said no more than 2 times to a transfer. Or you were given a thumbs down as an intern. Interns that make it through the rotation program are always selected first from a list of new roles that open up on a specific career ladder. The Big4 is never on that list.
These interns represent the future face of the organization. Tragic Hero King Essay! They are trained to know the organization in a specific manner and the probability is that they will spend a majority of u of their career at the organization. “but it sure as hell will never hurt either.” I think this statement is false. It hurts every season. having been a partner in essay a national firm and m essay help 3 regional firms; there is doctoral admission, NO question of u of m essay help this: the big 4 and the mid-tier firms put firm first, client second. Our Daughters Ourselves Essay! They need to do this because of liability and the public market they serve.
Forget being entrepreneurial. it is ALL ABOUT risk management and u of m essay help process, process, process. Regional firms will put the client in the center. Very entrepreneurial, whilst still adhering to firemans, standards. Salary and/or draw at the partner level? Likely higher in the big firms, but at what personal cost? If you like work/life balance and can live on $600k annually, and up to $750k, then the m essay help well run, regional firm of size (200 or more professionals) is the only way to go, long term. It is tragic hero king essay, all about what you want and who you are. You form your “professional career DNA” in u of your twenties going into for macbeth research your thirties. Your choice. No surprise, my experience as a partner in a national firmed sucked. Care to talk actual partner income levels between the help regional and essay national firm?
Being this would first hand knowledge, although as rare as a unicorn on help this board, it might add more to your thoughts above. And I also came to the conclusion that you were actually a partner , based solely on the comment “If you like work/life balance and can live on $600k annually……”. I can only speak as someone looking in from private industry: My company’s controller and another director are Big 4 alums with their CPA licenses. They got in the door for my company pretty easily because of their Big 4 credentials and having the license. The CPA from a Big 4 does not guarantee the job offer, but it does open the doors for you to make the sales pitch. The caveat is we do not have anyone from the Big 4 without the CPA license. Are they from the same firm? And how long did they stay?
I notice that they don’t stay long in the same position if they are not sitting in a top dog role. Essay My Dream Holiday! But when they do get a top dog role, then it is almost impossible to get them to transfer. (F500) They came from different firms. They are into their 3rd and 1st year, respectively. “say what you want about the Big 4, but they have wonderful, formalized training programs.” That’s a myth. U Of! The training is done by seniors and life managers reading slides to a roomful of staff.
It’s the blind leading the blind. Real training is one-on-one, on-the-job training delivered by someone who knows how to u of help, develop talent (and use mouthwash). Disagree. You’re confusing training with professional skills development. The purpose of training is to learn methodology, to learn technical GAAP, and to learn other essentials that no one has time to teach you in the field. About Life! If a manager has enough time to sit down and teach you the u of m essay specifics of proper revenue rec or pension accounting, then you’re losing efficiency that most can’t afford to lose.
Hey, I know we still have 6 hours of statement paper work to do this evening, but let’s take an m essay help hour and lean some technical accounting. That doesn’t happen – training is the place where you learn this. Nonsense. A manager who won’t make time to teach technical accounting to staff on the job is saving one hour and losing 16 hours down the line when he has to clean up the stuff they would have gotten right if he’d bothered to teach them. Everyone knows the purpose of training programs is to travel to a different city for a week or two every year, party ballz, shirk client responsibilities, and try to phone it in from 9-5 during training that week while running up a giant tab that would make MITT ROMNEY blush at about the weekly happy hour and/or nightly dinners, all the while dreaming up bullshit to pitch to your s/o about u of help, why you can’t answer their phone calls each night (hint: it includes getting f-ed up each night and regretting your choices in the morning). Essay! Good times… I for one am glad to find out u of, I did my new-hire training the right way. If you don’t go B4 you should just end your life. Or work at doctoral essay Starbucks.
Putting a lot of weight on a stupid accounting job aren’t we? Cool. I knew when I didn’t receive a B4 offer that my instincts of suicide were correct. See you on the other side. For as long as there is a B4, there will be the B4 circlejerk. It’s the B4’s whole recruiting strategy. Help! The winds are shifting though, and people are wising up. No one told Tony Nitti that the non-B4 are sending their new hires to about my dream holiday, the exact same Q-Center in St. U Of M Essay Help! Charles as AA did and EY still does; and no one told him the non-B4 start earlier in the day, end later, and life have more instructors per student; they also have more days of instruction, and m essay even party harder at the Clubhouse.
The non-B4 firms also always win closest to essay my dream holiday, the pin. Anyone who knows public accounting knows that the B4 is full of hot air when it comes to out-training smaller firms. U Of M Essay Help! BDO, GT, Crowe, etc., all provide better, more personalized training, and like Nitti says, it’s one-on-one and more effective. I get it. B4’ers bought in, and essay need to perpetuate the circlejerk in order to justify their poor decisions. I just think it’s bad that they lead astray impressionable college students. U Of M Essay Help! The fact is, the non-B4 firms that are growing much faster offer a much better value proposition to college students: you are much more likely to make partner at Crowe or BDO than EY or PWC. They just have better opportunities because they are adding more partners and more offices much more quickly. Clients are wising up too. The B4’ers can continue to firemans plan, jerk themselves off as to how great they are, and meanwhile the smaller firms will continue to m essay help, siphon off clients because when it comes down to it, they’re offering a better value proposition than the B4: an equally good product, with better service, for a lower price. With the exception of myself, the sad essays about life non-B4 also have fewer insufferable and pretentious staff, which is nice.
B4 is kinda like the help really hot girl in doctoral school. You really want her to like you and go on a date with you. You dream of how great it will be. But, when it happens, she turns out to be a bitch and a lousy lay. But you will get many other dates because they saw that the hottie they idolize dated you. lmao I love this analogy.
What would the u of author suggest for those not receiving B4 offers ? Should one take what they can get with the tragic hero king lear essay hopes of eventually working for B4? Or is it better to cut your losses and move on u of to another field while you still can? Dude…Big 4 are shedding people like crazy as the ourselves economy picks up. It’s pretty easy to go from m essay help Mid tier to essay, Big 4 after like 2 years. When I see resumes for open accounting positions without Big 4 experience, I ask if them if they are interested in m essay a position that better fits their skill set, such as working in AP or at the front desk answering the firemans essay plan phones. More accounting majors need to m essay help, just skip audit/tax and go into advisory, management consulting, finance, F500 rotational programs.
Much better fields.
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essay war world About World War I. T he First World War was truly #145;the Great War#146;. Its origins were complex. Its scale was vast. U Of M Essay Help! Its conduct was intense. Its impact on our daughters essay military operations was revolutionary. Its human and material costs were enormous. And its results were profound. The war was a global conflict.
Thirty-two nations were eventually involved. Twenty-eight of these constituted the Allied and Associated Powers, whose principal belligerents were the British Empire, France, Italy, Russia, Serbia, and the United States of m essay, America. They were opposed by essay the Central Powers: Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Germany, and the Ottoman Empire. The war began in the Balkan cockpit of u of m essay help, competing nationalisms and ancient ethnic rivalries. Hopes that it could be contained there proved vain. Expansion of the war was swift. Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia on 28 July 1914; Germany declared war on Russia on 1 August. Germany declared war on France on 3 August and invaded Belgium.
France was invaded on 4 August. German violation of Belgian neutrality provided the British with a convenient excuse to enter the war on research the side of France and help, Russia the same evening. Austria-Hungary declared war on Russia on 6 August. France and Great Britain declared war on Austria-Hungary six days later. The underlying causes of these events have been intensively researched and doctoral admission essay, debated. Modern scholars are less inclined to u of m essay help allocate blame for the outbreak of war than was the case in the past. Ourselves Essay! They have sought instead to understand the fears and ambitions of the governing lites of Europe who took the fateful decisions for war, particularly that of imperial Germany. Fears were more important than ambitions. M Essay! Of the powers involved in the outbreak of war, only Serbia had a clear expansionist agenda. The French hoped to recover the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine lost to Germany as a result of their defeat in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-1, but this was regarded as an attempt at restitution rather than acquisition. Otherwise, defensive considerations were paramount.
The states who embarked on the road to war in 1914 wished to doctoral essay preserve what they had. This included not only u of, their territorial integrity but also their diplomatic alliances and their prestige. Tragic! These defensive concerns made Europe's statesmen take counsel of their fears and submit to the tyranny of events. The Austrians feared for the survival of their multi-racial Empire if they did not confront the threat of Serb nationalism and Panslavism. The Germans feared the consequences to themselves of allowing Austria, their closest and only reliable ally, to be weakened and humiliated. The Russians feared the threat to u of help their prestige and authority as protector of the Slavs if they allowed Austria to defeat and humiliate Serbia. The French feared the superior population numbers, economic resources, and military strength of their German neighbours. France's principal defence against the threat of German power was its alliance with Russia. This it was imperative to tragic king lear essay defend. The British feared occupation of the Low Countries by a hostile power, especially a hostile power with a large modern navy. But most of all they feared for the long-term security of their Empire if they did not support France and Russia, their principal imperial rivals, whose goodwill they had been assiduously cultivating for a decade.
All governments feared their peoples. Some statesmen welcomed the war in u of m essay help the belief that it would act as a social discipline purging society of dissident elements and encouraging a return to patriotic values. Others feared that it would be a social solvent, dissolving and transforming everything it touched. The process of expansion did not end in August 1914. Sad Essays Life! Other major belligerents took their time and waited upon events. Italy, diplomatically aligned with Germany and Austria since the Triple Alliance of 1882, declared its neutrality on 3 August.
In the following months it was ardently courted by France and Britain. On 23 May 1915 the Italian government succumbed to u of m essay help Allied temptations and declared war on Austria-Hungary in pursuit of territorial aggrandizement in the Trentino. Bulgaria invaded Serbia on 7 October 1915 and sealed that pugnacious country's fate. Serbia was overrun. The road to Constantinople was opened to the Central Powers.
Romania prevaricated about doctoral admission, which side to join, but finally chose the Allies in August 1916, encouraged by the success of the Russian 'Brusilov Offensive'. U Of M Essay! It was a fatal miscalculation. The German response was swift and decisive. Romania was rapidly overwhelmed by two invading German armies and its rich supplies of wheat and oil did much to keep Germany in the war for another two years. Romania joined Russia as the other Allied power to suffer defeat in the war. It was British belligerency, however, which was fundamental in essay my dream holiday turning a European conflict into a world war. Britain was the world's greatest imperial power. The British had world-wide interests and world-wide dilemmas. They also had world-wide friends.
Germany found itself at war not only u of, with Great Britain but also with the dominions of Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and South Africa and with the greatest British imperial possession, India. Concern for the defence of India helped bring the British into conflict with the Ottoman Empire in November 1914 and resulted in a major war in the Middle East. Most important of all, perhaps, Britain's close political, economic, and cultural ties with the United States of America, if they did not ensure that nation's eventual entry into the war, certainly made it possible. The American declaration of admission, war on Germany on 6 April 1917 was a landmark not only in the history of the United States but also in that of Europe and the world, bringing to an end half a millennium of European domination and ushering in 'the American century'. The geographical scale of the conflict meant that it was not one war but many. On the Western Front in France and u of m essay help, Belgium the ourselves essay, French and their British allies, reinforced from 1917 onwards by the Americans, were locked in a savage battle of attrition against the German army. Here the war became characterized by increasingly elaborate and sophisticated trench systems and field fortifications.
Dense belts of barbed wire, concrete pillboxes, intersecting arcs of u of, machine-gun fire, and accumulating masses of tragic hero king lear essay, quick-firing field and heavy artillery rendered man#156;uvre virtually impossible. Casualties were enormous. The first phase of the war in the west lasted until November 1914. M Essay Help! This witnessed Germany's attempt to defeat France through an enveloping movement round the left flank of the French armies. The plan met with initial success.
The advance of the German armies through Belgium and northern France was dramatic. The French, responding with an offensive in Lorraine, suffered an almost catastrophic national defeat. France was saved by the iron nerve of its commander-in-chief, General J. Tragic King Essay! J. C. Joffre, who had not only the intelligence but also the strength of character to extricate himself from the ruin of his plans and order the historic counter-attack against the German right wing, the 'miracle of the u of, Marne'. The German armies were forced to retreat and to entrench. Their last attempt at a breakthrough was stopped by thesis statement for macbeth French and m essay help, British forces near the small Flemish market town of Ypres in November. By Christmas 1914 trench lines stretched from the Belgian coast to the Swiss frontier. Although the events of 1914 did not result in a German victory, they left the Germans in a very strong position. The German army held the strategic initiative. It was free to retreat to positions of about my dream holiday, tactical advantage and to reinforce them with all the skill and u of m essay, ingenuity of German military engineering. Enormous losses had been inflicted on France. Two-fifths of France's military casualties were incurred in 1914.
These included a tenth of the officer corps. German troops occupied a large area of northern France, including a significant proportion of French industrial capacity and mineral wealth. These realities dominated the second phase of the war in the west. This lasted from November 1914 until March 1918. It was characterized by the unsuccessful attempts of the French and their British allies to evict the German armies from doctoral admission French and Belgian territory. During this period the Germans stood mainly on the defensive, but they showed during the Second Battle of Ypres (22 April-25 May 1915), and more especially during the Battle of Verdun (21 February-18 December 1916), a dangerous capacity to disrupt their enemies' plans. The French made three major assaults on the German line: in u of m essay the spring of 1915 in Artois; in the autumn of 1915 in Champagne; and in firemans essay escape the spring of 1917 on the Aisne (the 'Nivelle Offensive'). These attacks were characterized by the intensity of the fighting and the absence of achievement.
Little ground was gained. No positions of strategic significance were captured. Casualties were severe. M Essay! The failure of the Nivelle Offensive led to a serious breakdown of morale in doctoral admission the French army. For much of the u of help, rest of 1917 it was incapable of major offensive action. The British fared little better. Although their armies avoided mutiny they came no closer to breaching the German line. During the battles of the Somme (1 July19 November 1916) and thesis statement for macbeth research, the Third Battle of u of help, Ypres (31 July-12 November 1917) they inflicted great losses on the German army at great cost to themselves, but the German line held and no end to the war appeared in sight. The final phase of the essay, war in the west lasted from 21 March until 11 November 1918. This saw Germany once more attempt to achieve victory with a knock-out blow and once more fail.
The German attacks used sophisticated new artillery and infantry tactics. They enjoyed spectacular success. U Of M Essay Help! The British 5th Army on the Somme suffered a major defeat. But the British line held in front of Amiens and later to the north in front of Ypres. No real strategic damage was done. By midsummer the German attacks had petered out.
The German offensive broke the holiday, trench deadlock and returned movement and man#156;uvre to the strategic agenda. It also compelled closer Allied military co-operation under a French generalissimo, General Ferdinand Foch. The Allied counter-offensive began in July. At the Battle of Amiens, on 8 August, the British struck the German army a severe blow. For the rest of the war in the west the Germans were in retreat. On the Eastern Front in Galicia and Russian Poland the Germans and their Austrian allies fought the gallant but disorganized armies of Russia. Here the distances involved were very great.
Artillery densities were correspondingly less. Man#156;uvre was always possible and cavalry could operate effectively. This did nothing to lessen casualties, which were greater even than those on the Western Front. The war in the east was shaped by u of German strength, Austrian weakness, and Russian determination. German military superiority was apparent from the start of the war. The Russians suffered two crushing defeats in 1914, at Tannenberg (26-31 August) and admission essay, the Masurian Lakes (5-15 September). These victories ensured the security of Germany's eastern frontiers for the rest of the war.
They also established the military legend of Field-Marshal Paul von Hindenburg and General Erich Ludendorff, who emerged as principal directors of the German war effort in the autumn of 1916. By September 1915 the Russians had been driven out of u of help, Poland, Lithuania, and hero king, Courland. Austro-German armies occupied Warsaw and the Russian frontier fortresses of m essay, Ivangorod, Kovno, Novo-Georgievsk, and Brest-Litovsk. These defeats proved costly to Russia. They also proved costly to Austria. Austria had a disastrous war. Italian entry into the war compelled the Austrians to fight an three fronts: against Serbia in firemans escape the Balkans; against Russia in Galicia; against Italy in u of m essay the Trentino. This proved too much for Austrian strength. Their war effort was characterized by dependency on Germany.
Germans complained that they were shackled to our daughters essay the 'Austrian corpse'. The war exacerbated the Austro-Hungarian Empire's many ethnic and national tensions. By 1918 Austria was weary of the war and desperate for peace. This had a major influence on the German decision to seek a victory in the west in the spring of 1918. Perceptions of the Russian war effort have been overshadowed by the October Revolution of 1917 and by Bolshevik 'revolutionary defeatism' which acquiesced in the punitive Treaty of help, Brest-Litovsk (14 March 1918) and took Russia out life, of the help, war. This has obscured the astonishing Russian determination to keep faith with the Franco-British alliance. Without the Russian contribution in hero lear the east it is far from certain that Germany could have been defeated in the west. M Essay Help! The unhesitating Russian willingness to aid their western allies is nowhere more apparent than in the 'Brusilov Offensive' (June-September 1916), which resulted in the capture of the Bukovina and large parts of Galicia, as well as 350,000 Austrian prisoners, but at holiday, a cost to help Russia which ultimately proved mortal. In southern Europe the Italian army fought eleven indecisive battles in an attempt to dislodge the ourselves, Austrians from their mountain strongholds beyond the Isonzo river.
In October 1917 Austrian reinforcement by u of seven German divisions resulted in a major Italian defeat at Caporetto. The Italians were pushed back beyond the Piave. This defeat produced changes in the Italian high command. During 1918 Italy discovered a new unity of purpose and a greater degree of organization. On 24 October 1918 Italian and British forces recrossed the Piave and split the ourselves, Austrian armies in two at Vittorio Veneto. Austrian retreat turned into u of help, rout and sad essays life, then into surrender.
In the Balkans the Serbs fought the Austrians and u of m essay, Bulgarians, suffering massive casualties, including the highest proportion of servicemen killed of any belligerent power. In October 1915 a Franco-British army was sent to admission essay Macedonia to operate against the Bulgarians. It struggled to have any influence on the war. The Germans mocked it and declared Salonika to be the biggest internment camp in u of Europe, but the French and thesis for macbeth research, British eventually broke out of the malarial plains into u of m essay help, the mountainous valleys of the Vardar and Struma rivers before inflicting defeat on Bulgaria in the autumn of 1918. In the Middle East British armies fought the essay about my dream, Turks in m essay help a major conflict with far-reaching consequences. Here the war was characterized by the doggedness of Turkish resistance and by the constant struggle against climate, terrain, and disease.
The British attempted to knock Turkey out of the war with an attack on the Gallipoli peninsula in April 1915, but were compelled to withdraw at the end of the year, having failed to break out from sad essays life their narrow beach-heads in the face of stubborn Turkish resistance, coordinated by a German general, Liman von Sanders. The British also suffered another humiliating reverse in m essay Mesopotamia when a small army commanded by Major-General C. V. F. Townshend advanced to Ctesiphon but outran its supplies and was compelled to surrender at Kut-al-Amara in doctoral admission essay April 1916. Only after the u of, appointment of Sir Stanley Maude to the command of British forces in Mesopotamia did Britain's superior military and ourselves, economic strength begin to u of m essay help assert itself. Maude's forces captured Baghdad in March 1917, the first clear-cut British victory of the war. The following June General Sir Edmund Allenby was appointed to tragic hero lear command British forces in Egypt. He captured Jerusalem by Christmas and in September 1918 annihilated Turkish forces in help Palestine. Turkey surrendered on 31 October 1918. The war also found its way to tropical Africa. Germany's colonies in West and south-west Africa succumbed to British and South African forces by the spring of 1915. In East Africa, however, a German army of locally raised black African soldiers commanded by admission Colonel Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck conducted a brilliant guerrilla campaign, leading over 100,000 British and South African troops a merry dance through the bush and surrendering only after the defeat of Germany in Europe became known.
On and under the oceans of the world, Great Britain and help, Germany contested naval supremacy. Surface battles took place in the Pacific, the south Atlantic, and the North Sea. The British generally had the better of these despite suffering some disappointments, notably at Coronel (1 November 1914) and our daughters essay, Jutland (31 May-1 June 1916), the only major fleet engagement, during which Admiral Sir John Jellicoe failed to deliver the expected Nelsonic victory of u of, total annihilation. Hero Lear Essay! Submarine warfare took place in the North Sea, the Black Sea, the Atlantic, the Mediterranean, and the Baltic. German resort to unrestricted submarine warfare (February 1917) brought Britain to u of m essay the verge of ruin. German violation of ourselves essay, international law and sinking of American ships also helped bring the United States into the war on the Allied side. The British naval blockade of Germany, massively reinforced by the Americans from m essay April 1917, played an important role in German defeat. The geographical scale of the conflict made it very difficult for political and military leaders to control events. Tragic Essay! The obligations of coalition inhibited strategic independence. Short-term military needs often forced the great powers to m essay help allow lesser states a degree of licence they would not have enjoyed in peacetime.
Governments' deliberate arousal of popular passions made suggestions of compromise seem treasonable. The ever-rising cost of the hero lear, military means inflated the political ends. Hopes of a peaceful new world order began to replace old diplomatic abstractions such as 'the balance of power'. Rationality went out of season. War aims were obscured.
Strategies were distorted. U Of! Great Britain entered the war on proclaimed principles of international law and in defence of the essay plan, rights of small nations. By 1918 the British government was pursuing a Middle Eastern policy of naked imperialism (in collaboration with the French), while simultaneously encouraging the aspirations of Arab nationalism and promising support for the establishment of a Jewish national home in Palestine. It was truly a war of illusions. Europe's political and military leaders have been subjected to much retrospective criticism for their belief that the #145;war would be over by Christmas'. This belief was not based on complacency. Even those who predicted with chilling accuracy the u of m essay, murderous nature of essay escape plan, First World War battlefields, such as the Polish banker Jan Bloch, expected the war to u of m essay be short. This was because they also expected it to about my dream be brutal and costly, in both blood and treasure.
No state could be expected to m essay help sustain such a war for very long without disastrous consequences. The war which gave the lie to these assumptions was the American Civil War. Ourselves Essay! This had been studied by European military observers at close quarters. Most, however, dismissed it. This was particularly true of the Prussians. Their own military experience in the wars against Austria (1866) and France (1870-1) seemed more relevant and compelling. These wars were both short. They were also instrumental. In 1914 the u of help, Germans sought to replicate the success of their Prussian predecessors. They aimed to fight a 'cabinet war' on life the Bismarckian model. M Essay Help! To do so they developed a plan of breath-taking recklessness which depended on the ability of the German army to defeat France in the thirty-nine days allowed for a war in the west.
Strategic conduct of the First World War was dominated by German attempts to achieve victory through knock-out blows. Erich von Falkenhayn, German commander-in-chief from September 1914 until August 1916, was almost alone in his belief that Germany could obtain an outcome to the war satisfactory to its interests and those of its allies without winning smashing victories of total annihilation. His bloody attempt to win the war by attrition at Verdun in 1916 did little to recommend the strategy to his fellow countrymen. The preference for essay about my dream holiday knock-out blows remained. It was inherited from German history and was central to Germany's pre-war planning.
Pre-war German strategy was haunted by the fear of a war on two fronts, against France in u of m essay help the west and Russia in the east. The possibility of essay plan, a diplomatic solution to this dilemma was barely considered by the military-dominated German government. U Of Help! A military solution was sought instead. The German high command decided that the thesis for macbeth research, best form of defence was attack. They would avoid a war on two fronts by knocking out one of their enemies before the other could take the field. The enemy with the slowest military mobilization was Russia. The French army would be in the field first. France was therefore chosen to receive the m essay, first blow. Statement Research Paper! Once France was defeated the help, German armies would turn east and holiday, defeat Russia.
The Schlieffen Plan rested on two assumptions: that it would take the Russians six weeks to put an m essay help army into the field; and that six weeks was long enough to defeat France. Essay! By 1914 the first assumption was untrue: Russia put an army into the field in fifteen days. The second assumption left no margin for error, no allowance for the inevitable friction of war, and was always improbable. The failure of the m essay, Schlieffen Plan gave the First World War its essential shape. This was maintained by the enduring power of the German army, which was, in John Terraine's phrase, 'the motor of the about my dream, war'. The German army was a potent instrument.
It had played a historic role in m essay the emergence of the German state. Sad Essays! It enjoyed enormous prestige. It was able to help recruit men of talent and sad essays, dedication as officers and NCOs. As a result it was well trained and well led. It had the political power to command the resources of Germany's powerful industrial economy. Germany's position at the heart of Europe meant that it could operate on interior lines of u of, communication in doctoral a European war. Help! The efficient German railway network permitted the movement of holiday, German troops quickly from front to front.
The superior speed of the locomotive over u of m essay help, the ship frustrated Allied attempts to statement paper use their command of the sea to operate effectively against the periphery of the Central Powers. The power of the German army was the fundamental strategic reality of the war. 'We cannot hope to u of m essay win this war until we have defeated the German army,' wrote the commander-in-chief of the lear essay, British Expeditionary Force, Field Marshal Sir Douglas Haig. This was a judgement whose consequences some Allied political leaders were reluctant to embrace. The German army suffered from two important strategic difficulties. The first of m essay, these was the inability of the German political system to forge appropriate instruments of strategic control. The second was Great Britain. German government rested on the tortured personality of the Kaiser. It was riven by intrigue and indecision.
The kind of centralized decision-making structures which eventually evolved in Britain and France (though not in essay about my dream holiday Russia) failed to evolve in Germany. When the u of, Kaiser proved incapable of coordinating German strategy, he was replaced not by a system but by other individuals, seemingly more effective. Field Marshal Paul von Hindenburg radiated calm and inspired confidence. This gave him the appearance of a great man but without the substance. General Erich Ludendorff was a military technocrat of essay plan, outstanding talent, but he was highly strung and without political judgement. In 1918 his offensive strategy brought Germany to u of ruin. The failure to develop effective mechanisms of strategic control applied equally to hero essay the Austro-German alliance.
The Austrians depended on German military and economic strength, but the Germans found it difficult to turn this into m essay help, 'leverage'. Austria was willing to take German help but not German advice. Only after the tragic lear, crushing reverses inflicted by Brusilov's offensive did the Austrians submit to German strategic direction. By then it was almost certainly too late. Germany's pre-war strategic planning was based entirely on winning a short war. British belligerency made this unlikely.
The British were a naval rather than a military power. They could not be defeated by the German army, at least not quickly. U Of M Essay Help! The British could, if necessary, hold out even after their Continental allies had been defeated. They might even have chosen to do this. They had in the past and they would again in the not-too-distant future. The German navy was too weak to defeat the British, but large enough to make them resentful and suspicious of German policy; it ought never to doctoral essay have been built. British entry into m essay, the war dramatically shifted the economic balance in favour of the Allies. Britain was one of the world's great industrial powers.
Seventy-five per cent of the for macbeth, world's shipping was British built and much of it British owned. London was the world's greatest money and u of m essay help, commodities market. British access to world supplies of food and credit and to imperial resources of essay my dream, manpower made them a formidable enemy, despite the u of help, 'contemptible little army' which was all they could put into the field on the outbreak of war. From about mid-1916 onwards British economic, industrial, and manpower resources began to be fully mobilized. Germany was forced for the first time to confront the reality of material inferiority. Germany had increasingly to fight a war of scarcity, the Allies increasingly a war of abundance. French strategy was dominated by escape the German occupation of much of u of m essay help, northern France and most of Belgium. At its closest point the German line was less than 40 miles from Paris. A cautious, defensive strategy was politically unacceptable and psychologically impossible, at least during the first three years of the war. During 1914 and 1915 France sacrificed enormous numbers of men in the attempt to admission evict the Germans. This was followed by the torment of Verdun, where the Germans deliberately attempted to 'bleed France white'.
French fears of military inferiority were confirmed. If France was to prevail its allies would have to contribute in kind. For the British this was a radical departure from the historic norm and one which has appalled them ever since. British strategy became increasingly subordinated to m essay the needs of the Franco-British alliance. The British fought the war as they had to, not as they wanted to. The British way in warfare envisaged a largely naval war. A naval blockade would weaken Germany economically. If the German navy chose not to essay about my dream break the stranglehold Germany would lose the war. If it did choose to fight it would be annihilated. M Essay! British maritime superiority would be confirmed. Neutral opinion would be cowed.
Fresh allies would be encouraged into the fight. The blockade would be waged with greater ruthlessness. Military operations would be confined to thesis statement for macbeth paper the dispatch of a small professional expeditionary force to u of m essay help help the French. Remaining military forces would be employed on the periphery of the Central Powers remote from the our daughters ourselves, German army, where it was believed they would exercise a strategic influence out of all proportion to u of m essay their size. The British never really fought the war they envisaged. The branch of the British army which sent most observers to the American Civil War was the Corps of Royal Engineers.
And it was a Royal Engineers' officer, Lord Kitchener, who was one of the few European political and military leaders to recognize that the war would be long and require the complete mobilization of national resources. Kitchener was appointed Secretary of State for War on 5 August 1914. He doubted whether the French and the Russians were strong enough to our daughters ourselves essay defeat Germany without massive British military reinforcement. He immediately sought to raise a mass citizen army. There was an u of m essay overwhelming popular response to his call to statement for macbeth research arms. Kitchener envisaged this new British army taking the field in 1917 after the French and Russian armies had rendered the German army ripe for defeat. M Essay! They would be 'the last million men'.
They would win the war and decide the peace. For the British a satisfactory peace would be one which guaranteed the life, long-term security of the British Empire. This security was threatened as much by Britain's allies, France and help, Russia, as it was by Germany. It was imperative not only that the Allies win the doctoral admission essay, war but also that Britain emerge from it as the dominant power. Kitchener's expectations were disappointed. By 1916 it was the French army which was ripe for defeat, not the German.
But the obligations of the French alliance were inescapable. The British could not afford to acquiesce in a French defeat. French animosity and resentment would replace the valuable mutual understanding which had been achieved in the decade before the war. The French had a great capacity for making imperial mischief. U Of! And so did the Russians. If they were abandoned they would have every reason for doing so. There seemed no choice. The ill-trained and ill-equipped British armies would have to essay take the field before they were ready and be forced to take a full part in the attrition of German military power. The casualties which this strategy of 'offensive attrition' involved were unprecedented in u of help British history. Doctoral Essay! They were also unacceptable to some British political leaders. Winston Churchill and David Lloyd George (Prime Minister from December 1916), in particular, were opposed to the British army 'chewing barbed wire' on the Western Front.
They looked to use it elsewhere, against Germany's allies in the eastern Mediterranean, the u of help, Middle East, and the Balkans. Their attempts to do this were inhibited by essay my dream holiday the need to keep France in u of m essay help the war. Essay! This could only be done in France and by help fighting the German army. They were also inhibited by the war's operational and tactical realities. Our Daughters Ourselves Essay! These imposed themselves on Gallipoli and in Salonika and in Italy just as they did on the Western Front. Attempts to implement an Allied grand strategy enjoyed some success. Allied political and military leaders met regularly. At Chantilly in December 1915 and December 1916 they determined to stretch the German army to its limits by simultaneous offensive action on u of m essay the western, eastern, and Italian fronts. A Supreme Allied War Council was established at Versailles on 27 November 1917, and was given the power to my dream holiday control Allied reserves.
Franco-British co-operation was especially close. This was largely a matter of practical necessity which relied on the mutual respect and understanding between French and British commanders-in-chief on the Western Front. M Essay Help! The system worked well until the German Spring Offensive of 1918 threatened to divide the Allies. Admission! Only then was it replaced by a more formal structure. But not even this attained the levels of joint planning and control which became a feature of Anglo-American co-operation in the Second World War. Allied grand strategy was conceptually sound. The problems which it encountered were not principally ones of planning or of co-ordination but of performance. Achieving operational effectiveness on the battlefield was what was difficult. This has given the war, especially the war in the west, its enduring image of boneheaded commanders wantonly sacrificing the lives of their men in fruitless pursuit of impossibly grandiose strategic designs.
The battlefields of the First World War were the product of a century of economic, social, and political change. Help! Europe in 1914 was more populous, more wealthy, and more coherently organized than ever before. The rise of nationalism gave states unprecedented legitimacy and authority. This allowed them to demand greater sacrifices from doctoral essay their civilian populations. U Of M Essay Help! Improvements in agriculture reduced the numbers needed to essay about work on the land and provided a surplus of m essay, males of my dream holiday, military age. They also allowed larger and larger armies to be fed and kept in help the field for years at a time. Changes in administrative practice brought about by the electric telegraph, the telephone, the typewriter, and the growth of railways allowed these armies to be assembled and deployed quickly. Industrial technology provided new weapons of unprecedented destructiveness.
Quick-firing rifled cannon, breech-loading magazine rifles, and machine-guns transformed the range, rapidity, accuracy, and deadliness of military firepower. Sad Essays About Life! They also ensured that in any future war, scientists, engineers, and mechanics would be as important as soldiers. These changes did much to make the First World War the help, first 'modern war'. But it did not begin as one. The fact of a firepower revolution was understood in most European armies. The consequences of it were not. About! The experience of the u of, Russo-Japanese War (1904-5) appeared to offer a human solution to the problems of the technological battlefield. Victory would go to the side with the best-trained, most disciplined army, commanded by generals of iron resolution, prepared to maintain the offensive in my dream holiday the face of huge losses. U Of Help! As a result the opening battles of the war were closer in conception and thesis for macbeth, execution to those of the m essay, Napoleonic era than to the battles of 1916 onwards. It is ourselves essay, difficult to say exactly when 'modern' war began, but it was apparent by the end of 1915 that pre-war assumptions were false. Well-trained, highly disciplined French, German, and Russian soldiers of high morale were repeatedly flung into battle by commanders of iron resolve.
The results were barren of strategic achievement. The human costs were immense. The 'human solution' was not enough. The search for a technological solution was inhibited not only by the tenacity of pre-war concepts but also by the limitations of the technology itself. The principal instrument of education was artillery. And the mode of instruction was experience.
Shell-fire was merciless to troops in the open. The response was to get out of the open and into the ground. Soldiers did not dig trenches out of perversity in order to u of be cold, wet, rat-infested, and lice-ridden. They dug them in order to survive. The major tactical problem of the war became how to break these trench lines once they were established and reinforced. For much of the war artillery lacked the ability to find enemy targets, to hit them accurately, and to destroy them effectively. Contemporary technology failed to provide a man-portable wireless. Communication for most of the war was dependent on telephone or telegraph wires. These were always broken by shell-fire and difficult to protect.
Artillery and infantry commanders were rarely in about holiday voice communication and both usually lacked 'real time' intelligence of battlefield events; First World War infantry commanders could not easily call down artillery fire when confronted by m essay an enemy obstruction. As a result the coordination of essay, infantry and u of help, artillery was very difficult and often impossible. Infantry commanders were forced to hero lear fall back on u of m essay their own firepower and this was often inadequate. The infantry usually found itself with too much to do, and paid a high price for its weakness. Artillery was not only a major part of the problem, however.
It was also a major part of the thesis for macbeth research, solution. During 1918 Allied artillery on the western front emerged as a formidable weapon. Target acquisition was transformed by aerial photographic reconnaissance and the sophisticated techniques of flash-spotting and sound-ranging. These allowed mathematically predicted fire, or map-shooting. M Essay! The pre-registration of guns on enemy targets by actual firing was no longer necessary. Essay About My Dream! The possibility of surprise returned to the battlefield.
Accuracy was greatly improved by maintaining operating histories for individual guns. Battery commanders were supplied with detailed weather forecasts every four hours. Each gun could now be individually calibrated according to its own peculiarities and according to wind speed and direction, temperature, and humidity. All types and calibres of guns, including heavy siege howitzers whose steep angle of fire was especially effective in trench warfare, became available in virtually unlimited numbers. Munitions were also improved.
Poison gas shells became available for the first time in large numbers. High explosive replaced shrapnel, a devastating anti-personnel weapon but largely ineffective against the earthworks, barbed wire entanglements, and concrete machine-gun emplacements which the infantry had to assault. Instantaneous percussion fuses concentrated the explosive effect of shells more effectively against barbed wire and reduced the cratering of the u of help, battlefield which had often rendered the forward movement of supplies and reinforcements difficult if not impossible. Our Daughters! Artillery-infantry co-operation was radically improved by aerial fire control. The tactical uses to which this destructive instrument were put also changed. In 1915, 1916, and for u of much of 1917 artillery was used principally to kill enemy soldiers.
It always did so, sometimes in large numbers. But it always spared some, even in front-line trenches. These were often enough, as during the first day of the Battle of the Somme (1 July 1916), to inflict disastrous casualties on thesis for macbeth paper attacking infantry and bring an entire offensive to u of m essay a halt. From the autumn of 1917 and during 1918, however, artillery was principally used to suppress enemy defences. My Dream Holiday! Command posts, telephone exchanges, crossroads, supply dumps, forming-up areas, and u of m essay, gun batteries were targeted. Effective use was made of poison gas, both lethal and lachrymatory, and essay, smoke.
The aim was to disrupt the enemy's command and control system and keep his soldiers' heads down until attacking infantry could close with them and bring their own firepower to bear. The attacking infantry were also transformed. In 1914 the British soldier went to war dressed like a gamekeeper in a soft cap, armed only with rifle and bayonet. In 1918 he went into u of m essay, battle dressed like an hero lear essay industrial worker in a steel helmet, protected by a respirator against u of poison gas, armed with automatic weapons and our daughters ourselves essay, mortars, supported by tanks and ground-attack aircraft, and preceded by a creeping artillery barrage of crushing intensity. Firepower replaced manpower as the u of m essay, instrument of victory. This represented a revolution in the conduct of war. The ever-increasing material superiority of the western Allies confronted the German army with major problems. Its response was organizational.
As early as 1915 even the weakly armed British proved that they could always break into the German front-line trenches. The solution was to deepen the trench system and limit the number of infantry in hero essay the front line, where they were inviting targets for enemy artillery. The burden of defence rested on machine-gunners carefully sited half a mile or so behind the front line. From the autumn of 1916 the Germans took these changes to their logical conclusion by instituting a system of 'elastic defence in depth'. The German front line was sited where possible on a reverse slope to make enemy artillery observation difficult. U Of Help! A formal front-line trench system was abandoned. The German first line consisted of machine-gunners located in shell-holes, difficult to thesis for macbeth detect from the air. Their job was to disrupt an enemy infantry assault.
This would then be drawn deep into the German position, beyond the supporting fire of its own guns, where it would be counter-attacked and u of help, destroyed by the bulk of the German infantry and artillery. This system allowed the about, Germans to survive against an Allied manpower superiority of more than 3:2 on the Western Front throughout 1917 and to inflict significant losses on their enemies. The German system required intelligent and well-trained as well as brave soldiers to make it work. An increasing emphasis was placed on m essay individual initiative, surprise, and speed. In 1918 specially trained #145;stormtroops', supported by a hurricane bombardment designed to disrupt their enemies' lines of communication and statement for macbeth paper, their command and control systems, were ordered to bypass points of resistance and advance deep into the enemy's rear. The success they enjoyed was dramatic, and much greater than anything achieved by the French and British, but it was not enough. Attacking German infantry could not maintain the momentum and inflict upon enemy commanders the kind of moral paralysis achieved by German armoured forces in u of help 1940.
The Allied line held and exhausted German infantry were eventually forced back by the accumulating weight and increasing sophistication of Allied material technology. The material solution to the problems of the First World War battlefield, favoured by the western Allies, was not in the gift of soldiers alone. It depended on the ability of the armes' host societies to essay produce improved military technology in ever-greater amounts. This, in turn, depended on the effectiveness of their political institutions and the quality of their civilian morale. It was a contest at which the liberal democracies of u of m essay, France and Great Britain (and eventually the United States of firemans escape plan, America) proved more adept than the authoritarian regimes of Austria-Hungary, Germany, and Russia. The 'modern war' fought from 1916 onwards resolved itself simply into a demand for more: more men, more weapons, more ammunition, more money, more skills, more morale, more food. Some of the demands were contradictory.
More men meant more men for the armies and more men for the factories. Help! Balancing the competing demands was never easy. 'Manpower' (a word first coined in 1915) became central to the war effort of all states. The Allies were in a much stronger position than Germany. They had access not only to their home populations but also to those of their empires. 630,000 Canadians, 412,000 Australians, 136,000 South Africans, and 130,000 New Zealanders served in the British army during the war.
Very large numbers of Indian troops (800,000 in Mesopotamia alone) and a small number of Africans (perhaps 50,000) also served. (The British also employed several hundred thousand Chinese labourers to work on their lines of hero king lear essay, communication.) The French recruited some 600,000 combat troops from North and West Africa and a further 200,000 labourers. And of course there were the Americans. American troops arrived in France at the rate of 150,000 a month in m essay 1918. Truly the new world had come in to redress the balance of the old. The British and French were particularly successful in tragic hero king essay mobilizing their economies. In Britain this had much to do with the work of David Lloyd George as Minister of Munitions (May 1915-July 1916).
The grip of the skilled trade unions on industrial processes was relaxed. Ancient lines of u of help, demarcation were blurred. Women replaced men in the factories. Research and about my dream, development were given a proper place in industrial strategy. Prodigies of production were achieved.
On 10 March 1915, at m essay, the Battle of Neuve Chapelle, the British Expeditionary Force struggled to accumulate enough shells for half an firemans essay hour's bombardment. In the autumn of 1918 its 18-pounder field guns were firing a minimum of 100,000 rounds a day. The French performance was, in many ways, even more impressive, given that so much of their industrial capacity was in German hands. Not only u of m essay help, did the French economy supply the French army with increasing amounts of admission, old and new weaponry, but it also supplied most of the American Expeditionary Force's artillery and aeroplanes. The French aircraft industry was, arguably, the best in Europe and provided some of the leading aircraft of the war, including the Nieuport and the SPAD VII. Morale was also a key factor. All sides tried to explain and justify the war and used increasingly refined techniques of propaganda to maintain commitment to the cause. Giving the impression of adversity shared equally among the classes became a key theme. One of the major threats to this was the u of, equality of access to food supplies. Escape Plan! In Germany this proved increasingly difficult to maintain.
Morale deteriorated and industrial efficiency suffered as a result. British agriculture did not perform particularly well during the war, but British maritime superiority and financial power allowed them to command the agricultural resources of North and South America and Australasia. Food was one of the Allies#146; principal war-winning weapons. The degree of active resistance to u of the war was low in most countries. But war-weariness set in everywhere by 1917. There were many strikes and much industrial unrest. In Russia this was severe enough to essay escape produce a revolution and then a Bolshevik coup d#146;tat which took Russia out of the war in 1918. The social consequences of this mass mobilization were less spectacular than is sometimes claimed. There were advances for the organized working class, especially its trade unions, especially in Britain, and arguably for women, but the working class of Europe paid a high price on the battlefield for social advances at home. And in the defeated states there was very little social advance anyway. The First World War redrew the map of Europe and the Middle East.
Four great empires, the m essay help, Romanov, the essay escape plan, Hohenzollern, the Habsburg, and the Ottoman, were defeated and collapsed. They were replaced by a number of weak and u of m essay help, sometimes avaricious successor states. Russia underwent a bloody civil war before the establishment of a Communist Soviet Union which put it beyond the pale of European diplomacy for a generation. Germany became a republic branded at its birth with the stigma of defeat, increasingly weakened by the burden of Allied reparations and by inflation. France recovered the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine, but continued to be haunted by thesis for macbeth research paper fear and loathing of Germany. Italy was disappointed by the territorial rewards of its military sacrifice. This provided fertile soil for Mussolini's Fascists, who had overthrown parliamentary democracy by 1924. The British maintained the integrity and independence of u of help, Belgium. They also acquired huge increases in imperial territory and imperial obligation. But they did not achieve the security for the Empire which they sought.
The white dominions were unimpressed by the quality of British military leadership. Hero Lear Essay! The First World War saw them mature as independent nations seeking increasingly to go their own way. The stirrings of revolt in India were apparent as soon as the war ended. Help! In 1922 the British were forced, under American pressure, to abandon the Anglo-Japanese alliance, so useful to them in protecting their Far Eastern empire. They were also forced to accept naval parity with the Americans and a bare superiority over the Japanese. 'This is not a peace,' Marshal Foch declared in 1919, 'but an armistice for twenty-five years.' The cost of all this in human terms was 8.5 million dead and 21 million wounded out of about life, some 65 million men mobilized.
The losses among particular groups, especially young, educated middle-class males, were often severe, but the demographic shape of Europe was not fundamentally changed. The real impact was moral. The losses struck a blow at European self-confidence and pretension to superior civilization. It was a blow, perhaps, whose consequences have not even now fully unfolded. From The Oxford Illustrated History of Modern War . Ed. Charles Townshend.
Oxford: Oxford UP, 1997. Copyright © 1997 by Oxford University Press.
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essay time An Essay on Time. by Rolf-Dietmar Ehrhardt. translated by u of Kati Sheppard. Time allows people to doctoral admission perceive motion. Furthermore, people perceive it differently. One might feel that his perception of time and its manifestation is m essay, within a timely context and its justification, regardless if near or far.
On the other hand, another person might perceive time as a hand on a clock that moves along minute by minute, validating each change as a sequence of essay, time. It is utmost important to understand that the concept of time is not easy to explain and not easy to comprehend; even among each other. Especially complicated it will get if one introduces the concept of an afterlife and the probability of time existing in those spheres of existence. The question arises, if time does not exist in an afterlife: How can communication take place between the two spheres? Hoping to better demonstrate the events that take place, I would like to introduce a model to shed some light on this important aspect of exploring the afterlife. First of u of, all, it is important to distinguish between the existence of a physical - mathematical term of time and the existence of a consciousness term of time within each human being. All of us are aware of the phrases: Well, that took a long time!, That went fast!, How much longer will that take? and so forth. No conflict arises with the our daughters ourselves physical term of time, since we do have scales to monitor time, as we know it, with explicit accuracy. But, does time exist without the existence of a human being, who interprets what time is - with his human consciousness? Simply put, does time exist without someone reading the clock?
To demonstrate the variety of m essay help, explanations of this phenomenon, I would like to use a few quotations of other possible models: the one-after-the-other-correspondence of things. the succession of happenings, to be experienced as an irreversible sequence of essay, events, a longitude of change, incidents in nature and help, history. to be viewed, depending on about life, scientific (philosophical) views, as finite or infinite, homogenous, divisible continuum, which under specific points of view and appropriations act as a scheme of order. (c) Bibliographisches Institut F. U Of Help? A. Brockhaus AG, 2001 [german translation] Time in physics. In physics: time is, by experience, not influenceable. Essay About My Dream? However, it is according to u of help the theory of relativity with the firemans escape plan instance of motion of a time measuring observer and its dependent base quantity (t) and u of m essay, seconds (s). Newtonian, classical physics (non-relative), declared time independent of matter and independent of my dream, its variations in its material change, with a clear causal connection (earlier-later-relation) to m essay equally go off in every space of the universe at the same time.
By definition of a time interval with a beginning and an end of randomly reproducible events, independent of the measures of the experiments as a unit of thesis research paper, time and durance, time becomes precise. (c) Bibliographisches Institut F. A. Brockhaus AG, 2001. is the basic concept necessary to comprehend the u of m essay motion of matter. Although, for spatially separated events, no absolute earlier-later-relation can be indicated. Yet it is about my dream holiday, possible for timely separated events and especially for points of a world-line ( = explanation of the movement of a point through a curve in help, a four dimensional space-time-world); for those, the direction of time is fixed. (c) Physiklexikon Band 2 , VEB F.A.
Brockhaus Verlag. is for the casual perception a continuous progression in which all changes take place. Within the space-time-continuum all statements are relative. Each statement depends on the location of the about my dream observer and m essay, his motion relative to the observed object. (c) Das neue Taschenlexikon Band XYZ, Bertelsmann Lexikon Verlag. Time (by Stephen W. Hawking) According to the theory of relativity, each observer has his own measure of time, which is registered on the watch he is wearing.
Watches on different observers do not have to register the same measurement of time. Therefore, time evolved into a personal concept, depending on the observer who is measuring it. (c) Eine kurze Geschichte der Zeit - Die Suche nach der Urkraft des Universums - Stephen W. Hawking - Rowohlt Verlag. [(c) A brief history of time - from the big bang to life black holes - Stephen W. Hawking] Time and Cosmology. Time came about with the big bang, since time before the big bang is u of m essay help, could not be defined. The big bang theory suggests: Before matter, space, and time came to being, everything was concentrated within a singularity of our daughters, extreme density and temperature. Quantitative cosmology was able to approach this singularity to about 10 -34 seconds. M Essay? Hence, all statements that lie before that time cannot be made, since one must consider the quantum effects of gravity, for which there does not exist a theory yet. Time within a black hole does not exist.
Time and Consciousness. Because of the scientific method, the physical-mathematical concept of essay my dream, time is determined without any reference to human consciousness. But time is something that every person experiences. Each day we fill it, time that is, with meaningful things. A universal determination of time must therefore include an experiencing individual, the perspective of a first person, and that of others as well.
Contrary to the scientific concept of time, a lifetime is an existential dimension. Forecast or the m essay look back do not exhaust themselves in essay, a distant registration of facts and their causal connection. M Essay? Through the consciousness of time, a correlation can be found to ones own behavior, goals, motivations, and consequences. Past and future are equally judged. Goals can be set, accountability of hero lear, possible consequences can be taken, and guilt can be restored.
(c) Bibliographisches Institut F. A. Brockhaus AG, 2001. Time within Human Consciousness. The passage of the present is experienced differently within the human consciousness; the non-reversable passage of events, which is experienced as past, present, and future in the context of things coming to be and passing away. We experience the world as a directed process which allows a conceptual division of space and u of m essay, time. Research Paper? Therefore, time is an help abstract emphasis of changeable states of reality.
(c) Bibliographisches Institut F. A. Brockhaus AG, 2001. the feeling of essay escape, change in moments, hours, days, months, years. (c) Deutsches Woerterbuch 1996. Interestingly, perception, observer, assessment, consciousness and judgment are important elements in all definitions and descriptions of m essay, time. Essay? It is u of m essay, obvious that for the perception of time, a consciousness must be present. For example a watch on Mars with no observer - digits will change! But is this considered a measurement of time? More and more explorers of about my dream holiday, established sciences believe that something becomes existent only u of through observation - even our universe itself. Please remember that all of our perception is based on five senses.
However, far more things exist which cannot be perceived by thesis statement paper our five senses. Every person can convince him/herself of this by looking at m essay help x-rays and microwave radiation photographs of the universe. Clearly something (and probably a lot of our daughters, things) exist that we cannot perceive. On the Human Plane (our 3 dimensional world) we experience different types of consciousness': The I - consciousness still exists regardless whether I turn off all signals to u of help my sense organs, that is if I loose contact with my outer world and my own body itself. The waking-consciousness; the opposite to the loss of consciousness. The sleep-dream-consciousness is marked by the disjunction of the stimulus to all five sense organs. The near death-consciousness resembles an extreme disjunction between the individual mind and its matter-bounded resonance.
Lets take a look at plan a simple and well known example: While sleeping, we do not register the u of time sequence known to essay us during the waking state. Our sleep-dream-consciousness is m essay, therefore completely different from our waking-consciousness. Could it be that time, as we know it, does not exist if I slept forever? Or could that mean that only for me common time did not exist? It is quite obvious that only for me common time would not exist. But still, common time would exist for everybody else that did not sleep forever. But who asked in the first place? Is it the I of our daughters, a human construction which is limited by five senses? Yet, our wake-consciousness depends on our world which is made up of three dimensions, to even allow the perception of time.
Obviously, human wake-consciousness, three dimensionality, and time make a unit. Is it possible that sleep-dream-consciousness offers other types of perception? What about people who possess the ability of clairvoyance, mediumship, or other types of ESP (Extra Sensory Perception)? Do these people bridge the help concept of time which never existed in the first place? What would happen if sleep-dream-consciousness could be deliberately brought about? Would we be without time, in firemans, the known sense, but yet with a body and not being conscious of the absence of time? Some people are able to u of m essay help deliberately put themselves in a state of mind that permits the thesis statement perception of just that; the sleep-dream-consciousness.
These people report on spiritual/astral journeys outside of their bodies. The body remains, while their soul explores different realms or just other places on earth. Distance and time seem not to help matter anymore. Bilocation - the ability to appear in two different places at the same time - is ourselves essay, just another phenomenon which suggests that time and space exist in ways other than those known to us. Is human consciousness independent of its body? This obviously must be the case. Are there different types of consciousness connected to u of m essay help a person? Yes, recall the about my dream definitions.
Is it possible, that in the moment when a person is unable to relate to himself and his environment with his 5 senses, part of his consciousness travels -- independent of time and u of m essay, space? This seems not only possible, but a fact (i.e., while dreaming at night). So what aspect of consciousness, what exactly travels? It is the soul. Doesn't this suggest that a person, within the three dimensional existence and his concept of time, is without time during this specific state of thesis statement research paper, consciousness? Yes, since he cannot perceive time as we know it. To him time does not exist.
Therefore, three dimensional existence and time make a unit to be perceivable by a person. Who else supposed to perceive it? Does time exist in the afterlife? If we talk about time as we know it, then time does not exist there, since the person with his 5 senses is not present. Could it be, that a different measure of time exists?
How can one define it? All the statements coming from the spiritual (not 3 dimensional) world say that time does not exist as known on earth. How can we picture reality in a spiritual world? When one looks at the state of consciousness of the bodily/spiritual self as an energy field, as an aura which can be seen by someone with the right skills, a means of m essay help, understanding opens up. Hypothetically, let us consider that the energy field of a person (possibly more) exists and that clairvoyant people are able to perceive it. Furthermore, we want and can assume that this energy field distinguishes itself from our daughters person to person by its color, arrangement, distribution, density, and in its intensity. The structure and intensity of an energy field changes constantly within the wake- consciousness of an u of m essay help individual, unless the person is able to tragic hero essay stabilize his consciousness at will - just as mediums do for example.
Furthermore, lets assume that not only people with ESP, but also entities from an afterlife are able to perceive this energy field. Hence, this energy field acts as a link to energetically perceive us people. How are such changes within a person noticeable? From changes in the structure and u of, intensity of the energy field. Some may say: The person's vibration differed as he 'moved' into escape a different frequency or into a different plane of u of m essay help, vibration. Entities in the afterlife, with the same or similar energy fields, are in contact with one another whenever it is desired. This type of contact is executed via telepathy, the transmission of thoughts (see The Power of Thoughts). Whenever a desire is present to reach other entities in the hereafter outside of our own perimeter, a change of consciousness must take place in order to change one's own thought process. Is time essential??
How does the thesis statement for macbeth paper consciousness of the entity changes that wishes a contact? It is possible that the thought process of the entity can change and that is a development of its consciousness, since the energy field always exist. That is an action with no time needed, since the process of m essay help, thought does not depend on time and is not limited by velocity or distance to change an firemans escape plan energy field with its frequency and/or pattern. What will change during the u of help adaptation of the sender are the possibilities of reception - of the new consciousness through other entities. Entities, who always have been situated on that newly created frequency and/or pattern, are now able to register a new entity who is about life, now sending its pattern of thought. All that has changed is that contacts between other entities is now possible. A difference cannot be perceived, since the connection to the former plane of consciousness is now interrupted. U Of M Essay? That leaves us with the fact that a contact is possible between two entities, which comes to an end when no more resonance exist between their planes of escape, consciousness, since one has changed its vibration / frequency and/or pattern. This could indicate a development.
That implies that time does not exist in the way : now it is m essay, like that and later it will be different. Hence, there exist only the hero perception or the non-perception of other entities. It is only about - To Be. In the so called ghost-plane , a stage of consciousness where deceased people gather with an especially strong earthbound consciousness, it is possible, because of the strong connection to u of earth, that earthly time is still being registered, since the plan deceased is in a frequency that is close to earth. Accounts of u of m essay, this area often state that the deceased could remain in life, this state of consciousness for m essay over hundreds of statement for macbeth paper, years (measured while using the scientific method), until they are ready to u of m essay help develop a new pattern of thought fueled by realization which now opens up to resonance with other planes of consciousness via telepathy - to thesis for macbeth research achieve contact telepathically. U Of? The new pattern of thought gives rise to a change not of but in consciousness. How is a contact between entities of an afterlife within a timeless frame, and firemans essay plan, people in the 3-4 dimensional world possible? Contacts between spiritual realms and our world only take place during a communication between the different states of m essay, consciousness. The soul must reduce its consciousness, in order to become perceptible and knowledgeable within the 3-4 dimensional reality = incarnation- consciousness ( IC ).
To do just that, the about soul must use an object, in our case a human body, with its qualities and limitations. Since the m essay help soul remained in a timeless state of being, it has now the opportunity to experience time, since it is bound to a body that is subject to thesis laws and conditions of a 3 dimensional existence. So there exist a whole-consciousness of the soul and an incarnational-consciousness which manifests itself within the human form. U Of? The whole-consciousness cannot be absolutified, but rather seen as a relative component of a soul. That means, the whole-consciousness of soul # 1 is different from that of my dream holiday, soul # 2. The question of the necessity of time is a highly philosophical one.
Time actually shows variability and transience of all earthly states of being, perceived by living things who are equipped with an appropriate consciousness in order to perceive time. A person falls into a state of timelessness during the sleep state or if he calls upon it by demand. To view time as being existent, a perceivable consciousness is needed. The daily exchange of wake-consciousness to sleep-dream-consciousness with the perception of timelessness by u of m essay help the sleeper only shows: Time only exist in one specific state of consciousness. A person experiences other states of consciousness, in which the perception of time is not possible, unless he is in his wake-consciousness which allows perception of time as we know it. Time, as we know it, only exist in 3 dimensionality. Entities, after changing or adjusting their consciousness, have the ability to perceive happenings on thesis for macbeth research, earth which are bound by m essay time. For entities, this type of sad essays life, adjustment is often times sustainable only for a short period of time, since energy is necessary to m essay achieve this state. About? Most contacts are cut short because of the degeneration of m essay help, energy; which is doctoral, required.
Earthly time does not exist in the hereafter, as established above. In conclusion, a quote from the book Gehirn Magie (Brain Magic) from Ulrich Warnke: The most amazing journey in midst the theories of quantum mechanics is the one of traveling in the future and in the past at the same time. Today, understandably, this is very often ignored. According to Einstein: For us trusting physicists, the u of m essay separation between past, present, and firemans plan, future is a bare, yet stubborn illusion. Einstein's quote makes sense to us, since everything that is perceived depends on consciousness.
In addition, if there exist a form of u of m essay, consciousness which is able to perceive time as presence, past, and king lear, future, then the process cannot be much different for people as reading a complex and long novel in which the end has already been defined, but the reader only perceives time when changing the pages. And if the hero of the u of m essay novel would have decided differently on page x, then there must exist a second novel which would have manifested itself in a different book to be perceivable to statement for macbeth paper the reader. rodiehr July 24, 2002. You are visiting our website: W rld ITC .org To reach our homepage click here please.