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Arundhati Roy's The Ministry of essaywriter, Utmost Happiness was worth the 20-year wait. I n Arundhati Roy’s 1997 novel The God of Small Things, even minor characters can play major roles. The plot turns on the death of a half-Indian and half-English girl called Sophie Mol. An outsider herself, Sophie is museums thesis remembered as a “seeker of small wisdoms”, who like most children enjoys asking awkward questions: “Where do old birds go to die?” she asks, “Why don’t dead ones fall like stones from the essaywriter co uk review sky?” That same spirit of sympathetic curiosity for museums thesis, the usually ignored infuses Roy’s tale, which won the essaywriter co uk Booker Prize and went on to sell eight million copies. Museums Thesis. I n the 20 years since that novel appeared, Roy has turned from writing fiction to co uk review, political activism – still siding with the underdog, but seeking out grand wisdoms rather than small ones, you could say. She has shown courage in museums thesis championing those left behind – or steamrollered – by India’s rapid march towards modernity. Whether it is villagers displaced by dams, or Muslims killed in the Gujarat pogrom of 2002, the still invidious caste system, or the ongoing morass in Kashmir, she has sought to be a megaphone for the voiceless – even if she has, at times, gone too far with her attacks on essaywriter co uk review the Indian state, or been too fair to the Maoist rebels and jihadists who oppose it. For her readers, though, there has always been the nagging feeling that in abstaining from fiction, she might be misdirecting her talents. Roy has expressed similar concerns.

In the eating disorder introduction to her 2009 essay collection Listening to co uk review, Grasshoppers, she wrote: “I worry that I am allowing myself to be railroaded into offering prosaic, factual precision when maybe what we need is museums thesis a feral howl, or the transformative power and real precision of essaywriter, poetry.” H er second novel, The Ministry of Utmost Happiness, gets her back on the rails. It is political but never preachy; heartfelt yet laced with ironic humour. The over-ripe prose of introduction essay, The God of Small Things has been toned down, and here the poetic lines detonate precisely. An intimate epic, this novel covers the past 20 or so years of Indian history seen through the eyes of multiple outsiders: an intersex woman living in review a Delhi graveyard who befriends a blind Muslim imam; a young Dalit (or untouchable) who changes his name to introduction essay, escape a violent history; a landlord with a dark past in Kashmir; and the woman he loves in essaywriter co uk vain, whose fate is also tied up with that conflict. Some of these characters disappear for hundreds of pages before appearing again.

But the intensity of Roy’s writing – the sheer amount she cares about these people – compels you to concentrate. T he title of the opening chapter repeats Sophie Mol’s question: “Where Do Old Birds Go To Die?” The doomed birds are Delhi’s white-backed vultures – victims of a new chemical introduced into the ecosystem to make cows yield more milk. While Delhi gorges itself on ice cream, Roy writes, “Not many noticed the passing of the friendly old birds.” Equally ignored is Anjum – though she is better at surviving. When she was born, her terrified mother discovered, “nestling underneath his boy-parts, a small, unformed, but undoubtedly, girl-part.” She makes her home with the thesis in network security hijras, a gender-fluid community who earn money by playing on society’s distaste for them. Essaywriter Review. (They threaten to gate-crash weddings unless paid off.) It is thesis writing exhausting performing for the majority’s prejudices, and Anjum finds comfort at the Old Delhi shrine of a Jewish-Muslim Persian mystic, whose “insubordinate spirit, intense, palpable” is clearly also an co uk review, inspiration for Roy. A njum’s uncategorisable body is a powerful metaphor for the internal contradictions within India. A fellow hijra describes the battles within their bodies like this: “The riot is inside us. Security. The war is inside us. Indo-Pak is inside us. It will never settle down. It can’t.” In recent years the Indian body politic has been rocked by the rise of Hindu nationalism, those “saffron men with saffron smiles”, as Roy sinisterly describes them. In 2002, in Gujarat, Hindu pilgrims returning from the ruins of the Babri Mosque – destroyed by radical Hindus in 1992 – were caught in a fire on their train and 59 burnt to death.

The culprits may have been Muslim; certainly they were blamed and a targeted pogrom killed at least 2,000. In her non-fiction, Roy blames the Chief Minister of the time for co uk, inciting the attacks; that Chief Minister is essay now India’s Prime Minister, Narendra Modi. T he novel also follows a low-caste Hindu who sees his father killed in the Gujarat violence. In the essaywriter co uk wake of this horror, the boy takes the name Saddam Hussein, after watching a video on his phone of the Iraqi dictator face the the birthmark essay gallows with apparently stoic bravery. Here, Roy demonstrates brilliantly how disinformation can spread in a globalised age. Insecure young men who have been discriminated against take images and words and impose their own meanings on them. We have seen the same radicalising pattern with jihadists and far-right nationalists. Happily, though, our Saddam Hussein falls in with the maternal Anjum, who offers him salutary guidance about essaywriter, his hero-namesake: “Saddam Hussein was a bastard.” The other conflict tackled is introduction stress essay Kashmir – a cause Roy has written about with anger in her essays. Co Uk. Here the tone is the birthmark essay darkly playful. At a demonstration by mothers of the 78,000 men killed or “disappeared” by the Indian army, the essaywriter co uk review banners read: “Is this democracy or Demon Crazy?” Extreme Hindus hurl back chants of “Muslim terrorists do not deserve human rights!” Yet while it is theme never in doubt where Roy’s sympathies lie, she digs deeper than she does in her campaigning essays.

Some of these Hindus are Kashmiri pandits who have been chased from their homes by Muslim militants. Review. No side is scarcity choice essay innocent, though some have greater power to do harm than others. R oy’s true contempt lies with the superficiality of her own class, exemplified by the comments of essaywriter co uk review, three “beautifully groomed, pencil-thin college girls” as they walk past the protesters: “Oh wow! Kashmir! What funnn!

Apparently it’s completely normal now, ya, safe for tourists. Let’s go? It’s supposed to be stunning.” The grim pun on that last word is made clearer when, later in the book, Roy takes us into a Kashmir torture chamber in scarcity choice and opportunity which electric shocks are administered. Perhaps surprisingly, most of the Kashmir story is co uk review not told from the stress viewpoint of “freedom fighters”, but from behind the eyes of the half million or so soldiers and policemen stationed there. Co Uk. The only character allowed a first-person perspective is the birthmark essay Garson Hobart, who works as deputy head of the Intelligence Bureau in Kashmir.

He sounds like Roy’s critics when he complains about “grumbling intellectuals and review, professional dissenters who constantly carp about security, this great country”. But Garson is no caricature: he understands the wrongness of what is essaywriter happening in Kashmir; he just cannot face up to his own complicity. And he is disorder paper infatuated with Tilo, a woman with some similarities to Roy, whom he politically opposes but cannot help looking out for. Garson is essaywriter luckier than his colleague Amrik Singh, who seeks asylum in thesis security the US claiming to be the victim of the essaywriter review tortures he has inflicted on others. Eventually, he goes mad and kills his family and himself because he cannot cope with the stress essay guilt. Kashmir is an “incubator for every kind of insanity”, writes Roy, and will eventually send India insane. Co Uk Review. T he Ministry of Utmost Happiness is packed with documents, diaries, reports, storytellings and re-tellings that at first seem to offer truth, but require adjustment in the light of new information. Museums Thesis. Anjum and the hijras go to co uk, the Sound and Light show at Delhi’s Red Fort, in which the Mughal history of the site is by chapter told in gloriously kitsch style. A scene set in essaywriter the women’s quarters is enlivened by the “audible, deep, distinct, rasping, coquettish giggle of a court eunuch”. Thesis Security. One of Anjum’s friends is triumphant: “Did you hear that? That is us.

That is our ancestry, our history, our story. We were never commoners, you see, we were members of the staff of the Royal Palace.” When the fundamentalists take power, though, that small validation disappears from the show – along with the history of Muslim India, the poetry, music and architecture, stripped away to only leave the tale of essaywriter review, a marauding invader. T his is the novel one hoped Arundhati Roy would write about India. Choice Cost. Satirical yet compassionate, it channels the co uk review spirit of the transgressive-mystical in paper subcontinental poetry rarely found in Indian-English writing. No doubt some critics will point to India’s amazing economic growth in essaywriter the past 20 years and ask why she seems so pessimistic.

But writers ought not to be cheerleaders, especially for the kind of progress that leaves 700 million in the birthmark theme poverty. Co Uk. In one arresting scene we see the desperation of parents with children suffering from disorder paper, cancer: “People crowded the counters of the all-night chemists, playing Indian Roulette. (There was a 60:40 chance that the essaywriter drugs they bought were genuine or spurious.)” Instead, Roy goes some way to fulfilling George Eliot’s hopes for a more acutely sensitive engagement with the world: “If we had a keen vision and feeling of all ordinary human life, it would be like hearing the grass grow and the squirrel’s heartbeat, and we should die of that roar which lies on scarcity and opportunity cost essay the other side of review, silence.” Roy listens to writing by chapter, the grass grow (and the essaywriter co uk review grasshoppers) and is attuned to the fading heartbeats of the conclusion disorder research paper vultures and owls and goats that populate her novel. The Ministry of Utmost Happiness hums with love for the unconsoled – to whom it is dedicated. Which makes it worth more than a library of prosaic protest. Essaywriter. 445pp, Hamish Hamilton, ?18.99, ebook ?9.99.

To order this book from the Telegraph for ?16.99 plus ?1.99 pp, call 0844 871 1515 or visit Paddington 2 trailer: Michael Bond#39;s beloved bear goes to prison. Gallery: Culture stars who died in 2017: from Liz Dawn to Hugh Hefner. If America had a Civil War in research 2074, what would it look like? Can you record every good building in a city?

100 years on, the Survey of London is still at co uk review, it. Lipstick and battleships: Jennifer Egan on the Second World War letters that inspired her new novel. Marcel Proust paid for his own glowing reviews to appear in newspapers, according to newly discovered letters. Are these the essay most naughtily subversive children#39;s books ever published? Comedian in essaywriter co uk chief: Barack Obama#39;s joke writer on stress essay roasting Donald Trump and why Tony Blair isn#39;t funny. Lynda Carter tells James Cameron to #39;stop dissing Wonder Woman#39; A passion for the poetry of nature: writer Robert Macfarlane is on a quest to reconnect children with the outdoors.

Michael Fassbender on murder, misogyny and the making of Jo Nesbo#39;s The Snowman. Goodbye Christopher Robin review: not-so-cuddly biopic reveals the sadness behind Winnie-the-Pooh. Cara Delevingne: ‘I have to cry every day. If I don’t, I get angry. It’s like an exorcism’ Is AN Wilson#39;s biography the worst book about Darwin ever written? Hugh Hefner interview: #39;Playboy was not a sex magazine, as far as I was concerned#39; Pennywise returns: Stephen King#39;s It sequel gets release date, but will the young cast be back? The Child in Time, review: Benedict Cumberbatch struggles through the pain with class.

Frieda Hughes: #39;I genuinely believed I was adopted until I was 14#39; Electric Dreams: Impossible Planet, review - A complicated snapshot of unreality. Review. When a young David Attenborough caught animals for London Zoo. Feeling gloomy? I know just the poem for that — introducing William Sieghart#39;s Poetry Pharmacy. Telegraph Media Group Limited 2017.

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Essaywriter co uk review « UK Essay Writing Services Review – Best

Literature Search Methods for the Development of essaywriter co uk review, Clinical Practice Guidelines. Ione Auston, MLS, Marjorie A. Cahn, MA, Catherine R. Selden, MLS, National Library of Medicine, Office of museums thesis, Health Services Research Information. Agency for Health Care Policy and Research, Office of the Forum for Quality and Effectiveness in review, Health Care, Forum Methodology Conference. In December 1989, Title IX amendments to Public Health Service Act established the Agency for Health Care Policy and Research (AHCPR) and required AHCPR and the National Library of Medicine (NLM) to enter into an agreement to improve information services for health services researchers. As part of in network, this effort, NLM has: Provided literature searching and back-up document delivery services for 13 AHCPR- sponsored guideline development panels; and Analyzed references actually incorporated into essaywriter co uk review AHCPR-sponsored guidelines to identify any patterns that suggest ways to streamline the literature search and review process for future guideline panels (Cahn, Selden, Auston, 1992). Based on these experiences, this paper provides NLM's suggested methodology for identifying, retrieving, and thesis, managing literature that forms the basis of review, a clinical practice guideline. To search efficiently for all known scientific evidence on a particular clinical topic, it is important to understand the museums thesis, literature search process and to plan well. The following model has been developed to assist Guideline Development Panels in planning and organizing the literature search process.

Panels will need to adapt these procedures according to their goals, available resources, and time constraints. A literature search is a systematic and explicit approach to the identification, retrieval, and bibliographic management of independent studies (usually drawn from essaywriter review, published sources) for the purpose of locating information on a topic, synthesizing conclusions, identifying areas for future study, and developing guidelines for clinical practice. Computer database searches are the most efficient way to identify published studies. Computer searches may be supplemented with manual searches of print sources. Also, it is expected that Guideline Development Panel members will bring to the literature search process their subject expertise and knowledge of studies completed and forthcoming. Literature identification and management, the search process, is the birthmark essay distinguished from (but key to the integrity of) the literature review process. A literature review involves analyzing, evaluating, and synthesizing scientific evidence derived from studies identified through the search process and is the topic of other papers commissioned by the Forum. Review! However, it should be noted that search process tools may also be applied to literature review tasks. For example, specialized bibliographic management software used in introduction, the literature search process (see Step 1.3, below) may also be used for review inserting data extracted from studies or codes keyed to thesis in network security data extraction tables into bibliographic records. Essaywriter Co Uk! Such use will assist panels in in network, reviewing large numbers of studies and review, documenting each by thesis stated relevancy criteria. The 6 general steps in the literature search process, and the individuals critical to implementing these steps, are described below and presented in Figure 1.

Before the first panel meeting, a planning and coordination meeting is essaywriter co uk review usually held to scarcity choice and opportunity cost discuss the guideline development process. Topics covered typically include development of guideline concepts, organizing the literature search process, and selection of essaywriter, methodology(ies) for literature review. This meeting should include the Panel Chair(s), AHCPR Panel Manager(s), Panel Methodologist(s), Literature Review Coordinator and thesis, Literature Searcher(s) (see 1.2, below), and any other individuals who will be actively involved in managing the guideline development process. Discussion concerning the literature search process should focus on the overall direction of the co uk review, searches, specific guidance for museums thesis preliminary computerized searches, literature management tasks (e.g., processes for obtaining documents for review, photocopying, distributing to co uk reviewers, tracking review status), and assigning responsibilities for tasks. 1.2 Select Literature Review Management, Searching, and Document Delivery Staff. Literature Review Coordinator. Because the guideline development process is literature dependent, each panel needs a Literature Review Coordinator (LRC) responsible for in network security the management of the literature review process. The LRC should be experienced in computerized literature searching and/or managing computer reference services. Essaywriter Co Uk Review! In the search process, LRCs act as liaisons between panel members and stress essay, professional Literature Searcher(s). Literature searching is a dynamic and iterative process; there is no one way to essaywriter co uk conduct a search and there are many variables involved. Panels typically need two preliminary computerized literature searches, a comprehensive search, and periodic searches to update the material.

Further, the guideline development process demands searching on a much larger scale than is usually done by museums thesis most researchers or librarians. Therefore, panel staff should include experienced, professional-librarian searcher(s). Panels also require consistency in essaywriter review, the construction of search strategies and documentation of all searches for thesis in network security their final Guideline Report. To control variation in co uk review, the searching process, it is recommended that arrangements be made to have the same searcher(s) work with the theme, LRC throughout the life of the co uk review, panel. Panels often decide to obtain hundreds to thousands of articles and documents for thesis in network review and co uk review, evaluation. Retrieval and copying requires a high level of effort.

Since most panel members' institutions can't absorb such effort into theme essay their normal routine, it is recommended that panels negotiate arrangements for document delivery with a local medical library. This library should be a member of the National Network of Libraries of Medicine (NN/LM) and located close to the Literature Review Coordinator and/or Panel Chair(s) who must consult with the local library throughout the document delivery cycle. 1.3 Obtain Computer Equipment and Reference Management Software. In order to manage the literature search and essaywriter, review processes, the Panel Chair and/or Literature Review Coordinator should have a personal computer (PC) with sufficient hard drive capacity to easily store and manipulate a very large bibliographic database. This PC should be equipped with reference management software and DOS. Additionally, a printer and a modem are essential.

ProCite is the reference management software we chose to support AHCPR-sponsored guideline panels. It has a very fast and accurate feature for eliminating redundant records, and conclusion eating paper, it can handle many thousands of citations in a master database. Essaywriter! It eliminates the need for multiple entry and reverification of references. ProCite provides for the easy downloading and importing of museums thesis, citations into a formatted database. ProCite also allows for editing of review, records so that codes indicating document status can be inserted during the literature retrieval and review phases. It can easily export data to a word processor for desktop publishing of references. STEP 2: PRELIMINARY LITERATURE SEARCHING. 2.1 Conduct Content and Volume Searches. Following Step 1, panel staff (i.e., the LRC and Literature Searcher(s)) should complete two preliminary searches of the literature. The strategy for the first preliminary search should be quite detailed but have a limited time frame (e.g., six months). Citations should be downloaded, imported into reference management software, arranged by author, and printed out for review.

Reviewing this sample literature gives the panel an opportunity to scan for missing citations and to see if the search strategy pulled a high proportion of relevant citations. Panel Chair(s) may review this search themselves, or they may send it to panel members. The second preliminary search is to determine the universe (volume and distribution) of literature available on the broad topic of the guideline. The second search strategy, therefore, should reflect the widest possible interpretation of the guideline topic and consist only essay of the counts (number) of citations retrieved from several key databases. This broad search graphically illustrates to panel members the general volume of co uk, literature and scarcity, its distribution among databases. In our analysis of the first three AHCPR-supported panels (Acute Pain, Urinary Incontinence, and Pressure Ulcers), it was found that MEDLINE was the source for between 77 and co uk, 91 percent of the literature used in these guidelines.

Further, all NLM sources combined provided 91 to 94 percent of all the literature cited in these guidelines' reports. Thus, it is recommended that MEDLINE and two to scarcity and opportunity three other databases deemed most relevant to the specific topic be selected for the second preliminary search. As panels are interdisciplinary, members may only be familiar with the subset of the literature related to their specialty. The Panel Chair(s) and co uk, members need to obtain a clear picture of overall volume and content in order to determine the by chapter, level of effort and resources required for reviewing the essaywriter review, literature. They will then be able to in network security weigh the essaywriter co uk, available time (e.g., 12 months) against eating disorder research the quantity of the literature and assess whether all specific issues within the co uk review, broad guideline topic can reasonably be addressed. STEP 3: COMPREHENSIVE LITERATURE SEARCHING. As suggested above, the panel should review and assign priorities to stress essay possible guideline topics and subtopics. That is, panels should consider defining a series of separate guideline topics which may be undertaken as resources allow. Then, if needed, some topics can be deferred to a subsequent guideline panel.

This will help to ensure that questions to be addressed by co uk a panel can be developed within the timeframe specified for that panel. Based on the results of this prioritization, at its first meeting the panel can define the specific aspects of the guideline topic(s) it will develop. The panel should clarify the topic(s) to be addressed in terms of the condition and types of patients for which the guideline is intended, the clinical interventions that will and will not be considered, and the type of eating paper, provider and practice setting to which the essaywriter review, guideline will apply. 3.2 Define Parameters of the Comprehensive Literature Search. While defining their guideline topic(s), the panel must also define the parameters of the comprehensive literature search by constructing statements or questions to be answered using the literature and by preparing lists of specific topics (e.g., a list of diagnostic tests) to in network be considered. The panel should also develop general inclusion/exclusion criteria for co uk review studies it will or will not consider. Specific criteria include: time period, age groups, languages, geographic areas (e.g., developing countries), animal studies or human studies, type of published material (e.g., peer reviewed publications, dissertations, meeting abstracts, books, patient education materials, laws).

Some exclusion criteria can be handled in the search strategies (e.g., languages). Other exclusion criteria must be applied by the panel members as they review the citations retrieved (e.g., case reports involving fewer than 10 subjects). Once the panel reaches consensus on the foci of the guideline, it is recommended that all topics be combined into one broad statement that can be used as the basis for the comprehensive literature search. Searching a series of disorder paper, separate statements would result in much duplication among topics in the literature retrieved. Panel members would have to review the same article for more than one question resulting in their being able to review fewer articles overall. 3.3 Determine Sources of Information. The foci of the co uk, guideline topic and the timeframe and resources available for completing the guideline should determine the theme essay, sources of information. Panel members will be familiar with many literature sources and may also refer to NLM's Health Services: Sources of Information for Research 1 . As noted above, experience shows that limiting computerized searches to MEDLARS databases will retrieve upwards of 90 percent of the material needed (see Table 1 following). It is therefore recommended that Literature Searcher(s) access MEDLARS first.

Panel members should identify and discuss other available data sources and select for essaywriter additional searching those few key databases that most comprehensively cover the topic area. The Literature Searcher(s) should develop search strategies appropriate for each database to be searched. Thesis Writing By Chapter! Terminology or keywords must be selected. Since the guideline topics are usually quite complex, search strategies will involve a combination of controlled vocabulary and free-text words or phrases (words appearing in titles or abstracts of articles) to narrow or broaden the scope. The Panel Chair(s) or LRC should consult with the librarian searcher(s) throughout the literature search process to discuss refinements or modification to search strategies. Initial computerized literature searching generally should take approximately two months to complete Figure 1; the timeframe must be set with advice from the review, Literature Searcher(s). The total time required will depend on the complexity of the thesis by chapter, subject area and co uk review, the comprehensiveness desired. In Network Security! If needed, periodic updates should be planned within the context of the guideline development schedule. Broad searching of numerous databases is neither needed nor efficient. However, after careful review of comprehensive retrieval, additional, more narrow searches of targeted databases may be done, if necessary.

In addition, after reviewing the citations from computerized searches, panel members often have suggestions concerning literature not retrieved. This might include documents not published in the open literature, or articles from co uk review, relatively obscure or new publications that are not routinely indexed or included in computerized abstracting services. When such studies are identified, panel members can usually provide copies from thesis, personal files or direct the LRC to the authors or other sources for obtaining them. It is recommended that the essaywriter, search results be merged into one large master bibliographic database. Further, all literature records should be maintained in the master database throughout the guideline development process. That is, in introduction, addition to the retrieval from the initial computerized literature searches, as other references are identified, they should be merged electronically or typed into the master file. Having a master database gives the panel flexibility in its literature review process and essaywriter co uk, aids in writing, efficiently managing the citations throughout the literature review and review, report writing phases. For example, the Literature Review Coordinator might search the master database and create topic-specific subsets of the birthmark, studies for individual panel members or subgroups of panel members to review.

Further, to facilitate managing the literature, panels should develop schemes for coding records in the master database. For example, panels may want to essaywriter co uk develop quality scores for study design or some other type of weighting criteria and input these into bibliographic records as literature is reviewed. Administrative data (e.g., initials of reviewers, review dates) may also be inserted into master database records and used for tracking document review status. Additional codes may be inserted into scarcity choice records to correspond to sections of the guideline or scientific evidence tables in which the literature will be cited. Such coding is critical for sorting references for guideline publications (see also Step 6 below). As noted above, in addition to developing criteria for determining which studies out of the citations retrieved from the essaywriter co uk, comprehensive search they want to conclusion eating research paper obtain for essaywriter co uk review review, the in network, panel should arrange with a local library for document delivery. Typically, this will require the local library to provide one photocopy of each article that is to be reviewed. For items it does not hold, the local library may utilize the resources of the National Network of Libraries of Medicine (NN/LM) as well as other resource libraries to which it has access. Again, any literature that is co uk review not available through library mechanisms may often be obtained by the Literature Review Coordinator from panel members or their colleagues. In addition to museums thesis being key to managing the essaywriter co uk review, literature review, the master database is the best source for the final bibliography. For example when using ProCite, records in the master database may be coded for specific chapters or sections of the Guideline, the evidence table(s), and the Guideline Report.

In this way, a record is entered in in network security, the database once but may be sorted for use in many sections of the essaywriter co uk, guideline publications. Since ProCite allows for easy exportation of records to a word processor, these sorted references may be incorporated into thesis in network the guideline text and essaywriter co uk review, appendices without re-entry or the need for reverification. Regardless of the bibliographic management software used, NLM recommends that panels standardize and edit all references to conform to the style presented in NLM Recommended Formats for Bibliographic Citation 2 . NLM no longer provides extensive literature searching and the birthmark essay, document retrieval to Guideline Development Panels. Review! However, NLM will provide limited support of guideline panels to the extent appropriated resources permit. This may include: Consulting on literature searches; Providing tutorials on Grateful Med , ProCite, and essay, DOCLINE; and Providing back-up document delivery service through the NN/LM. Guideline panels should contact their AHCPR Panel Manager(s) to access such services from NLM's Office of Health Services Research Information. Table 1. Essaywriter Review! Citations in AHCPR-sponsored Guidelines, by museums thesis Source and Topic.

Source: Cahn, Marjorie A., Selden, Catherine R, Auston, Ione. Summary report on analysis of AHCPR guideline panel literature. Bethesda (MD): National Library of essaywriter, Medicine; 1992 August. 5 p. Note: 1. Unverified citations are items not found in any of the NLM databases, non-NLM databases, or the NLM collection. These are largely panel-supplied items not available in traditional published sources (e.g., working papers, meeting presentations, or other gray literature) or forthcoming publications.

Cahn, Marjorie A.; Selden, Catherine R.; Auston, Ione. Introduction Stress! Summary report on analysis of AHCPR guideline panel literature. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine; 1992 Aug. 5 p. National Library of Medicine (US). Health Services: sources of information for research. Bethesda, (MD): NLM; 1992 Aug. Report No.: NLM-PSD-92-01. 201 p. Available from: NTIS, Springfield, VA: PB92-221175. Patrias, Karen. National Library of Medicine recommended formats for essaywriter co uk bibliographic citation.

Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine; 1991. Report No.: NLM-LO-91-01. 248 p. Available from: NTIS, Springfield, VA: PB91-182030. 1. Available from the National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA, (703) 487-4650; publication number PB92-221175. 2. Available from the National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA, (703) 487-4650; publication number PB91-182030.

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An Annotated Bibliography On “A Passage to essaywriter co uk review Indian” Edward Morgan Forster wrote among many other novels, A Passage to India in 1924. The novel happens to be his peak hit in the birthmark essay the ladder of success. The novel exposes a dramatic comparison between the colonial political reign using a brief but fictions narration of an English woman named Adela Quested and the Indian man Dr. Aziz. He expounds their experience in the Caves of Marabar shortly after his arrival from co uk review India during the British governance in thesis in network security South Asia (which now turns countries of Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Bhutan et cetera). The book entered a golden record amidst hundreds of English literature in archives and essaywriter co uk review, got a memorial prize for friction work. In the introductory passage, Forster writes about three characters, on their journey to a Marabar caves. The Englishwoman alleges Dr Aziz of attempt rape. Forster demonstrates a sound knowledge in revealing ethnical differences between the residence Indian nation and the British colonial master. This he logically demonstrates with a good comprehension of Indian culture. Need essay sample on An Annotated Bibliography On “A Passage to Indian” ? We will write a custom essay sample specifically for you for only $12.90/page.

The story reports Aziz trip to Marabar, inviting Mrs. Moore and Ronny Heaslop after a tea party at the birthmark theme essay Fielding’s place. Review? Down the cave, Mrs. Moore faces fright by thesis in network the sudden fear of essaywriter co uk being alone in the cave, though after some time the “Boum” sound echoes override the claustrophobia. And Opportunity Cost Essay? She was put off by the persistence fear leaving alone Aziz, and co uk review, Adela Quested to stress essay continue with the tour with a local man guiding as they ascend the cave. Following brief conversation between them in the cave that got Aziz slightly upset, Aziz excused them for a while only to essaywriter co uk review return later and found the broken binoculars belonging to Adela without her being there, concluding she is lost since the following guide cannot equally ascertain her where about. After a while he saw the thesis in network, company of the duo down the hill – miss Derek and Adela driving away without bidding a goodbye.

Aziz shockingly got arrested for sexual assault on his way back to Chandra-pore in a train. Adela misconception of the experienced shock in the cave which is similar to that of Mrs. Moore, gets her psychological ripped and expressly relayed the ugly incidence to the British authorities. Whereas, the shock runs her out of co uk review control emotionally, with temporary excitement and psychologically distressed. To the surprise of the Indian, the opportune trial unleashes the amassed racial electric tension among them and the British. Essay? Majority of the British seem not to be astonished, claiming that the essaywriter co uk, black Indians usually lost after the cost, white woman. Fielding, a white, stood ground in defending Aziz, but this is review, considered a betrayer of “blood-race” and leads to his banish from the British society. The Indians receive him heartily for he is considered making attempt to prevent the bastardizing of their reputation with ugly communal degeneration of the alleged issue. Though untrue, they care less owing to introduction the inherent racism as a backdrop in their minds. Few days ahead of Aziz’s trial by the British authorities, Mrs. Moore was apparently silent in sharing her own true side of the story which invariably will help out Aziz, she began to essaywriter review feel “apathetic and irritable” out of the blue, showing a loss of museums thesis interest in Homo sapiens.

The novel demonstrated how conscience holds grip of Adela as she when call to upon to essaywriter co uk review present her case to the authority. The novel expounds how human beings in the face of the truth succumb to conscience threat; this is metaphysical, extremely abstract to thesis in network understanding, not of how the imaginary picture of the cave runs across her inner vision swiftly and gets emotionally arrested to have begged for few minutes to make a self-reconciliation before speaking the heavy truth. Of course, the teaming supporters are taken aback and annoyed. Essaywriter? It was such an open shame, of what turn out to ironically be a betrayal of the in network, white genealogy. She later reveals the whole truth on how the echo results in the whole dirty show, costing her the essaywriter co uk, proposed engagement and fled England by sea. Forster in this fiction expresses Aziz’s bitterness on knowing that his own close friend, Fielding would, after all, still go ahead to befriend Adela knowing full well that Fielding had earlier successfully persuaded him from suing Adela. This betrayal up turns his repulsive view of all The Whites around him, he moves to Mau and lead new existence with a vow not to befriend white again. Fielding returned later with his wife when Aziz had become a Chief Physician in Mau, Indian. The novel in its last sentence indicates non readiness for museums thesis Aziz to continue friendship with Fielding “at least not until India is free of the British Raj.

Even the earth and the sky seem to say…” #8220;Not yet.#8221; In the part one, Dr Aziz is called out by Major Callendar to a mosque where he meets Mrs. Moore. She introduces him to Mr. Ronny, her child. At a party, Adela and Mrs. Moore receive an invitation to visit Marabar Caves.

Among others, Mr. Fielding, Rafi Haq, Mr. Ram, visits Aziz home. Fielding and Aziz became close thereafter. In Part two, the review, novel geographically describes the museums thesis, beauty of the cave and how Mr. Essaywriter Co Uk Review? Fielding and Godbole arrived late and miss a schedule train. Here in this chapter is the parting of Adela and theme, Dr Aziz after the mysterious shock experience in Marabar caves. Dr. Aziz never sees her twice before his arrest at a rail station. Still in essaywriter this section, Adela Quested later withdraws her accusation, the British colonial nation feels betrayed. The unexpected relationship between Fielding (Aziz close friend) and Adela after an open embarrassment episode shocked Aziz and promised not to be close with any White again, well, may be in another world to come.

In part three of the the birthmark theme essay, fiction book, Dr. Aziz stays in Mau after Fielding departs for England with Adela. Essaywriter? The later distant relationship existing between Fielding and Aziz births out of the fact the Fielding does not marry Adela Quested. They soon get involve in seeing to the well being of Indian future, discussing its political issues collectively. Thesis? King#8217;s College Archive Centre, Cambridge, The Papers of Edward Morgan Forster (reference EMF/19/6)#8221;.

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Dissertation on Human Resource Management. Effective Strategy for Creating Harmonious Working Relationship among Culturally Diverse Employees. There are various factors that contribute to the rising workplace diversity. These include increasing numbers of immigrants, company mergers and joint ventures in essaywriter review, different countries, increased engagement of business consultants and temporary employees, international competition and the phenomenon of security, globalization, which has transformed the world into a global village. Globalization has occurred because of a combination of factors such as improved infrastructure, advancements in technology. Infrastructure and co uk technology have not only theme, provided cheaper means of communication and travel, but have revolutionized the speed at which individuals and essaywriter businesses communicate with each other. Domestic companies are also spreading their operations to new territories across the globe in search of new markets or outsourcing some aspects of their production process.

Management of employee cultural diversity, through the integration of suitable strategies plays a key role in introduction stress essay, improving the co uk review competitive advantage of the business, especially on writing the global platform. Globalization calls for co uk specific approaches that promote harmonious working relationships within increasingly culturally diverse workplaces. Hansen (2002) observes that workplace diversity is critical to the existence of businesses and identifying key strategies to ensure harmonious working relationships among culturally diverse employees is integral to the survival of any business. Diversity in this case means the differences between individuals based on their culture, which influences their perceptions, values and beliefs. There is increased pressure on human resource departments to integrate culturally diverse employees, while at the same time maintaining high levels of motivation among the divergent groups. The main issue in choice and opportunity, a culturally diverse workforce is creating synergy, teamwork and one cohesive culture made up of the various cultural groups within the workplace (Hansen, 2002). A key aspect of creating a cohesive workplace culture is how individual employees perceive that they are receiving fair and equal treatment. Identifying employee perception of fairness begins by evaluating current employee benefits and assessing specific suggestions that are appealing to a diverse workforce. Identifying such strategies is critical as it plays a role in employee retention output and co uk overall success of a business. Dissatisfied employees who feel they are not being treated fairly especially pertaining to their culture, will have low levels of motivation and their output may not meaningfully impact the overall successful performance of the stress business. This paper will look at review, various options that are available in diversity management in by chapter, order to essaywriter co uk review, identify the most suitable and effective strategy in managing a culturally diverse workforce in a manner the will create cohesiveness and scarcity and opportunity cost harmony, increase employee satisfaction and maximize their output.

There are various traditional approaches that corporations adopt in order to co uk review, motivate their culturally diverse workforce. These are such as benefit plans insurance and retirement programs. However, with cultural diversity expanding more than before, traditional approaches are no longer sufficient in promoting harmony in a culturally diverse workforce. There is need for groundbreaking strategies that will not only ensure that each employee feels valued at the workplace, but will create employee loyalty to the company and motivate them to increase their output. These strategies should have the ability to introduction essay, retain employees; companies loose their experienced employees to corporations that have better strategies in essaywriter, handling cultural diversity and ensuring employee satisfaction. To accommodate the various needs of culturally diverse employees, companies may choose to the birthmark theme, offer them benefits that are flexible according to the specific needs of individual employees. A company may come up with a range of review, offers which employees can pick from, depending on essay how best they suit their needs.

This strategy has the advantage of minimizing wastage, as benefits will not be wasted on the employees who do not need. Giving employees benefits that they do not need has no additional value to review, the company as the benefits will have no motivational effect (Bohlander Snell, 2007). Traditionally, employees are presented with a benefits package that consists of vacation, health insurance and sick leave. This benefits package also ensures that the employees have minimum level coverage against unexpected financial hardships. In this strategy, employees are offered a predetermined number of credits, which they may use to purchase additional benefits that they deem suitable to their needs. However, this strategy bears a disadvantage to choice and opportunity, the corporation in the case of poor selection of employees. In this case, the company would bear the burden of employees who have many financial costs. In addition, employees may select high cost benefits which are of essaywriter, use to them, but ultimately present a financial burden to the corporation. Such complexities must be analyzed by the company before settling on a particular approach. The strategy that is selected should be beneficial to security, the company as well as to the employees.

The strategy should be comprehensive enough that it addresses most, if not all issues pertaining to essaywriter co uk, cultural diversity, and at the same time protects the interests of the company and overall profitability. The overall diversity management strategy should give the company a competitive edge on essay the global scale and boost its ability to recruit and co uk retain employees, in addition to attaining the ability to adjust to the evolving and writing increasingly culturally diverse workforce. There are many examples of essaywriter review, strategies that companies have used in the past, to manage a culturally diverse workforce, which have proved to and opportunity cost essay, be redundant, if not ultimately disastrous in terms of maintaining harmonious working relationship with employees and overall company performance. A good illustration of this is when a leading insurance company in California US, gave its leading salespersons tickets to a Christmas event being held in a local church. This decision proved to co uk, be disastrous as more than a third of the company’s sales people were Jewish. Such as strategy, though aimed at rewarding hardworking employees, was not culturally sensitive, which lead to introduction essay, boycotts and resignations of essaywriter, employees and within six months, this mistake had cost the company more than one million dollars (Tahmincioglu, 2004). The scenario demonstrates the the birthmark theme essay importance of co uk, careful evaluation before deciding on thesis in network security a specific strategy that creates harmony in a culturally diverse workforce. The selected benefits and approaches should match the essaywriter co uk review needs of the museums thesis various cultures represented in the workforce as the case scenario illustrates how catastrophic it would be for the company in the event of a mismatch.

In a bid to co uk, arrive at the most suitable and stress essay comprehensive strategy for dealing with cultural diversity at the workforce, the paper will look at selected specific groups that should be targeted to boost their motivation and ensure that they experience fair treatment in their specific workstations. One target group that forms part of essaywriter co uk, a culturally diverse workforce is the immigrant workforce. Hammers (2003) observes that, one way of enhancing the the birthmark essay working experience of immigrant employees, especially those whom English is a second language, is by developing their language and essaywriter communicative skills through English as a second language (ESL) classes. Additionally companies may consider readjusting their training structure for new employees in a way that mirrors how individuals from different cultures learn. This is particularly important as studies have revealed that people from different cultures and backgrounds have different ways of acquiring knowledge, and if this factor is not integrated in the new-employee training manuals, then the immigrants will not gain what was intended, and their work experience and output may become redundant. Companies should consider that conventional approaches to employee training may not be suitable for the a workforce that is culturally diverse, and eating disorder research the knowledge and information deemed as crucial for the traditional employee may not be so for immigrant workers. In addition, the training of new-employees should include topics that educate the workforce about the specific cultures, particularly those that to which the new employees belong. Additional presentations should be prepared for the existing workforce, which encourage empathy, understanding and tolerance of all cultural groups within the workforce.

The training should aim at ensuring that all employees have cultural competence and are able to relate with colleagues from other cultures, with a sufficient amount of essaywriter, respect and empathy. Scarcity And Opportunity Cost Essay. Being culturally competent will ensure that employees understand how to communicate with individuals from different cultures, as some cultures are regarded as high context cultures while others are low context cultures. Having this knowledge is especially critical as it addresses how people from different cultures communicate, and how their way of communication is bound to influence the communicative process within the workplace. Individuals from high context cultures are often misunderstood by those from low context cultures. Co Uk Review. Low-context culture individuals perceive their counterparts from high context cultures as ambiguous, deceitful, convoluted and indirect. However, people from high context culture appear to conclusion eating research paper, communicate indirectly as their culture lays greater emphasis on their ability to retain cohesiveness with others and not say anything that may be deemed as offensive or upsetting to essaywriter co uk, the other party.

In this context, high context culture will not say anything that appears offensive, making low context colleagues perceive their indirectness as deceit. On their part, high context employees perceive their low context colleagues as insensitive as they tend to communicate more directly. This may aggravate employee relationships when some individual feel that their colleagues are not treating them fairly or they are being insensitive to their feelings. The Birthmark. Training in essaywriter co uk, cultural competence will ensure that the workforce has the and opportunity cost essay basic idea of essaywriter co uk, how individuals from different cultures perceive situations and their ways of communicating and acquiring meaning from communication. This will ultimately lead to increased harmony, cohesiveness and employee satisfaction at the work place. The paper will also look at essay, strategies that multinational corporations operating in various parts of the world use to accommodate the culture of the local workforce, and essaywriter co uk how to integrate it with the wider operation of the whole company. The Birthmark. When companies venture into new territories to expand their businesses in the spirit of co uk, globalization, they encounter diverse cultures and cultural practices that may not be particularly suited to the overall operational model of the business. However, these cultural aspects must be accommodated and stress essay integrated into company employee-cohesion strategy if it hopes to make any meaningful impact and realize its goals within that particular cultural setting. Aspects of culture that multinationals are faced with include employee work ethics based on culture, religion, among other factors.

The psychological definition of prejudice is, attitudes that have value content and weight that are not based on any practical reality or whose objective reality has not been examined (Gilbert Ivancevich, 2001). Essaywriter Review. The characteristics of prejudice are usually negative feelings and actions that are stigmatizing towards others. Ethnic prejudices are characterized by thesis by chapter the negative perceptions and attitudes that individuals or groups harbor against individuals or groups of a different ethnicity or group. Furthermore, it is important that prejudices not only essaywriter, exist within the the birthmark theme essay attitudes of people but are also institutional such as in laws, literature or school syllabuses. Essaywriter Co Uk Review. They also exist at the social level such as social discussions.

There are also many prejudices that are present in procedures for categorizing people and conclusion disorder research social groups, and even act as rational understanding for dividing and rejecting specific groups. Bruner (2003), the image of how we frame about people is connected to essaywriter review, the social power they may posses. Differences in social positions, power and wealth are significant factors that influence the way in which people perceive others. The Birthmark Essay. Consequently, prejudices are not the casual inventions of people, but are directly linked to prevailing social structures, which are intervened socially in social discussion or institution level through the media and the education system (Govaris 2004). Robertson, Kulik and Pepper (2003) state that there are a number of approaches that a company can use in establishing a diversity program, and it is not likely for essaywriter review there to be an eating paper exclusive way that is guaranteed to co uk review, be the most successful. They further observe that the likelihood of such a success is scarcity choice cost essay dependent on situational dynamics such as the co uk strategies of the organization, environment, the people as well as organizational culture. Organizations in this case, range from the birthmark theme, monolithic kind, meaning the number of minority employees is relatively low (Cox, 1991). Cox goes on to observe that in such a case, efforts towards diversifying the workplace are likely to be met with hostility and resistance. The multicultural kinds are organizations where employees from minority groups work in all levels of the enterprise. In this case, diversity operates as a principle, which is incorporated in the value system and strategies of the corporate culture.

In such organizations, diversity programs are not met with resistance since the climate is already diverse, (Richard, 2000). Furthermore, Elsass and Graves (1997) note that the acceptance of diversity of programs by the employees also depend on how the co uk review organization is performing at in network security, the time. Firms that are downsizing will have their attempts to introduce diversity programs met with considerable hostility, while those, which are growing and expanding will experience minimal hostility against new diversity programs. Richardson (2000) observes that being aware of the review situation is crucial in an organization’s bid to implement a diversity program, since situational factors are determinant of how a diversity program will be received by the employees. Zahavy and Erez (2002) are of the opinion that the success of a diversity program depends on the goals that the company has set when undertaking such a measure. In addition, the goals should be constantly reviewed, based on the feedback that is received on the performance of such objectives.

According to museums thesis, Locke and Latham, (1990), the goal setting theory is based on the notion that precise goals that are both tasking and acceptable stimulate performance on a range of duties than goals, which are easy, ambiguous and unreal. In this context, goals and objectives are referent to what the diversity program intends to accomplish. The diversity program should also clearly distinguish goals from essaywriter review, quotas or proportions since they are not similar and will impact the diversity program in in network security, different ways. Increasing the number of review, culturally diverse employees may be one of the goals, but using quotas when giving promotions or hiring new employees may possibly be perceived as reverse discrimination (Zahavy Erez, 2002). Therefore, when an organization is preparing a diversity program, goals other than proportions or quotas should be considered. Such goals may include mentoring of employees from minority groups, improving the relationship with employees from minority groups, increasing cross-cultural knowledge and cultural competence of employees within the organization (Richard, 2002).

These goals may be complemented with specific objects such as increasing the numbers of women and other minority employees being hired as well as those receiving promotions. Zahavy and Erez (2002) suggest that when developing a diversity program, an organization should engage legal counsel to in network, makes sure that the objectives and the approaches proposed are in line with employment laws as well as ethical standards. The goals should not only be specific in nature, but also realistic. This should be ascertained by thorough examination of the prevailing strategies in co uk review, use, which should then be transformed into thesis security the definite objectives that will subsequently be used to evaluate the effectiveness of the program. In order to optimize the benefits of setting specific goals for the diversity program, it is necessary that the organization engage in evaluation procedures at specific stages. The progress and impact of essaywriter review, such a program must be accessed and the obtained feedback integrated in the ensuing implementation process.

Feedback in thesis security, this case is very crucial as it provides insight on how well the goals of the diversity program are being met and essaywriter co uk factors that need to be changed to streamline the eating research process. Bowen and Blackmon (2003) observe that goals should give priority to the what needs to be accomplished, enhance creation of efficient strategies as well as stimulate the efforts need in attaining the goals. Goals should be specific enough for essaywriter the participants because more benefits are associated with having specific goals and specific procedures for attaining them. Hoffman (2003) adds that ambiguous goals such as those that seemingly encompass all the objectives, detracts attention and does not stimulate action from the participants. In this case, Hoffman emphasizes that; an organization should break down its overall objective for diversity management, into specific goals that are comprehensible and applicable by the workforce. According to Howard, Hoffman and Wintenberg (2003) add that framing of a diversity program has a great influence on its overall success. This is based on psychological research that has proven that psychological framing of messages is instrumental in research, how they are perceived and interpreted by the recipients. In this case, Zahavy and Erez (2002) state that well framed diversity programs are not perceived as threats that need to be overcome, but rather as opportunities or challenges.

There are a number of frames that are can be used in co uk, strategies, which include, assimilation/learning approach which views diversity as a tool for reorganizing the organization’s basic tasks and procedures. Another frame proposed by Ely and stress essay Thomas (2001) is the access and legitimacy view, which approaches diversity programs as a strategy that will give the organization legitimacy in the market. This is accomplished by hiring employees who have fundamental similarities with the targeted clientele. The other frame is the discrimination versus fairness that views diversity programs as a means through which the organization can get rid of essaywriter co uk, discrimination and writing by chapter provide equal opportunities to its employees. Ely and Thomas (2003) note that the above three framing process will be successful to some degree. Essaywriter Co Uk. However, they emphasize that the framing method, which is most likely to motivate employees, to be actively involved and committed to the realization of the goals of the diversity program, is integration and learning. This is because it is based on the underlying principle that motivates the workforce for long-term success of the program. Research Paper. Management also plays an important role. Research indicates that diversity programs which received enthusiastic endorsement and support from the top levels of management were the most successful (Bowen and Blackmon, 2003).

When employees perceive that the management is deeply committed to the diversity program, then they are more likely to essaywriter, emulate them. Additionally, putting the strategy into practice, by choice and opportunity essay having a culturally diverse management team is also a great motivating factor for a successful diversity program. Adding to the framing of diversity programs strategy, Kravitz and Klineberg (2002) state that when creating affirmative actions aimed at increasing the number of women and other minorities in the workforce, it is important to put into consideration a number of essaywriter co uk, important factors. Thesis. Mostly, affirmative action may have the negative effect of stigmatizing the beneficiary, instead of affirming them. This is because affirmative actions is construed as supporting individuals based on either gender or their minority status and not on their competence to perform their duties, leading to a misconception that they are incompetent, (Heilman Stathatos, 2007). Social identity theory is another theory relevant to the formulation of diversity programs (Tajfel Turner, 1986). This theory applies to diversity programs and management because when the essaywriter co uk workforce identifies with the organization, the chances for the success of the diversity program are much higher.

The premise of museums thesis, this theory is that individuals desire to perceive themselves in the most positive light, and one way of essaywriter co uk review, doing so is museums thesis being identified with individuals who are like themselves. In the same way, groups are likely to gravitate towards insiders and outsiders, where outsiders are usually considered negatively. When this happens at the workplace, diversity strategies are less likely to be successful. When such in-groupings occur, workmates become prejudiced against essaywriter, each other, stereotypes prevail triggering conflicts (Bowen and Blackmon, 2003). Lefkowitz (1994) observes that there are various factors that exist within the thesis writing by chapter working environment that will cause the employees to gravitate towards those who are most similar to them. A research conducted by Harrison and Bell, (1998) suggests that individual employees need to be encouraged to know themselves, in order to counteract the tendency of workmates to associate themselves with only those they perceive to be like them.

This requires a lot of time, and various strategies. Brickson (2000) in his study, established that having a reward structure within the organization is likely to stimulate employees to collaborate and cooperate but there is need for specific goals that are geared towards enhancing teamwork and forming of mutual relationships by the workforce. Specifically, when the review reward being giving makes it a requirement for the employees to cooperate or collaborate with each other, then the institution as well as the teams become precedent as opposed to the individual differences that separate the workforce. In the same way, Chatman, Polzer and Barsade (1998) add that tasks that are more individually based and rewards for such will only motivate the workers to thesis in network security, become more individualistic and will not encourage teamwork and co uk cooperation. This will result to the ineffectiveness of the diversity programs. Conclusion Eating Disorder Paper. Enhancing a culture of cooperation within the organization will require management to take a leadership position that emphasizes on common good and essaywriter review basing some performance of tasks on introduction stress overall group performance and not on individuals and rewarding such group achievements often (Brickson 2003). Brickson (2003) observes that the success of a diversity program largely depends on how well it is managed.

Various steps are key to having a successful diversity management plan. According to Lyness (2006), diversity management includes enhancing the essaywriter co uk commitment of essay, senior management to the diversity program, as well as making the answerable to essaywriter review, issues arising in theme, its implementation and overall success. Lyness is also of the opinion that human resources should not be charged with managing the diversity program but the responsibility should be placed upon line management. Management at all levels should also be held accountable for the program. Page (2007) notes that that diversity management should constitute a council made up of all line management who are charged with ensuring that the diversity program is well instituted and that any arising issues are amicably addressed. Diversity, within the context of employee management, means all the essaywriter considerable differences that exist between people, and include the perceptions of museums thesis, differences, which need to be put under consideration in specific circumstances. Essaywriter Co Uk Review. In most cases, the most significant differences are usually those, which are not very obvious, such as belief and value systems and thought processes.

Scott (2007) cites some basic sources of diversity that impact businesses in one way or another to thesis security, be, age, ethnicity, culture, gender, religion, language, economic status, regional culture, sexual orientation, working experience, personality, learning style, ideology, e.t..c. Diversity management is co uk review therefore a continuous process that incorporates the recognition of in network security, differences within the essaywriter co uk workforce, within all fundament functions of the business, communication and stress essay services with the review intention of scarcity choice cost essay, creating a harmonious, fair, inclusive and effective organization. Diversity management encourages participation, inclusion, and the full contribution of co uk review, all members of start towards the goals and objectives of the organization. The Birthmark Theme Essay. Diversity also cultivates a good reputation for the organization among various groups in the society and the global market (Scott 2007). Diversity and diversity management at the workplace has undergone major revolution in essaywriter co uk, the last 30 years in the birthmark essay, both UK and major economies on the globe. This is particularly so because of increased immigration, ease in transport as well as the emergence of globalization and the global market. Co Uk. Especially in the early seventies to the mid nineties, there have been various laws, which have been instituted against sexual and racial discrimination (West Frances, 2007). In addition, extensive legislation has been formulated that shields that emphasize on equal opportunities for all, human rights, health and safety at the workplace as well as the rights that protect the disabled. These laws made it imperative for businesses and institutions to museums thesis, comply in order to mitigate the essaywriter co uk risks of expensive penalties, legal action, injuries, reduced motivation and damage to the organizations reputation among other factors (Scott, 2007). This factor have continued to motivate businesses to have comprehensive and effective diversity programs to the present date.

Managers are held responsible to ensure tolerance and fairness at the workplace, which according to West and Frances (2007), is achieved through staff training, control systems and other compliance policies. In the past decade, the scarcity choice cost globalized economy has created a marked increase in essaywriter, workforce diversity, and more competition for experienced and talented employee (Ely Thomas, 2001). Additionally, the expectations of employees regarding the balance in thesis writing, work and life, has risen. Workers have also come to expect more flexibility, increased opportunities both to showcase their talents and benefit for their efforts, recognition and respect (HR Focus, 2008).. Essaywriter Co Uk Review. In this respect, businesses have found it of utmost importance to reorganize their business model to focus on competitiveness and benefits that will ensure that they are in compliance of employment laws and regulations. This in turn reduces the business risks as well as responding to the changes in the economy and society, thereby ensuring overall business viability and success. Hostager and De Meuse (2003) observe that managers are charged with the eating research responsibility of enhancing workforce diversity and its advantages to create social cohesiveness and inclusiveness, which are significant elements that determine the review effectiveness and success of the museums thesis organization. According to West and co uk review Frances (2007), some businesses manage issues arising from diversity as they occur, or will simply ignore them. However, as Childers (2005) has proved that, only businesses and thesis security organizations that have cultural diversity management strategies, which are ultimately successful and effective and are likely to remain competitive over a long period. Grimes (2008) adds that, the key to essaywriter, coming up with a good strategy for managing cultural diversity is understanding, what factors that motivate and satisfy the employees regardless of their backgrounds. One of the most composite elements of diversity is cultural background that plays a big role in employee expectations, motivation and overall satisfaction (West and Frances 2007).

Age, education, gender, mental and physical ability are some other diversity factors that greatly impact the thesis by chapter working environment. Presence of people from different nationalities, cultures and social backgrounds makes the current state of workplaces very complex and delicate. Gilbert and essaywriter Ivancevich (2000) state that human beings are more alike than they are different, and perceived differences are rooted in upbringing, and acquired viewpoints about the world and the manner in which things are done. Childers (2005) adds that the most significant of these differences are those that are based in our belief systems, our values and our attitudes. In this case, the management of introduction stress essay, diversity should be connected to the both the performance of the organization as well as that of the individual.

This is essaywriter co uk review based on the notion that performance is largely dependent on the quality of and opportunity essay, ones thinking, which is based on the quality of essaywriter co uk, information that an individual has (Bowen and Blackmon, 2003) Without the right kind of information, especially that, which concerns others, misperceptions and miscommunication will be inevitable. Having the knowledge about differences, and how they are likely to impact relationships, actions and decisions within the composite diverse working environment enables managers and the business at large to enhance performance at the individual and conclusion paper team levels (HR Focus, 2008). Lyness (2006) states that a sound diversity management strategy makes it imperative for businesses to gain new knowledge, information and skills that are geared towards the development of cultural competence. Managing people who are from diverse cultural backgrounds calls for a combined knowledge and skills, which can be acquired, and that will lead to essaywriter, the acquisition of cultural knowledge and competence. According to Brickson (2003), cultural competence is awareness, practices, knowledge, skills and procedures that are required in for the appropriated and efficient functioning within situations and circumstances that are generally culturally diverse and essay interaction of individuals coming from diverse cultures. In order to co uk, so, it is disorder paper paramount to have a comprehensive understanding of what culture is essaywriter as well as the meaning of cultural diversity (Lynes, 2006). It is also of great importance, when seeking to become culturally competent, to have frameworks and thesis in network security concepts that are comprehensive enough to facilitate the ability to manage and review analyze culture and cultural diversity in security, ways that are practical and applicable. According to HR Focus, (2008) groups desire to work harmoniously and with cooperation without disagreements and essaywriter conflicts. It is writing common practice for organizations to ignore discussion of differences, which exist between members of essaywriter, a group.

This is because there are many complex issues that are associated with diversity. Thesis Writing. Cultural competence involves having the knowledge that people may be inherently different, but these differences should not inhibit the good performance (Zahavy Erez, 2002). A sound diversity management plan therefore involves the essaywriter co uk assessment and introduction discussion of these differences, how they impact working relationships and how they should be addressed (Brickson, 2003). West and Frances (2007)observe that there are various challenges that related to cultural diversity and which business, both macro and micro have to contend with. i.Complying with regulations on safety, equal opportunities and anti discrimination.

ii.Responding to a increased diversity in the labor market. iii.Competing for the talent available in the labor force. iv.Managing innovation and knowledge in the workplace. v.Sustainable relationships with the review community. vi.Serving a market that is conclusion disorder research paper culturally diverse, both locally and internationally. vii.Meeting the needs and expectations of the workforce. viii.Meeting all ethical standards and social responsibility. ix.Remaining competitive in culturally diverse global market. Each of the above elements bears great significance of the performance and viability of a business. According to Watson (2002) the top 100 companies in diversity management, based on equal pay and opportunities, motivation and of employees and had a 10.7% increase on returns on essaywriter investment.

This has motivated many global companies to be actively engaged in competing for a position in the best companies in terms of diversity management (Diversity Inc, 2009). There is sufficient evidence that proves that companies benefit when they incorporate diversity in their operations, planning and museums thesis decision-making. Lynes (2007)observes that some of this benefits can be observed and measured within the short term. These include reduction of employee complaints and increase in output of employee. However, as (Zahavy Erez, 2002). adds, the major and most significant benefits are those that are ingrained into the organizations culture and have long term effects. This will ensure sustainable cohesion, inclusion and co uk review overall productivity. Thesis In Network Security. Undertaking a management approach, that enhances on compliance, organization and market growth factors into everyday business operations will present immense benefits, reduce costs and increase profitability, (Rosenfeld, Landis Dalsky, 2003) add that it is imperative that, while undertaking diversity program implementation, business and organizations specific issues should be considered, as well as specific aims and objectives. In order to do so, the case for action should be analyzed in detail. Sacco and Schmitt (2003).notes that, the pertinent issues related to the organization and business case strategy include: i.Development of the organization. ii.Management of co uk, knowledge and skills.

v.Development of scarcity choice and opportunity cost, products and services. Rosenfeld, Landis and Dalsky, (2003) further observes that the business case for cultural diversity management is based on the proven fact that businesses gain competitive advantage whey they have sound diversity management strategies and polices. This is primarily because sustainable competitive edge is co uk review obtained from resources, which includes human resources, which are not easily replicable but go a long way into adding value to products and services. This facilitates the growth and in network security development of the organization in essaywriter co uk review, a number of ways, which Sacco and Schmitt (2003) cites as: enhanced team and management functions. better long term strategies and planning, which factor in demographic trends.

Better response and flexibility to changing markets. Better mechanisms for resolving employee conflicts and improved decision making. Improved chances of attracting better talent and employee retention. In terms of talent attraction and theme essay retention, Richard (2000) notes that organizations that have sound strategies in diversity management, and that address the issues of essaywriter co uk review, minority employees greatly cut down on employee turnover, which saves them money, retains skills and boosts the reputation of the essay organization within the global market. Businesses that are known to be fair, give equal opportunities to their employees and have respect for all minority groups will be greatly preferred by all potential employees. Such organizations will always attract the essaywriter best talent in the industry.

In addition, a good working environment that is not discriminative increases labor turnover as well as reducing employee absenteeism. Richard (2000) adds that a sound diversity management program reduces employee groupings in terms of theme, insiders and outsiders, stimulates motivation, creates flexibility and enhances the productivity of employees. West and Frances (2007) goes on to say that when teams and team leaders are increasingly aware of cultural factors that exist within teams, then members will be better positioned to make meaningful contributions to the team. There is also reduction of the review negative influence and teams are able to integrate for better outcomes. Specifically pertaining to global businesses, Wintenberg (2003) notes that linguistic diversity within the the birthmark theme essay workforce will enable the organization to communicate easily with an international market. The business will also have more choices when considering international markets because they have become more culturally competent (Scott, 2007). Moreover, the co uk review organization will be more effective when recruiting and retaining of qualified personnel from oversees. Wintenberg (2003) adds that the company will also have more flexibility when going into the global market, whether through merging, joint ventures, franchising, acquisitions or exportation. Businesses will also be able to easily adopt to expatriate professionals and technicians. Ely and theme Thomas (2003) add that a company will be less likely to fail in their global ventures and assignments.

According to Sacco and Schmitt (2003), sustainable competitive edge is essaywriter review gained from the knowledge and skills among the employees, which other competitors cannot be able to duplicate or obtain from the labor market. In this sense, knowledge is considered diverse and businesses should s t rive to create a knowledge based culture within its operation (Sinclair 2000) notes that the thesis management of knowledge within an enterprise involves recognizing, formulating, ongoing expansion and improvement and sharing of the knowledge, insights and experiences of the organizations members. An organization that is knowledge based will find new and more effectives means of essaywriter co uk, knowledge sharing among the museums thesis employees to ensure that the its knowledge has strategic value (HR Focus, 2007). In this sense, global businesses have come to co uk review, understand that diversity in cognition and choice and opportunity essay information gives them competitive advantage within the review global market. According to Kravitz and introduction essay Klineberg (2002) training, professional development and learning enhance to the above processes.

A culturally diverse environment presents numerous learning and growth opportunities to all employees. The employees have the opportunities to share their knowledge as well as their diverse experiences. Essaywriter. By facilitating ongoing learning opportunities for personal or professional development makes the workforce more loyal and more willing to share their knowledge and experiences with their colleagues. HR Focus (2007) adds that when the diverse backgrounds of the employees are acknowledged, then their unique abilities and knowledge will be brought in thesis by chapter, performing some specific tasks or solving specific problems. Cultural diversity and competence training is also key in the management of a culturally diverse workforce and enhances the co uk review knowledge base of the business (Grimes, 2002). Training in cross cultural issues enhances how employees relate with each other and therefore boosts effectiveness of teams. Cross-cultural training also enhances customer service, as well as improving customer relationships. Cross cultural training of utmost importance as recent studies indicate that culturally different individuals perceive circumstances and situations differently as well as having very different ways of learning (Thalheimer, 2009). Grimes (2002) has identified a number factors that should be considered when creating a diversity programs strategy or program. These factors include pertinent questions that should be asked before deciding on the most suitable approach a particular company’s diversity program.

These questions are: i.What are the the birthmark key aspects of cultural diversity among employees that need to be incorporated when making business plans and delivering services? ii.What are the essaywriter factors related to the cultural diversity of the cost workforce influence planning, assigning duties and delivery of products and services. iii.What are the conflicts and misunderstandings that occur among the employees that are related to language or cultural differences? iv.How does cultural diversity impact performance of teams and management within the business. v.Does the prevailing working atmosphere proved an atmosphere that encourages individuals to co uk review, speak up about conclusion disorder research, issues of cultural diversity.

vi.What are the key skills that team leaders and managers should posses to manage and work with cultural diversity. vii.What is the current diversity management scenario within the co uk review company? Kravitz and choice and opportunity cost essay Klineberg (2002) points out review that, for introduction stress essay an enterprise to develop a business case geared toward management of review, diversity, some crucial factors that impact business operations should be identified. The strategy should also determine the specific benefits, which will be accrued from investing time and other resources into a sound cultural diversity program. Communicating across cultures. Cultural differences affect how individuals communicate across cultures (Hostager De Meuse, 2003). The Birthmark Theme. In most cases of cross-cultural communication, information is often misconceived and misinterpreted due to the fundamental differences perceiving things. Childers (2005) adds that elements of cross cultural communication are fundamental when formulating a diversity program. The strategy should factor in key issues such as how cross-cultural communication affects team dynamics, resolution of conflicts, cooperation, innovativeness and essaywriter review other factors in the business.

In order to be fully cultural competent, it is the birthmark theme important for the workforce to have effective skills that will enable them to communicate across cultures effectively. This calls for a comprehensive understanding of culture, and the role it plays in people’s perceptions, attitudes, values and co uk review beliefs (Hostager De Meuse, 2003) O’ Sullivan (1994) defines culture as a system of museums thesis, shared beliefs and values shared among members of a particular group. Hosfede (1984) adds that culture is a collective mind programming that differentiates members of one group from another. Hall (1989) added that communication is essaywriter a form of culture and that culture is communication. He went on to say that meaningful interaction would not be possible other than through culture, as the medium of communication. According to Schein (1985), culture is a pattern of unconsciously held automatic assumptions that are often taken for eating granted. Hostager and De Meuse (2003) observes that there are various levels at which culture operates.

This include National, regional, occupational, organizational and team levels of culture. He goes on to point out several areas at which culture functions on the personal level. These include upbringing, ideology and essaywriter co uk personality. West and Frances (2007) points out that, to understand and compare cultures, there is need to museums thesis, generalize, but at the same time clarify the difference between stereotyping and generalizing. Grouping of co uk, factors in logical categories that are coherent is museums thesis what generalizing pertains.

Brickson (2003) notes that it is not possible to isolate all factors that are at essaywriter co uk, play within interactions of culturally diverse individuals or groups. When observing various cultures, it is possible to generalize based on experience or knowledge. Some generalizations include: i.Western cultures are individualistic. ii.Asian cultures value politeness and discretions. Stereotyping, on the hand, is taking such generalizations and applying them to groups of people, without considering the choice and opportunity cost essay inherent individual differences. This means that everyone within such a group has been stereotyped.

Cornes, (1998) notes that when thinking about essaywriter co uk, workforce diversity, generalizations may occur at the initial stages, but there should be openness and museums thesis modification of these perceptions and generalizations as we gain more knowledge and information regarding the cultures we are dealing with. In addition, stereotypical views and opinions must be constantly challenged for the effective management of a culturally diverse workforce. It is essaywriter co uk of great importance for diversity management strategies to understand the demographic factors of the team or workforce to be attuned to trends and changes in population and introduction essay its cultural composition Wintenberg (2003) According to HR Focus (2008), there are four basic factors that underlie cross cultural communication. Verbal behavior is the first factor and entails how individuals say and the way in which it is said. Here, tone, volume, rate and co uk accents are involved. The second factor is non-verbal behavior, which entails what is said without speech or talking. Non-verbal communicative behavior consists of conclusion paper, body language, e.g. body movements and eye contact. …. adds that there is also object language that involves ornamentation, dress codes, and the environment within which the communication is being carried out such as the design of an office and essaywriter co uk review the decor. The third element in cross cultural communication involve communication style. This is the preferred way of self expression and includes assumptions held regarding how to interact and communicate with others, and how we choose to convey what we wish to communicate.

The fourth factor is what we believe to museums thesis, be right. This is largely influenced by essaywriter prejudices, values and attitudes. Of all the three elements of cross-cultural communication, this is regarded as composite and involves ingrained feelings and beliefs regarding personal identity. This element also influences how we view the word, perceive and make judgment of others. In this chapter, the purpose of the study and thesis the methods used to essaywriter co uk, conduct the research will be addressed. Disorder. It will also discuss the population and specific sample that was studied and how the essaywriter data was acquired. The chapter will finally discuss the procedures used to scarcity choice and opportunity, analyzed archival data used for the study. A fundamental question that has guided past researches in cultural diversity at the workplace is review whether it enables corporations to perform better and realize more growth and profitability. The studies had have established that indeed, the role of culturally diversity at the workplace is museums thesis important and does enable companies to become more competitive, both domestically and at the international platform. This is primarily so, especially for multinationals, because it gives them an international and inclusive appearance, making its activities and products more desirable and essaywriter acceptable to an international market. It has also been established that cultural diversity in a company is of great value because it demonstrates that the company’s employment policies is in line with international standards and offers equal opportunities to all regardless of cultural, racial or religious background.

Such policies give the clientele confidence in the company, and with prevailing awareness by thesis writing consumers regarding ethical standards of companies where they procure their goods or services, the company stands to benefit from cultural diversity in its workforce. Initially, cultural diversity only essaywriter co uk review, began as an attempt to theme, meet legal and essaywriter co uk review government requirements but has eventually come to be recognized as a strategic precedence that can position a company more competitively on the global market. Companies are increasingly dedicating a lot of security, time and resources in training on diversity, creating benefits program for a culturally diverse workforce, and other such plans, all geared towards increasing and fortify cultural diversity within the workforce (Konrad, 2003). Corporations have come to appreciate the importance of diversity and consider it as a business imperative. Review. Demographic shifts within the labor market, both domestically and internationally, particularly the museums thesis rapid increase of minority labor over the last decade has affected companies and businesses in various ways. Diversity at the workplace is driven by three distinct factors, which are. i.Competition for the best employees: This drives companies to reach out to the diverse labor pool in search for the best talents suited for the organizations goals. ii.Globalization: Having a diversified workforce on the global platform is good business strategy as it enables the company handle effectively a diverse customer base.

This implies that the diversified workforce will ultimately increase the market share of the company. iii.Increased innovation and creativity: This implies that the diversified workforce have more innovative and essaywriter creative resources that are availed by the diversified demographics. The culturally diverse workforce has better group problem resolution ultimately leading to a competitive environment within the organization. With this in mind, the current research aims at exploring, evaluating and ultimately coming up with a suitably comprehensive strategy that will enable companies maintain optimum levels of employee harmony, cohesion and motivation. The study will do so by using qualitative research to gather, evaluate and draw conclusions. The research design used for this study will be in the form of: i.Extensive literature review. This study aimed at identifying key strategies that will enhance harmonious working relationships among culturally diverse employees. In so doing, it is imperative that the study establishes key gaps and problems that inhibit harmonious working relationships among employees who are culturally diverse.

The primary source for this information was gathered from the human resource departments of seven multinational companies. The information was obtained by by chapter accessing the company websites and other relevant reports. Looking at the recent new-employee training manuals enabled the research to identify the latest training trends and the elements that received more emphasis in the training. The elements that were most emphasized in training by all seven companies reflected the areas that were deemed critical in enhancing the relationship between a culturally diverse workforce. They were also useful in recognizing possible problems that the companies had identified in employee relationships and had undertaken corrective measures to be covered in the training. Such strategies that were identified in six out co uk review of the seven companies that were evaluated included, ESL training for disorder research paper the immigrant workforce, and in four out of the seven companies, there was ESL training for new-employees in oversees companies, who were hired from the local labor force. In addition, three of the seven companies, which operated in Asian countries, enrolled their employees in intensive language training programs to learn the local language. This was particular for companies in Japan, India and co uk review China.

Extensive literature review. Numerous studies have been conducted that address the question of eating research paper, diversity at the workplace and specifically cultural diversity at the workplace in the context of globalization. The qualitative research also involved carrying out extensive review of past studies conducted in the field of diversity management at the workplace. Literature in this area was established through conducting online data base searches using key words such as cultural diversity management, diversity at the workplace and workplace policies and regulations on cultural diversity. This search yielded over 2000 hits from the various databases, which were further refined based on their relevance to the research topic and their date of publication. More recent articles were preferred as they reflected the essaywriter review most recent research and strategies in stress essay, cultural diversity and diversity management at the workplace. The aims of the extensive and systematic literature survey were to: identify all relevant published evidence on essaywriter co uk diversity management.

Select the in network most relevant studies and reports to be included in the study. Assess the quality and co uk authenticity of each research or report. Synthesis the results and findings from the individual researches and reports in a way the would answer the research questions of the thesis writing current study. Interpret the results of the articles used and come up with a balanced and cohesive analysis while putting into consideration possible flaws in the past studies and reports. Draw out a comprehensive approach that would be effective in co uk, promoting harmony among culturally diverse employees. Journals were primarily considered as sources of past research on diversity management because they not only contain the original research and findings of various studies, but also high quality peer reviewed and systematic reviews of the thesis writing works. A systematic review also allows the researcher to examine both qualitative and co uk review quantitative evidence that were used in conducting the studies whose findings were included in this current systematic literature review. In a addition, integrating the systematic literature review process for a study enables the researcher to establish the feasibility, meaningfulness and appropriateness of past studies on the topic.

This is of great importance since not all systematic reviews or studies are conducted with meticulousness and some of the findings may be misleading or inconclusive. Systematically reviewing the articles and data through using leading questions would be useful in uncovering any deficiency in the articles and data. In conducting the literature survey a specific methodology is used, which is aimed at introduction stress, minimizing bias while appraising the data and reports of the articles and other publications. The approach also ensures that the selected data is relevant to the current research, and that it is co uk review suitably appropriate and meaningful. The following steps were followed thorough out the systematic literature review. i.A well defined research question. This entails a comprehensive statement of the introduction stress objectives of the study, issue of interest, relevant population of co uk, interest and eating disorder the settings where the population exists. The statement of essaywriter co uk, objectives for the study also includes the kind of studies or evidence that will be instrumental in answering the research questions in addition to the appropriate results and outcomes. These factors are extensively used to museums thesis, choose the most appropriate studies to be included in the literature review. ii.Literature search: Searching of both published and essaywriter co uk review unpublished researches and literature is meticulously carried out for the needed studies, which are related to the research topic and research questions. To ensure that the literature assessment is thesis in network as unbiased as possible, the search is careful to include all studies therefore using multiple databases that include studies carried out in other countries.

Databases, websites and specialized search engines are useful in obtaining grey literature, which means works that have not been formally published. Essaywriter Co Uk Review. These include conference proceedings, working papers, institutional reports and other such documents, which are not subject to thesis writing, peer review or editorial control. Co Uk Review. In addition, searching the references of full text articles produces more results for on relevant studies. Possible biases in this case include language bias, publication bias and selection bias (Dubben, 2005). iii.Assessment of literature: After identification of potential literature that may be used in the current study, it is important to make an assessment if the scarcity choice and opportunity cost following manner. Eligibility against essaywriter co uk review, the criteria for inclusion. Full text articles are then retrieved for those, which meet the criteria for the birthmark theme inclusion. Subsequent to the selection stage for full text papers, the rest of the works are assessed to establish their framework for essaywriter co uk critical appraisal and methodological quality. Some poor quality paper will be excluded, but can be mentioned and discussed in the review.

Reported findings of the remaining studies are extracted on a form for data extraction. It is possible for some studies to be excluded event at this advanced stage. A listing of the included studies is generated at this point. iv.Synthesis of results: After analyzing the individual studies, they are synthesized to come up with cohesive information that addresses the research question. The Birthmark Essay. The method of synthesizing the review findings is dependent on the type of conclusion eating disorder paper, data that the essaywriter co uk review evidence has yielded. In the choice case where the work being reviewed yields data that is of qualitative nature, a meta-synthesis is review carried out. Choice And Opportunity Cost. Alternatively, a meta-analysis is conducted to analyze quantitative data. In the essaywriter co uk review case that the quantitative data is not homogenous in nature, the summaries in narrative form may be appropriate. v.Contextualizing the the birthmark findings: In order to put the results of collective studies selected for the study in context, then a discussion of the findings is necessary. Discussion of results will address factors such as heterogeneity of selected studies, the quality of data, and potential for bias, in addition to how the results are applicable in real practice. Broad research question.

The broad research question that guided the study is: What is the most effective approach to cultural diversity at the workplace whilst maintaining employee harmony and cohesion? Other research questions. What specific actions can a business or organization undertake in order to manage cultural diversity at the workplace more effectively? What are the issues that are central to diversity management in organizations? What are the experiences of culturally diverse employees at the workplace? What are basic factors that are integral in essaywriter co uk review, cross-cultural communication? What are the key competencies in managing culturally diverse employees? How can an organization manage its cultural diversity training guide? Questionnaires and museums thesis Surveys.

Structured questionnaires and surveys were used to obtain primary data for essaywriter review this study. The target group consisted of about 80 respondents who were drawn from the seven companies used for the survey and theme other local and international companies not included in essaywriter co uk review, the initial survey. In the selected companies, a number of 6-10 employees were chosen including one from top management, one from middle management, one from the human resource department and the rest of the respondents being drawn from by chapter, various working levels within the organization. Selecting respondents from all levels of the organization was in line with study’s aim of establishing suitable strategies that promote cohesion within a culturally diverse workforce. Employees at all levels are relevant to the study because they are bound to interact with a colleague from a different culture, and the way they interact with such a colleague is critical in understanding the gaps that exist within the culturally diverse workforce. The human resource department personnel were instrumental as respondents because they were central to the whole dynamics of employee relationships and the department was responsible for identifying missing links with culturally diverse colleagues, and had in the past or presently been involved in trying to co uk review, identify strategies that would creating a strong working force. Top-level management respondents were selected because they were involved, at the very top, with ensuring that the company is competitively positioned in the market, and one way of in network, doing so was to essaywriter review, ensure that the right strategies in employee management were in place. In this case, they were better positioned to make observations on how such decisions had influenced the company’s performance or affected its reputation and image. They are therefore more knowledgeable on introduction stress the effectiveness of past policies and co uk strategies and possible new ones that would seal loopholes that emerge in relationships between culturally diverse employees..

Mostly open-ended questions were used in the questionnaire and were structured in such a way that would ensure the major research question was answered. The questions were directed to finding out how employees perceive individuals from different cultures, whether they had had difficulties in thesis in network security, establishing communication or understanding what was intended in the communication. Review. They also aimed at establishing the level of thesis writing by chapter, satisfaction of employees, given the prevailing employee benefits and policies that address cultural diversity. The questions would also establish if workers felt appreciated and treated fairly within the essaywriter co uk working environment, whether they had considered looking for new employment in the recent past. The questionnaire would also establish the level of motivation of employees, based on their relationship with colleagues, with management and on their general work output. The questionnaires have been specifically designed in a way that will help unearth key weaknesses and strengths in the strategies used in essay, dealing with cultural diversity at the workforce. Essaywriter. Subsequently, the data acquired through this method will be analyzed in order to answer the fundamental question on which this study is based.

Below are sample questions that the selected respondents will be required to answer: Case study research is an effective approach as it facilitates the understanding of composite issues 3. Case studies enlarge experience and strengthen what has already been established in previous studies. In this context, they highlight in-depth and contextual analysis of a number of occurrences or situations and their inter-relation 7. Case study method in theme essay, this research will be used to examine the existing situation in co uk, organization and how current approaches to managing cultural diversity at the workplace. This will in turn provide the foundation for the application of the strategies and ideas that will be generated from assessing the real-life situation of a culturally diverse working environment and the experiences of the individuals who do their work is such an environment. Case study methodology is defined as an empirical inquiry that explores a current phenomenon within the real-life context 3. This is particularly effective in conclusion, the case the phenomenon being investigated and the context cannot be clearly separated. Those who are opposed to co uk, case study research methodology observe that the examination of a limited number of cases is paper not sufficient to provide generality and essaywriter reliability of the results while others feel that findings may become biases because of overexposure to a particular case.

Other critics feel that case study methodology is only practical when used as an exploratory tool. However, the approach is eating disorder research paper capable of yielding authentic and minimally unbiased findings especially if it is augmented by other research methodologies such as qualitative inquiry and systematic literature review. Conducting a case study. The first step when conducting a case having definite research questions that will aid in co uk review, addressing the broader research question for the study 5. The research questions enable the stress study to remain focused by establishing the purpose of conducting the study. In a case study, the review object of and opportunity cost essay, research is an individual, an entity or a group of people. Each study object may have historical, social, political and personal connections, which presents a broad range of possible questions and further compounds the case study. Case study methodology investigates the review object of study comprehensively, by engaging various data collection methods to come up with evidence that will lead to the comprehension of the case and answer the guiding research questions 6. Mostly, case study methodology answers multiple questions, which are targeted towards a limited number of conditions or events and how they may be inter-related. Introduction Essay. It is co uk more effective to generate research questions for theme essay the case study after conducting an intensive literature review 6. In this case, the researcher is able to assess the studies, which have been previously conducted, therefore ensuring that the questions are refined and essaywriter answer to the broader research question. Establishing the questions before embarking on thesis the case study will direct the researcher to the appropriate places where evidence may be found.

Using this method enables the researcher to establish the method that will be used to analyze the data. The design for the case study will be guided by the broad research question established in the intensive literature review. The guidelines that will be used in conducting this study are. What is the current practice in cultural diversity management in the companies selected for the case study? What is the approach is used when training in cultural diversity. To what extent is the workforce culturally diverse. What are the experiences of employees working in a culturally diverse environment? The second step involves selecting the cases to co uk, be used and the methods of data collection and data analysis that will be used 5. At the research design stage, the researcher decides how the cases will be selected and whether a single or multiple cases are going to be used. Museums Thesis. In the present study, multiple case study of seven international companies will be used. Each case study will be treated as individual and single cases. The findings from each case study will be integrated as information adding to the whole research.

In order to essaywriter, ensure the validity of study, the case studies were carefully selected by examining many available choices. The decision to primarily use multinational companies was arrived because the sufficiently reflect the role and importance of cultural diversity at the workplace. Thesis Security. In addition, they offer the best-case scenario in which to investigate the experiences of individuals working in a culturally diverse environment, as they are more likely to have a higher number of multi-cultural individuals than domestic companies. In selecting the case studies, the researcher considered cases that have some unique aspect in their practice of diversity at the workplace, cases that may be considered as typical and those, which are representative of review, various geographical regions and integrated various sizes for museums thesis the research. Co Uk Review. This was facilitated by referring to the purpose of the study in order to stay focus on cases, which would satisfy the main purpose of the conclusion paper study and provide answers the research questions. Selected companies for the case study. A significant strength that the case study approach bears is the ability to co uk review, use multiple sources and various techniques in the process of data collection 5. Museums Thesis. The researcher predetermined the type of evidence that would be gathered and the type of techniques that would be used to analyze the collected data in a way that comprehensively answers the co uk review main, as well as other research questions. In this case, the data will be analyzed using qualitative method. The tools of data collection included surveys, observation and interviews. Questionnaires were also given to employees in the companies where case studies were being conducted. The designated tools for data collection were used systematically in the collection of evidence 5. Security. The design was carefully formulated to essaywriter review, ensure that it adhered to internal, external and construct validity and reliability.

Internal validity of the museums thesis case study design is important as it proves that certain situations and conditions lead to other conditions. This requires using several pieces of evidence from various sources to unearth convergent points of investigation. External validity demonstrates whether the results can be generalized to a wider population. In this case, the ability of the study to yield similar results in variations of geographical area and population indicates that it has high external validity. External validity in this case was established through cross-case and within-case checks together with the systematic review of co uk review, literature. Reliability of study design refers to the precision of the measurement used, accuracy and stability.

The design of reliable designs for conducting case studies ensures that the writing by chapter methods and procedures are properly documented and the steps can be repeated by other studies many times and review come up with similar results 10. Step 3. Preparation for Collecting the Data. Next is the preparation for data collection, the actual data collection and subsequent evaluation and analysis of the data. It is of great importance to systematically organize data since case studies usually generate a lot of data because of the multiple sources involved. Introduction Essay. There is potential for co uk the researcher to the birthmark theme, become overwhelmed by the data generated, and systematic organization will alleviate this possibility 16. Prior preparation in the management of co uk review, data is of great importance. The researcher should have well prepared categories for sorting the data, storing and museums thesis retrieving for synthesis and analysis. The case study research methodology enabled the researcher to make observations and identify underlying factors that are related to essaywriter co uk, the phenomenon under observation 16. The raw data was examined through engaging various interpretations to establish possible connections and linkages between the object of the birthmark theme, research and with reference to the research questions of the essaywriter review present study. All through the introduction analysis and the evaluation procedure, the researcher stayed open to emerging insights and essaywriter review opportunities.

This is especially important because case study methodology and the multiple techniques used for data collection and writing by chapter evaluation, present the researcher with various opportunities for data triangulation to essaywriter, strengthen the overall results and conclusions from the study. The data was deliberately sorted in different ways to unearth new insights and made a deliberate effort to identify any data that may be conflicting 12. The research was categorized and data merged in a way that would address the research questions for the current study. Explicit techniques included placing the data into arrays, formulating categories, making visual representations such as flow charts and thesis in network charting the frequency with which events of interest to the study occur. The researcher used collected quantitative data to confirm and corroborate the qualitative data.

A cross case investigate of emerging patterns was also conducted, which ensured that conclusions were not made prematurely 7. This was accomplished through evaluating the data from various perspectives. The data was divided according to type across all the cases that were investigated. When a pattern became evident and was in turn corroborated by data from another case study, then the results gained much more authenticity. In the case of conflicting information and review data, further investigation of the museums thesis detected differences was done to establish the origin of the conflict. This chapter discusses the co uk review findings of the case study and provides a review of the research question. In addition, the chapter discusses findings from the questionnaires as well as the results from the extensive review of literature. Lastly, the chapter will provide an thesis in network security analysis and synthesis of the essaywriter results of all data accrued in the process of conducting this research.

The research question that guided this study aimed at identifying and stress essay effective strategy for prompting harmonious working relationships among culturally diverse employees. GlaxoSmithKline is a leading global pharmaceutical company that is headquartered in the UK, with its operations based in essaywriter co uk review, the United States. The company operates in more than 100 countries and security supplies about seven percent of all pharmaceutical supplies globally. In 2002, Glaxo welcome and essaywriter review SmithKline merged to form the thesis writing by chapter present GlaxoSmithKline. The company has a deep commitment towards improving the health and overall quality of all human beings across the globe. It has three distinct units, which are the vaccines, consumer healthcare and essaywriter review pharmaceutical departments. The company has a policy, employee relations, diversity and inclusion department that is mandated with ensuring that that all company polices are compliant with the law and culturally correct. Museums Thesis. The department ensures that the essaywriter co uk company adhered to its fundamental processes so that there is cohesion and harmony between employees and the company, and between the disorder employees. Essaywriter Co Uk. The department is also mandated with creating an environment that is inclusive and where all employees are enabled to give their full potential.

There is also the recruitment department, which is mandated with ensuring best practice in the recruitment of employees. Stress. The department is small, with a team of three which primarily deals with the recruitment of co uk, graduate employees to choice, work in sales and marketing, finance, IT, pharmaceutical department, chemists, engineers, biologists e.t.c. The department has plays a great role in review, ensuring that the scarcity and opportunity cost essay company attracts and retains individuals with great talent, in co uk review, addition to providing the environment where they will be able to realize their greatest potential. These departments will be used to analyze key strategies, and recruitment process of GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) focusing on the procedure and specific policies and initiatives that the company uses to promote and manage cultural diversity among the employees. GSK’s mission on diversity and inclusion endeavors to capture the divergent perspectives, styles, experiences and knowledge of thesis writing, that resides within the co uk review global community. The basic principle that informs the security GSK’s strategy for diversity and inclusion is having a company, with an inherent culture of inclusiveness, which is as attractive as possible to potential employees, who once they join, would be reluctant to leave. The culture of inclusiveness endeavors to ensure that employees remain in the company for a long time and their experiences within the organization enable them to realize their best potential. In this case, employee diversity entails acquiring the essaywriter best employees for stress the job, regardless of nationality, race creed, age or gender, sexual orientation or physical ability. Diversity and inclusion strategies for essaywriter review the GSK also entail establishing an inclusive culture and and opportunity cost essay personnel that reflects the variety and full potential of the society, which we live in. The long-term mission of GSK involves targeted growth, both in UK and overseas, expansion, and essaywriter co uk review improvement of the quality life through empowering individuals to do more, feel better and live longer.

In most cases, a large part of the company’s practices on the birthmark essay diversity and co uk inclusion are enhanced by national as well as international legislation of workplace diversity. This applies for GSK, whose various human resource departments are mandated with the interpretation and subsequent translation of thesis by chapter, diversity legislation into cultural diversity policies and practices that are specific and comprehensive in nature. Diversity practices and essaywriter polices for GSK are formulated to museums thesis, reflect the themes and priorities of the society in which the multinational company is co uk review operating. This is because individuals from different cultures will have difficulties in in network security, comprehending the aspects of another culture. For example, employees in essaywriter co uk, a UK based branch will have difficulties in security, understanding the caste system of Indians co-workers. Similarly, Indians will have difficulties in comprehending ethnic minorities simply because they are not familiar with such terms. To aid in the translation of essaywriter review, legal prerogatives into a practical applications within the local context, GSK engages in consultation with external companies and employees. In UK, GSK has established links and is a member of organizations such as Employers forum on age, Opportunity now, Employers Forum on Disability, Race for Opportunity and theme essay Stonewall. These organizations play an essaywriter co uk invaluable role in introduction essay, the diversity management at GSK as they provide priceless guidance and advice on their specific areas.

In addition, as much as most policies and strategies may entail the top-down approach, the role of employees is essaywriter co uk significant as they too, facilitate the course of action through UK information and consultation forum architecture which covers all business. In this case, there are employee representatives in every business, who participate in the process by suggesting changes in diversity strategies and policies. The role of thesis security, employee networks is also instrumental as it provides feedback from the workforce. There are employee networks within the essaywriter co uk review global GSK enterprise, which include: i.Early career networks. ii.Primetime partners network. iii.Asian employees network. iv.Gay, lesbian, bisexual and choice and opportunity cost transgender network. v.Religious networks, which cover the countless religions. All the employee networks within GSK business are driven by the employees themselves.

These platforms not only offer support, but also enhance inclusiveness and a wholesome working relationship culture but an effective approach towards maximizing employee retention and realization of individual potential. People have the inherent desire to belong, have a voice and essaywriter feel valued. According to diversity management reports of GSK, such strategies have ensured a 7.3% rise in employee retention since 2007. Since 2003, there has been a 2% increase in choice essay, senior positions occupied by women. Flexible working is yet another fundamental strategy that is regarded as instrumental in attracting talent as well as retaining it.

This strategy also enables employees to review, achieve maximum output and enhances attainment of their individual goals. Flexibility is thesis security a fundamental tradition that GSK has engaged in for a long time, but in modern times, the organization is seeking new ways on how to use the flexibility strategy in employment practices to enable employees realizes the greatest potential. The working flexibility approach is geared towards enhancing the productivity of workers instead of focusing on how long an essaywriter co uk employee is present at their workstation. This move will see that employees work 24 hours a day, seven days a week, but this will be on the terms of the employees. A strong culture practically means that individuals retain the ability and disorder research paper have the means with which to practice their values in any given setting. In the past several years, GSK has placed particular emphasis on the recruitment and retention of women as well as their progression. Essaywriter. In addition, the in network security company has focused on specific factors related to disability. Focus on essaywriter co uk disability as a fundamental factor in diversity management is primarily driven by the fact that GSK is an organization based on provision of choice cost essay, healthcare. In order to essaywriter co uk review, have a comprehensive policy on thesis security employees with disabilities, GSK has entered into consultation with the Employers forum on disability (EFD) to ensure that strategies formulated for this particular group was sufficiently comprehensive and addressed individual needs of people with disabilities.

Consulting with EFD has enabled GSK to revise some outdated policies that were too complacent for contemporary times and the needs and rights of the disabled. Though the move was initially criticized as a commercially motivated move, the company has come to be viewed as an essaywriter review employer that is friendly towards the disabled, therefore increasing job applications from this particular group and subsequently gaining greater access to better talent in thesis security, the job market. Recruitment strategies used by GSK, and which are geared towards enhancing cultural diversity at the workforce include lowering the minimum grade required to qualify. This in turn ensures that they are able to recruit from essaywriter review, many universities, which ensures that the pool of the birthmark theme essay, applicants is more diverse. Information on recruitment of graduates is done through the company website, career fairs and graduate brochures ensuring that they reach a larger population and therefore have a higher number of culturally diverse applicants.

The recruitment strategy is reviewed frequently and through this, disabled individuals have gained more access to GSK career opportunities. Disabled applicants have are guaranteed a job interview, provided they have the minimum criteria that the position requires. On the whole, the inclusion and diversity strategies by GSK are largely effective and their recruitment procedures are outstanding. This has ensured that the employees are motivated and gain the feeling of belongingness. This in turn ensures that employees work for the betterment of the organization because they feel that they have stake into review the well-being of the company.

A unique element observed in the diversity and inclusion strategies of GSK is the thesis security attempt to link diversity for review the purpose of talent attraction and retention with fundamental ethical and moral standards. In this case, business driven diversity management may not be the best possible solution in museums thesis, attaining the essaywriter best for the business. This is in network illustrated by the company’s extensive inclusions of employees with disability, which has subsequently enabled the organization to be increasingly perceived as disability friendly. GSK is also shifting focus on the fixed nine to five working hours because they have recognized that it may not be best way to encourage productivity within the workforce. This is drawn from the essaywriter co uk review notion that if employees are given the opportunity to adapt and align themselves on work patterns most suited for them, and then they are motivated to worker harder at the time when they are most productive. GSK views employee effectiveness as not driven by the number of thesis writing by chapter, hours that the workers put in their office but how their employees are able to achieve a balance of high productivity with flexible working hours. The following is a summary of key strategies that GSK engages in the promotion of essaywriter co uk, cultural diversity and management:

Recruitment: The company policy towards recruitment of a culturally diverse workforce is based on their commitment to create “a culture, where individual differences are understood, respected and conclusion research valued” (. ). The company further observes that diversity is both a business and a cultural reality that exists on all levels of the company. The company believes that the contributions and review talents of their diversified workforce should be put to good use and appreciated. This way, the business is able to achieve its highest benefits as well as those of its employees and customers. Hard work is rewarded with excellent pay, benefits, and bonuses. The company has a unique strategy that gives employees opportunities to earn more based on their performance. This is thesis in network security highly motivation especially when integrated with the flexible working hours approach. Employee Diversity: This is essaywriter co uk review enhanced through initiatives such as employee networks, mentoring opportunities where employees can learn more about the job and culture, from an employee who is more experienced. Flexible working options that enable employees have a well balanced approach on work and eating disorder paper life, hiring female and minority employees which ensures that equal opportunities for all members of the society, there company also develops ability through its talent review program high potential employees are motivated to have a well defined career path that suits their needs and talents. There are also training programs aimed at essaywriter co uk, developing potential through on thesis job training, self-study and web-based learning. Essaywriter. In addition, the company strives to ensure that the working environment encourages and facilitates learning and development.

For GSK, cultural diversity is imperative as the company is shifting its focus on by chapter traditional western markets and establishing operations in emerging markets particularly in Asian countries such as Japan. Essaywriter Co Uk Review. This presents the need for GSK to adopt even more comprehensive diversity management strategies in its attempts to capture a bigger market share as it launches into introduction stress new markets and geographical areas. The company’s code of conduct and the employee guide to ethical conduct clarifies key aspects that address the essaywriter review issue of cultural diversity and the behavior that is expected from all employees regarding the issue. The following are excerpts pull randomly from GSK’s employee guide to ethical conduct, that addresses the expected behaviour and responsibility of employees in promoting cohesion and harmony in a culturally diverse working environment. The principles stated therein are effective because they give the museums thesis employee an active and direct role in promoting.

Equal and inclusive treatment of gsk employees [pol-gsk-204] GSK recognises the value of essaywriter, striving for a balanced work force and is committed to the principles of equal opportunity, equality of treatment, and creating a dynamic climate where diversity is conclusion eating paper valued as a source of enrichment and opportunity. All phases of the employment relationship including recruitment, hiring, training, promotion, compensation, benefits, transfers, layoffs, and leaves of review, absence—will be carried out by all managers without regard to race, colour, religion, gender, age, sexual orientation, ethnic or national origin, disability, or (in the US) status as a disabled veteran or veteran of war. We will also provide reasonable accommodation for employees’ disabilities and religious beliefs and practices. Every GSK employee has the right to work in an environment that is free from harassment and in.

which issues of harassment will be resolved without fear of reprisal. Harassment will not be permitted or condoned within GSK, whether it is based on a person’s race, colour, ethnic or national origin, age, gender, real or suspected sexual orientation, religion or perceived religious affiliation, disability, or other personal characteristic. The use of GSK property, bulletin boards, computers, or documents as a vehicle for harassment is prohibited. All employees are expected to take personal responsibility for upholding company standards by treating with dignity and respect all job applicants, fellow employees, customers, contract and temporary personnel, and security any other individuals associated with GSK. Armstrong, M. (1998). Organisational Culture- A Handbook of Human Resource Management. Practice chapter 19, sixth edition, Kogan Page. Bernstein, J. (2005). The 21st Century Workplace –Preparing for Tomorrow’s Employment. Trends Today: A testimony that was given before the U.S senate committee on review health, education, labour and thesis pensions.

May 26 2005. Economic policy Institute. Childers, L. Review. (2005). Diversity Issues and Public Relations. Journal of Public Relations Research. Cox, T. Introduction Stress Essay. H., Jr. (1994). Cultural diversity in organizations: Theory, research and practice. San Francisco: Berrett–Koehler. Ely, R., Thomas, D.A. (2003) Cultural Diversity at Work: The Effects of Diversity. Perspectives on Work Group Processes and Outcomes. To insert individual citation into a bibliography in a word-processor, select your preferred citation style below and drag-and-drop it into the document.

Administrative Science Quarterly, 46, (2) 229-273. EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT (2004). European Parliament resolution on preserving and. promoting cultural diversity: the role of the European regions and international organisations such as UNESCO and the Council of Europe, P5_TA. Retrieved August 31st 2010 from essaywriter review, [], (August 2004) French, R. (2010). Cross Cultural Management- Models of Culture: Developments and Debates. Chapter 4 CIPD Office of introduction stress essay, National Statistics (2002) Minority Ethnic Groups in the UK London. Frances, B., Blackmon, K. (2003). Spirals of Silence: The Dynamic Effects of Diversity on.

Organizational Voice. Journal of essaywriter review, Management Studies. In Network Security. 40, 6. Gilbert, J. A., Ivancevich, J.M. (2000) Valuing Diversity: A Tale of Two Organizations. Academy of Management Executive 14, (1). Gilbert, J. A., Ivancevich, J. M. (2001).

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Management Communication Quarterly. 15 (3). Hansen, F. Co Uk Review. (2003). Diversity’s business case doesn’t add up. Eating. Workforce, pp. 28–32. Howard-Grenville, J. A., Hoffman, A. Review. J., Wirtenberg, J. (2003). The importance of cultural. framing to the success of social initiatives in business. Academy of Management Executive, 17(2), 70–87. Hostager, T. J., De Meuse, K. P. (2003) Assessing the Complexity of Diversity Perceptions:

Breadth, Depth, and Balance. Journal of Business Psychology. Winter 2002,17, (2). HR Focus. (2008), Getting Results from Diversity Training – in Dollars and Cents. HR Focus . Lyness, K. S. (2007). Finding the key to the executive suite: Challenges for women and. people of color. In R. Silzer (Ed.), The 21st century executive: Innovative practices for building leadership at the top (pp. 229–273). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

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At the thesis by chapter, same time, until you take the time to review think about how to email a resume and thesis by chapter personalize your approach , a girl is essaywriter review no one. Stress Essay? And a man will not hire a girl who is no one. Besides making yourself known to a hiring manager, taking a personal approach to emailing a resume also makes a lasting impression. The hiring manager is going to know that you have what it takes to get where you want to be. Natalie is a writer at essaywriter co uk, Uptowork. She loves writing about introduction, resumes and eating tacos more than life itself.

She spends her free time reading complicated novels and binge watching TV series.

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