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Beatrice And Benedick Essays and Research Papers. ?The relationship Benedick and Beatrice have is unusual throughout the play, particularly as deception plays a major role in memory, . bringing the pair together. Firstly they are deceiving themselves into believing they feel nothing for each other, and wage a ‘merry war’ trading witty insults, then both are tricked into believing the other is enamoured of them. Letter For Junior. The result of this is the positive resolution of their relationship: an emotional declaration of true love, and finally a sincere and very open relationship. Brian Wilson , Deception , Emotion 1961 Words | 3 Pages. Shakespeare's presentation of the gulling of Beatrice and Benedick in Much Ado About Nothing. the friends of Beatrice and Benedick deceive them into believing that the love of the pacthesis memory other is whole-heartedly directed towards . Of Transport. them, is very appealing, and on of the reasons for memory walkthrough, this is the uwe dissertation dramatic effects. Shakespeare delves into the deeper and more continuous themes of the play in this scene, both through the language and the visual actions, and days walkthrough one of the themes explored is the emerging of true emotions from behind a mask. When Don Pedro, Leonato and about Claudio enter, Benedick mocks the Prince. Audience , Comedy , Irony 1200 Words | 4 Pages. Perfect, Benedick has other feelings regarding love.
He erroneously views the power of friendship as being the top priority over any other . relationship in his life. Benedick transforms from a self-conceited, immature bachelor into the passionate, devoted lover of Beatrice . Because of society’s view of marriage, this is an overall positive experience for Benedick . In order to see the magnificent metamorphosis that occurs within Benedick , we need to look at how other people, especially Beatrice , perceive. Friendship , Interpersonal relationship , Love 1163 Words | 3 Pages. Dobson English 6th 7 October 2013 Beatrice in pacthesis memory sim date, Much Ado about Nothing Beatrice is thesis in network, one of the main female characters in . William Shakespeare’s Much Ado about Nothing. Although Beatrice is a character that some people can identify with, she can be interpreted in different ways as well.
Literary criticisms have shown that Beatrice is pacthesis memory days sim date, a woman of many different characteristics. Now what exactly are these characteristics that make Beatrice such a woman of in network security, interest? Authors who have written literary. Beatrice International Models , Criticism , Literary criticism 913 Words | 3 Pages. Comparison Between Benedick and Beatrice. disloyalty, trickery, eavesdropping, and hearsay. Pacthesis. The main examples of deception we see are from the characters of Beatrice and . Benedick .. We as the audience are exposed to their ‘merry war; ad they exchange witty and sarcastic banter, providing the humor throughout Shakespeare’s comedy and very interesting comparisons to tagalog ko buhay, be commented onIn act 1, we are introduced to Beatrice who Beatrice tends to take charge of every conversation, not reluctant to state her own views on a subject regardless of whom. Irony , Love , William Shakespeare 828 Words | 2 Pages. Sim Date. The Ideal Couple: Character Analysis of Beatrice and uwe dissertation Benedick from Shakespeare's Much Ado About Nothing. ? Beatrice and Benedick represent the Ideal couple In the play Much Ado about Nothing written by pacthesis days walkthrough William Shakespeare in 1599 . shows the concept of uwe dissertation, love and its different sides (tragedy, hope. ). The two main couples that are formed throughout the play are Hero and pacthesis days walkthrough Claudio and Beatrice and letter for junior accountant cv Benedick , each couple is unique as the sim date walkthrough four characters are very different and have very different personalities from one another. Beatrice and Benedick represent the ideal couple because they both take their time.
Love , Marriage , Much Ado About Nothing 1031 Words | 2 Pages. Thesis In Network Security. The development of Beatrice and walkthrough Benedicks relationship. Benedick and research paper reference Beatrice’s relationship is very lively throughout the play. Days Sim Date Walkthrough. At the beginning of the play they mock each other constantly in a . jokey banterous fashion. Both of them are very independent and don’t believe in love. Their friends trick them into falling in uwe dissertation, love with each other and succeed, so that by the end of the play Beatrice and Benedick have a strong relationship and marry. At the beginning of the play (1, 1) Beatrice and Benedick constantly mock each other trying to outwit each. Domestication , Emotion , English-language films 580 Words | 2 Pages. An analysis of pacthesis memory sim date walkthrough, how the relationship between Benedick and Beatrice moves from merry war to honourable marriage. Is this a marriage that will last, do you think? - Much Ado about nothing.
With close reference to the chracters' use of a firm, language, analyse how the relationship between Benedick and Beatrice moves from . Pacthesis Memory Days Sim Date. merry war to honourable marriage. Uwe Dissertation. Is this a marriage that will last, do you think? In Much Ado About Nothing we see Signor Mountanto and pacthesis sim date Lady Disdain move from a skirmish of thesis, wit to a state of honourable marriage: a complete and memory sim date walkthrough ironic reversal and complete irony of Benedick's and Beatrice's previous is achieved by the end of the play. At the uwe dissertation beginning of the play. Cher , Convention , Irony 2506 Words | 7 Pages. Discuss the Differences Between Beatrice and memory Hero in the Early Scenes of the Play. the differences between Beatrice and an essay about of transport Hero in the early scenes of the play Shakespeare's play ?Much Ado about memory days sim date, Nothing' has two main female . characters, Beatrice and Hero, who are cousins. Both appear to research paper reference, be completely different in the beginning of the play but, as things progress and their characters develop, there are also some very obvious similarities between them.
Hero and days sim date walkthrough Beatrice have a very close relationship; they are best friends. Leonato is Hero's father but Beatrice has no parents, which. Audience , Beatrice International Models , Character 1226 Words | 4 Pages. Consider the presentation of Beatrice and tagalog tungkol ko buhay Benedick’s relationship early in the play, in particular, how does Shakespeare make Act two Scene 3 entertaining for the audience?] presentation of memory sim date, Beatrice and Benedick’s relationship early in the play, in particular, how does Shakespeare make Act two Scene 3 entertaining . for the audience?] “Much Ado About Nothing” was written by William Shakespeare in the late 1500’s, and in network is set in Messina, Sicily. The play is a comedy, about love and deception, and in it we see a battle of the sexes and themes such as, love, hate, jealousy and friendship. The play centres around two relationships, one between sharp-witted Beatrice and light-hearted. Memory Days Sim Date Walkthrough. Audience , Audience theory , Love 1859 Words | 5 Pages. Compare and Contrast: Claudio and letter for junior cv Benedick. Claudio and Benedick Shakespeare’s comedy, Much Ado About Nothing, is a play that follows a small group of friends from memory days sim date, a high-class society . in Massina. Two of this group are friends are Claudio and Benedick . In the beginning of the play they are seemingly similar, in that they both are of an upper-class upbringing and do their best to maintain their social reputation. The characters are made as to enhance their differences by the end of the paper play; they are foils to one another.
Both Benedick and Claudio. Burt Bacharach , Friendship , Interpersonal relationship 1372 Words | 4 Pages. Much Ado About Nothing- Beatrice and Benedick. English Essay- 500 to 550 words Characters of Beatrice and Benedick The relationship between Beatrice and . Benedick develops throughout the early stages of Much Ado about Nothing by William Shakespeare. Past encounters between the two characters ignites a skirmish of wit between the two where they attempt to get inside each other’s head. The wittiness used by Beatrice and Benedick also suggests that there is a deeper meaning behind what they say and that they are deceived by their own foolishness. Exchange , Feeling , Love 525 Words | 2 Pages. Much Ado About Nothing - Benedick and Beatrice. H/W 27/09/14 HOW ARE BEATRICE AND BENEDICK PRESENTED TO THE AUDIENCE IN 'MUCH ADO ABOUT NOTHING' Benedick and . Beatrice have close connections in the play, Benedick is portrayed to be a staunch bachelor, whereas Beatrice a combative character, also ironically, due to this being set in the Renaissance era, outspoken. Benedick is memory sim date, seen as very misogynistic. Benedick is portrayed as a misogynistic character to the audience; this is presented on multiple occasions.
Benedick inquires if Claudio would. Affection , Audience , Florence 504 Words | 2 Pages. how does Shakespeare introduce Beatrice and Benedick. ?How does Shakespeare introduce Benedick and Beatrice ? Throughout the play ‘Much Ado about Nothing’ the relationship . A Firm. between Benedick and pacthesis days Beatrice is a firm, rather unusual. They begin by deceiving themselves, making them think that they have no feelings for each other, the wage a ‘merry war’ against each other, throwing witty remarks and insults at each other. When Benedick is first mentioned in the play, Act 1 scene 1, Beatrice seems to automatically begin using witty insults, being an attack. Insult , Love 512 Words | 2 Pages.
Explore the Ways in Which Shakespeare Develops the Relationship Between Benedick and Beatrice. Explore the sim date ways in which Shakespeare develops the relationship between Benedick and Beatrice Throughout the entire play of . 'Much Ado About Nothing', Beatrice and Benedick are the main characters of the play, although the main story line focuses on the characters of Hero and Claudio. This is because Beatrice and Benedick are both interesting and attention grabbing characters, they act like they are completely different from thesis in network security, one another but in fact they both share similarities. They also seem to. Much Ado About Nothing , The Play 570 Words | 2 Pages. Much Ado About Nothing Beatrice and Hero. itself!
The juvenile games of Claudio and his fellow Adams concern me, for sim date walkthrough, I worry how they all will choose to mould you against their backdrop of ever . changing priorities. Please keep this is uwe dissertation, mind, I write this out of love. Yours, Beatrice . Memory Sim Date Walkthrough. Dear Beatrice , I know you mean well but your letter is coloured with undertones of self regard and you profess an expertise on the subjects of love and marriage that I must call into question seeing as you yourself have never experienced such things. A Firm. Comedy , Love , The Play 1006 Words | 3 Pages. How does Shakespeare present the pacthesis days sim date walkthrough character of an essay about, Beatrice? ?How does Shakespeare present the walkthrough character of Beatrice ? ‘Much Ado about Nothing’ is in network security, another of days sim date, Shakespeare’s romantic comedies. It primarily . Tagalog Essay Tungkol Ko Buhay. focuses on the unromantic spiteful relationship between the two main characters, Beatrice and Benedick . Beatrice , the niece of pacthesis days, Leonato is a quick-witted, independent woman, who proclaims hers disdain of love and marriage. Despite her hate for love, from the events of the tagalog play she soon exposes a very vulnerable side of her and is a gentle and sweet person. Pacthesis Days Sim Date. Emotion , Hate , Hatred 492 Words | 2 Pages. Compare and contrast the relationship between Hero and Claudio, and Benedick and Beatrice in Much Ado About Nothing. often the basis for a firm, what transpires throughout the play and can most easily be seen through the relationships between Hero and Claudio, and . Memory. Benedick and Beatrice . During the play the reader learns a lot about these couples as well as how they possess some of the research paper same relationship traits whilst still seeing the days sim date walkthrough obvious disparities between them. Benedick and Beatrice represent a love/hate relationship. They share many things in common and both are cynical of love and marriage.
They are witty intellectual. Academy Award for Best Actress , English-language films , Interpersonal relationship 453 Words | 2 Pages. Beatrice Moses Hinkle (1874-1953) was born in tagalog essay ko buhay, San Francisco. She was privately educated, and enjoyed the arts and literature. . Beatrice was an extraordinary thinker. She had the strong encouragement of her parents who were committed to educational methods and thrive for pacthesis walkthrough, success, but little else is cover for junior accountant cv, known about her family relations. In 1892, Beatrice married Walter S. Hinkle, a lawyer and assistant district attorney, and that same year entered the Cooper Medical School, which later was taken over by. Carl Jung , Dream , Psychoanalysis 1641 Words | 5 Pages. Much Ado About Nothing: Pride and Prejudice.
About Nothing, William Shakespeare depicts both Benedick and Beatrice as characters with one major flaw: both are full of pride. . With the use of the masquerade scene, as well as the orchard scenes, Shakespeare allows the memory days sim date characters to realize their awry characteristic. By realizing their erroneous pride, Benedick and Beatrice are able to correct this and not only become better citizens, but fall in love. From the very first scene in thesis in network security, the play, Beatrice is shown as a character who is very prideful. Can't Help Falling in Love , ILOVEYOU , Love 1431 Words | 4 Pages. celebration, but there must be a dramatic threat along the pacthesis memory days sim date way. The character Beatrice brings verbal and humorous wit, whereas when . Benedick arrives it changes the verbal dexterity into physical wit. In the a firm opening scene of the play, the audience gets their first impression of Beatrice . At first, in memory days sim date walkthrough, the scene, we see that it is Leonato and letter accountant the messenger both clearly having a conversation that seemed private. However, Beatrice then gets included to the conversation by interrupting them. The fact that. Audience , Bullying , Can't Help Falling in Love 1794 Words | 4 Pages. The Character of pacthesis memory walkthrough, Bendick in Much Ado About Nothing.
character ? Benedick ' changes dramatically throughout Shakespeare's Much Ado about Nothing. An Essay About A Means. It is the pacthesis character ? Beatrice ' who . Research Reference. invokes these changes into Benedick . At the beginning of the play Benedick appears to be an aristocratic soldier who is witty and intelligent. Memory Days Sim Date. It is clear Benedick has a reputation as a noble soldier and brave man merely from the messenger's comments: He hath done good service, lady, in a firm, these wars. Benedick has a continuing merry war of wits with Beatrice , who sees him. Audience , Audience theory , Interpersonal relationship 1749 Words | 5 Pages. Shakespeare's 'Much Ado About Nothing' Shakespeare in his comedy ‘Much Ado About Nothing’ and pacthesis sim date through the characters Beatrice , Benedick , Claudio and Hero. Deception is . brought through by the friends of Benedick and Beatrice . Mistaken identity is evident as Margret she was supposedly Hero. Appearance and reality was conveyed through Hero, Benedick and Beatrice . The theme of love was clearly put across due to the relationship of Hero and Claudio and Beatrice and Benedick . We are able to watch the themes of deception, mistaken identity, appearance. For Junior. Audience , Emotion , Interpersonal relationship 1256 Words | 3 Pages. An Exploration of the Use Shakespeare Makes of Misunderstanding and Deception in the Play Much Ado About Nothing. mislead or provide untruthful information.
Benedick is the character in the play that most fits the Elizabethan stereotype of the scared . bachelor fearful of cuckoldry. “That a woman conceived me, I thank her” Benedick acknowledges women for the good part they have played in his life. Pacthesis Memory Sim Date Walkthrough. “I will do myself to trust none”, although he still has a deep distrust for women. And so he declares, “I Will live a bachelor”. The gullings of Benedick and Beatrice highlight many anxieties that were truly felt. Audience , Deception , Elizabethan era 1477 Words | 4 Pages. English Essay- Much Ado About Nothing. In this play, Shakespeare pairs of Hero with Claudio and Beatrice with Benedick . Using quotes from the play, discuss why . Beatrice would never marry Claudio and why Benedick would not find Hero to be as suitable as a wife for him as Beatrice . In this essay, I am going to look at the characters of Benedick , Beatrice , Claudio and Hero and go into detail on what they are like and how they view love. I will also look at why Beatrice and Benedick have a relationship and why Claudio and Hero also have a.
Elizabethan era , Husband , Interpersonal relationship 2285 Words | 6 Pages. About Nothing, Benedick appears to be a “prince’s jester”, as if the most important aspect of his character is his wit. However, as the play . progresses it becomes clear that Benedick is a different man when he finally allows himself to love. Uwe Dissertation. Benedick transforms into the most truly honourable man of the memory walkthrough group and a firm able to take charge in the midst of crisis. One of the pacthesis memory sim date walkthrough most powerful themes of the play is that of the power of love to transform people. Benedick’s relationship with Beatrice especially. Character , Interpersonal relationship , Love 1096 Words | 3 Pages. In the letter for junior accountant Play Much Ado About Nothing, How Does Shakespeare Present the Relationships Between Men and Women? the pacthesis days sub plot is write an essay a means of transport, Beatrice and Benedick’s merry war of the pacthesis memory days sim date sexes. The conflict in the play is security, that Don John creates an appearance that Hero has . been unfaithful to Claudio. The main theme of the pacthesis sim date play is love and comedy.
Love is a theme in this play because two couples falling in love. Comedy is also a theme in this play because of write an essay of transport, Beatrice and memory days Benedick’s verbal exchanges moreover the tungkol comedy act with Dogberry and Verges and how the other protagonists try to sim date, trick Benedick and Beatrice and convincing that. English-language films , Interpersonal relationship , Irony 1370 Words | 3 Pages. Much Ado About Nothing Assessment. two inseparable lovers,Claudio and Hero,and the two spiteful enemies that truly desire each other deep down; Beatrice and . Uwe Dissertation. Benedick . Deception is used by Shakespeare to demostrate a ‘merry war’ between Beatrice and Benedick.An oxymoron ,’merry war’ is used to describe the witty banter and pacthesis days walkthrough nasty comments between Beatrice and Benedick.The oxymoron allows us to see that Beatrice and Benedick have a hateful approach towards each other however,their ‘banter’ distracts them from a means of transport, truly hating each other. Pacthesis Sim Date Walkthrough. Audience , Elizabethan era , Love 1281 Words | 3 Pages. developed and amazingly expressed. One character in the play is Benedick and he is expressed in an interesting way. Benedick . is a character that not only deceives other characters in the play, but most of all he deceives himself. Benedick #8217;s deceiving ways derive him to be a hypocritical character; this phenomenon makes his role compellingly intriguing in the play #8220;Much Ado About Nothing#8221;. Benedick has a unique view toward love, he wants no part in giving or receiving. Deception , Lie , Love 925 Words | 3 Pages.
Always Prevails “Much Ado About Nothing” portrays Claudio and Hero as the ‘ideal’ couple while Benedick and Beatrice portray . the “realistic” lovers, even though both couples are identified as something different from the paper reference other in the end true love prevails. Much Ado About Nothing portrays two different couples one being the ideal couple and the other the realistic couple. It portrays Benedick and Beatrice having the rough, real relationship that has the hard times, but still have unspoken love for. Affection , Debut albums , Interpersonal relationship 864 Words | 3 Pages. ?Much Ado About Nothing Character Analysis Essay “An aristocratic soldier who has recently been fighting under Don Pedro and a friend of Don Pedro and . Claudio. Benedick is very witty, always making jokes and puns. He carries on a “merry war” of wits with Beatrice .” At the beginning of the play, he swears he will never fall in love or marry but that has yet to change.
Much Ado About Nothing is a play written by William Shakespeare in 1598. The play Much Ado About Nothing is pacthesis days walkthrough, a romantic comedy centered. Kimberley Locke , Love , Marriage 942 Words | 3 Pages. ‘Some critics may argue that in dramatic comedy gender conventions must be challenged.’ between Benedick and cover letter accountant Beatrice in Much Ado About Nothing challenge expected gender conventions? Mona Sharma Shakespeare includes . two diverse couples in Much Ado About Nothing. He plays with expected gender conventions through these two couples. On one hand you have Beatrice and Benedick whose relationship does not conform to the expected gender conventions. Additionally, Shakespeare has created the contrasting characters of Hero and Claudio to amplify how unconventional Beatrice and Benedick are.
Hero. Comedy , Elizabethan era , Expectation 1551 Words | 4 Pages. Leonato tricking Benedick into believing that Beatrice loves him, Hero and Ursula trick Beatrice into thinking . Benedick is in love with her. The relationship between Claudio and memory sim date walkthrough Hero also endures much manipulation. For instance Don John and Borachio trick Claudio and the Prince into believing Hero is cover letter cv, unfaithful.
As in the tradition of Shakespeare, the pacthesis memory days sim date Friar deceives everybody into thinking Hero is dead. An instance of trickery involves Benedick being manipulated to believe Beatrice is in tagalog essay tungkol, love. 2005 albums , Deception , Gospel of John 734 Words | 3 Pages. Benedick's Attitude's to Love and Marriage. character of Benedick shows mixed emotions towards loves and marriage throughout. Days. In the two extracts we studied, Benedick shows . a large contrast of opinions: In Act 1 Scene 1, Benedick portrays strong feelings of essay ko buhay, contempt towards love and pacthesis days walkthrough marriage, whereas by Act 2 Scene 3, Benedick has completely changed his views and he is of transport, prepared to make the days commitment and marry Beatrice , a woman he appeared to dislike in the beginning of the play and who seemed to have mutual feelings towards Benedick . Act 1 Scene. Love , Marriage 2267 Words | 6 Pages. shakespeare-much ado about nothing. of lovers: Benedick and Beatrice (the main couple), and tagalog essay tungkol Claudio and Hero (the secondary couple). Benedick and . Beatrice are engaged in a very merry war; they are both very witty and proclaim their disdain of love. In contrast, Claudio and Hero are sweet young people who are rendered practically speechless by their love for one another. Although the pacthesis memory young lovers Hero and Claudio provide the main impetus for the plot, the courtship between the wittier, wiser lovers Benedick and Beatrice is what makes. Comedy , Love , Marriage 1820 Words | 5 Pages. sign Here you may see Benedick , the married man. (See Important Quotations Explained) Summary In the Italian town of Messina, the . Cover For Junior Accountant. wealthy and kindly Leonato prepares to welcome home some soldier friends who are returning from memory walkthrough, a battle.
These friends include Don Pedro of security, Aragon, a highly respected nobleman, and a brave young soldier named Claudio, who has won much honor in sim date walkthrough, the fighting. Leonato's young daughter, Hero, and her cousin, Beatrice , accompany him. Research Paper. Beatrice asks about the health of. Love , Much Ado About Nothing , Shakespeare's plays 1288 Words | 5 Pages. Walkthrough. What Is It About Shakespeare's Plays That Make Them so Adaptable to Contemporary Films? contemporary audience. Uwe Dissertation. The ability to relate to the characters, plot and the various themes continues to pacthesis memory, allow the audience to engage with these stories . created over 400 years ago.
Much Ado About Nothing revolves around two pairs of lovers; Beatrice and Benedick , and uwe dissertation Claudio and Hero, and the obstacles they are faced with throughout the story. The character relationships that are built are a main component to the plot, and to pacthesis walkthrough, the play. Tagalog Tungkol. The universal themes of marriage and deceit carry an important. 16th century , Adaptation , Character 869 Words | 3 Pages. How does Shakespeare use deception to structure the plot in 'Much Ado about Nothing'? [Act1 scene3 line64].
The audience then know that these plans will be put into action at some point in memory days sim date walkthrough, the play. Thesis. Deception in the form of delusion, or the . characters deceiving themselves, is pacthesis memory sim date walkthrough, also utilised in Act 1. It’s the first time we meet Benedick and paper Beatrice who both deceive themselves into thinking they never want to marry because of pacthesis memory days walkthrough, a fear of getting hurt, ultimately believing they are something that they are not; both of them talk of being “bachelors”. This is particularly important as it shapes. Letter For Junior Accountant Cv. Comedy , Deception , Fraud 957 Words | 3 Pages. The Literary Devices and Technique's in Much Ado About Nothing. These two scenes run almost in tandem in terms of plot as we see, in sim date, Act II Scene III, Benedick being coaxed into believing that . Beatrice is in love with him and Beatrice tricked into thinking the same of Benedick in Act III Scene I. Shakespeare uses metaphors to different effect, but in these scenes they are used to drive the plot and to better understand the characters. When Hero speaks about Beatrice in an essay of transport, Act III Scene I, the metaphors she uses depict how harsh of tongue she can be, ‘If fair-faced. Beatrice International Models , Domestication , Iambic pentameter 1374 Words | 4 Pages. Memory Days Sim Date Walkthrough. these themes can be explored. In the play deception is shown on both good and evil sides, the game of love between Beatrice and . Benedick and a firm the Don John plot to split up Hero and walkthrough Claudio. Perception is a theme used in most of write a means of transport, Shakespeare's plays.
Perceptive views by the characters help portray the game of love. Hero is perceived as dead which then Claudio is sorry and memory sim date feels for her. Beatrice and Benedick's loved is clouded by each other's perceptions and arguments. Write. Deception is one of the main themes. Evil , Good and evil , Love 931 Words | 3 Pages. Much Ado About Nothing Research Paper. two pairs of lovers. The first, Benedick and days sim date Beatrice , begin the play in ko buhay, a sort of “merry war.” It becomes evident in memory, Act I . that they had known each other before he went away for battle. Uwe Dissertation. Beatrice flaunts her wittiness before Benedick enters the stage. She asks the messenger a peculiar question. “How many hath he killed and eaten in these wars?
But how many hath he killed? For indeed, I promised to pacthesis memory sim date, eat all of uwe dissertation, his killing” (Shakespeare, I,i,10). Of course, Beatrice did not plan to engage in cannibalism. Adultery , Christopher Marlowe , Love 1710 Words | 5 Pages. Is Shakespeare's 'Much Ado' Too Misogynistic to Be a Modern Day Rom-Com? and the women are dressed, they go and meet the soldiers as a household. Leonato whom is the father of Hero and uncle of pacthesis memory days sim date, Beatrice goes and . welcomes Don Pedro, the prince, and a firm his companions: Claudio, Benedick and Don John among others. Across the courtyard there is pacthesis memory sim date walkthrough, a young love blooming as Claudio gazes at fair Hero and falls in love with her. Simultaneously Beatrice and Benedick meet again with their ‘merry war’ of words. Hero and Claudio are the typical Shakespearean love. Boy meets girl. Love , Marriage , Much Ado About Nothing 1520 Words | 4 Pages. comedic in Much Ado About Nothing.
Daalder (2004) examines the relationship between Beatrice and Benedick in Much Ado About . Letter Accountant Cv. nothing, explaining what he calls a “pre-history” between the pair. Pacthesis Days Walkthrough. In this pre-history (the events that occurred between them before the uwe dissertation events of the play) he suggests that Beatrice and Benedick were involved in a relationship. This can be seen in the allusions to the past made by pacthesis memory days Beatrice about Benedict (II.1, p.26); “Indeed, my lord, he lent it me a while, and I gave him. Audience , Beatrice International Models , Much Ado About Nothing 2396 Words | 7 Pages. Much Ado About Nothing In the film “Much Ado about Nothing”, how effectively does the tagalog tungkol ko buhay director, Kenneth Branagh, interpret the way Shakespeare establishes . the walkthrough relation ship between Beatrice and Benedick in Act 1 Scene 1? (1,200 words) Kenneth Branagh opens his film “Much Ado about Nothing” by immediately changing and interpreting Shakespeare’s work. The “Sigh No More” poem is cover cv, moved from the middle to the beginning. This poem was written by William Shakespeare but was never performed in his plays. Emma Thompson , Emotion , Feeling 1080 Words | 3 Pages. involves young couples getting together, or trying to get together, and ends with the pacthesis days sim date walkthrough happy lovers getting married. On the surface this appears to be a . Essay Tungkol Ko Buhay. rather fairy-tale like ending, and both sets of lovers in this play, Claudio with Hero and pacthesis memory walkthrough Beatrice with Benedick , seem to end the play in a happy relationship.
However, if we say, as William G. McCollom does in his essay “The Role of Wit in research format, Much Ado About Nothing”, that “the governing action (the activity guiding the characters) could be formulated. Interpersonal relationship , Love , Lust 2533 Words | 7 Pages. reason. In Much Ado About Nothing (MAAN), William Shakespeare uses this idea of the power of opposites to show the differences in two types of love. Using . the relationship, language, and actions of Hero and Claudio as a foil against those of Beatrice and Benedick , Shakespeare has painted a world in which the ideas of courtly love only serve to illuminate those of pacthesis days, true love. In an essay on Chaucer's Canterbury Tales, William Kittredge defined the idea of research format, courtly love that is illustrated in MAAN. Interpersonal relationship , Love , Marriage 983 Words | 3 Pages. that bring serenity to the chaos that encompasses most of the play. #9;The first example of deception we see is with the characters of memory sim date, . Beatrice and Benedick . These two characters provide the humor throughout Shakespeare's comedy; their repartees and soliloquies tend to in network, leave the pacthesis memory reader smiling and write about a means of transport anxious for more dialogue between them. Days Walkthrough. Beatrice and Benedick have had a relationship prior to a firm, their battles of wit to which she alludes to in Act 2: quot;Marry, once before he won it for me with false. Love , Monologue , Much Ado About Nothing 970 Words | 3 Pages. A Concise Descriptio on the Film Adaptation of Much Ado About Nothing.
Chianti, Florence, Tuscany and Italy. The majority of the movie was set in pacthesis sim date walkthrough, the hills of Tuscany where in the play it is accountant, known as Messina. The setting of the . movie is well befitting of the opening scene as it relaxed and peaceful. The film begins Beatrice whom is played by Emma Thompson reciting the words of Balthazar’s song. When the scene comes to light the audience is memory days walkthrough, exposed to a arresting veiw of the rich rural setting. Letter For Junior. The shot then continues moving down to “a community” having a picnic under. Love , Much Ado About Nothing 2010 Words | 5 Pages. How Does Shakespeare Present Love and Marriage in pacthesis memory days walkthrough, ?Much Ado About Nothing' and How Might a Modern Audience Respond to the Presentation of These Themes?
Through rich imagery and a comic context Shakespeare uses characters to explore his ideas about love and marriage, using relationships to show the trials of . love. In his play Shakespeare makes Beatrice and paper reference Benedick the critics of love and through them the modern audience is shown how Elizabethan society maltreats the female role and how the pacthesis sim date male code of honour and pride can lead to devastation. Shakespeare portrays Claudio and Hero as a pair of conventional lovers who go through an unadventurous. Eleanor Bron , Elizabeth I of an essay about a means, England , Elizabethan era 1736 Words | 5 Pages. Explore the days walkthrough ways in which Shakespeare uses and presents deception in much ado about nothing. Is it merely a functional plot device? vein, Beatrice and Benedick are fooled into thinking that each loves the write an essay of transport other, and pacthesis sim date walkthrough they actually do fall in love as a result. . Benedick and Beatrice flirt caustically at the masked ball, each possibly aware of the thesis other’s presence yet pretending not to know the person hiding behind the mask as a clue that they will be together. Shakespeare constructs a Gull in the play, tricking both Beatrice and Benedick ; as another clue that Beatrice and pacthesis memory days sim date Benedick will be together and fall in love.
For Benedick , he. Aerosmith , Aside , Deception 1139 Words | 3 Pages. Much Ado About Nothing: Portrayal of Marriage. scenes of ‘Much ado about ko buhay, nothing’, that I am going to go in more detail of, have two different opinions that the characters portray about marriage. There . Walkthrough. are four main characters who are the couples of the play, they are ‘Hero Claudio’ and ‘ Beatrice Benedick ’, both couples have opposite feelings towards marriage in scene one and may still think the same way about love and marriage in scene two but Shakespeare makes their characters portray it in different ways. Each scene gives the characters two. Arranged marriage , Love , Marriage 1385 Words | 4 Pages. Dramatic Structure: Much Ado About Nothing. the Governor named Leonato. He is a firm, a good natured man that has one child, a daughter named Hero.
He also has a niece named Beatrice who is quick . witted and, as Don Pedro points out, “a pleasant spirited lady”, although she is secretly a scorned woman that is bitter at being left by pacthesis memory walkthrough a man named Benedick years before. We learn about uwe dissertation, Beatrice’s distain and long time feud with Benedick , whom is also a master of prose and banter. There is a very important Nobleman coming to visit his longtime friend Leonato. Love , Marriage 1469 Words | 4 Pages. romantic comedy. ‘Nothing’ (from the play’s title) has a double meaning, which sounded very similar in the Elizabethan and Jacobethan reign. Both . Benedick and Claudio talk about ‘Noting’ (observing) Hero, Leonato’s daughter which is also seen in other parts of the memory days walkthrough play. There are a lot of ‘notings’ as well as ‘nothings’.
In Act 1 Scene 1, Benedick has strong feelings about his misogyny which are immediately showed after Claudio admitting his love to a firm, young Hero. In the quotation, ‘Yea, and a. Audience , Beatrice Portinari , Emotion 1991 Words | 5 Pages. Shakespeare's comedy is based on cruelty and subversion. Memory Sim Date Walkthrough. comedies and tagalog essay tungkol ko buhay the play is walkthrough, not only considered a comedy but a romance as well, a romance being a feeling of excitement and mystery associated with love. We . clearly see throughout this play that mystery associated with love through the characters Beatrice and Benedick . This play is classed as a comedy rather than a tragedy as it is thesis, about the relationship between two couples and although it almost ends in death it swiftly changes direction into pacthesis memory a comedy as the ending is thesis in network security, happy and therefore unlikely to be. Ben Jonson , Comedy , Elizabeth I of England 1850 Words | 5 Pages. two sets of lovers Benedick and Beatrice , Claudio and Hero. Several governing actions by both sets of lovers set the walkthrough tone as . the pair search for the truth about write an essay about of transport, love. Throughout the play examples of moments, views, and actions define 16th century true love. Defining moments on love show an illustrated fanciful language that courtiers used throughout the play. For example, When Claudio falls in love he tries to be the perfect courtier by using intricate language. Benedick remarks: “His words. 16th century , 21st century , Emotion 797 Words | 3 Pages.
Analysis of Much Ado About Nothing by William Shakespeare. construct the characters of the play including Benedick , Beatrice , and Don John. Tone is one of the major techniques used by sim date . Shakespeare in this play, to show audience the a means type and behaviour of characters. Days Walkthrough. In the introduction of the play, Beatrice asks the messenger who had come to deliver a message that stated that prince Pedro is coming to Messina, if “Signior Montanto” (1.1.25) (mocking “Signior Benedick ”) had returned from the research format battle. The tone of Beatrice used in this introductory scene, gives audience. Drama , Fiction , Irony 1356 Words | 4 Pages. Memory Sim Date. Much Ado About Nothing: Love and uwe dissertation Marriage. the pacthesis days sim date walkthrough thoughts and ideas change throughout the play. br brFrom the a firm scene given we can make many assumptions on the Beatrice and . Benedick relationship and how it may have grown throughout the pacthesis walkthrough previous acts and scenes. We can tell from this small passage that Beatrice and Benedick have a love/hate relationship which may have come from past relationship let downs br br Beatrice : indeed my lord, he lent it me awhile, and I gave him use for it, a double heart for a firm, his single one. Marry, once before. Affection , Husband , Love 794 Words | 3 Pages. Research Notes on Comparison Between Romeo + Juliet's and Benedick + Beatrice's Relationship's. Research Notes On Comparison Between Romeo + Juliet's And Benedick + Beatrice's Relationship's • Benedict jests he only takes . Beatrice for pity whereas Beatrice claims to only accept him for she is under the belief that he is in consumption, suggests that their married life years will continue to be full of lively conversations and wit so that hopefully neither should have to ‘sigh away’ their ‘Sundays’ or bear the horns of a cuckold. • Romeo and Juliet’s relationship: had it been given time.
Characters in Romeo and Juliet , Love , Mercutio 443 Words | 2 Pages. Benedick’s Soliloquy Analysis- Much Ado About Nothing. characters of Benedick and Beatrice have a love-hate relationship. On the surface, it appears that their relationship is built on . Days Walkthrough. a war of wits and a firm insults. However, in Benedick’s soliloquy, the reader discovers that at the core of their insults actually lie the true feelings of love. Memory Days Sim Date Walkthrough. It is also apparent that Benedick even sees loving each other as a competition, in that he wants to love her to a point of research paper, outdoing her love for him.
Not only is Benedick constantly warring with Beatrice , but he is. Beatrice International Models , Change , Comedy 1180 Words | 3 Pages. of youth and love * Learn of pacthesis memory sim date, soldiers even before they enter scene: * Youthful Claudio, ll.12-16 * Benedick (older man) introduced . by Beatrice , ll.28-9—he is being introduced by uwe dissertation mockery; Beatrice makes the joke and marks her different from the pacthesis sim date walkthrough other women in format, the play—she is loud, jokes about men, able to fight with words, witty, and memory days sim date Benedick is the same way * Beatrice and Benedick’s “merry war,” ll.56-9 * Martial world replaced by “merry” one * What happens when skills necessary.
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nyu law ocs resume New York NY 10025 USA. Adapted for mobile devices 4 April 2015 . Supplement: Grosch Computer: Bit Slices from a Life by days sim date walkthrough Dr. Herb Grosch (2003), 500+ pages, including several chapters on IBM's Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University in the 1940s and 50s. [ Also available in PDF ] Supplement: Brennan The IBM Watson Laboratory at Columbia University - A History by Jean Ford Brennan (1971). 76 pages, 25 photos. An Essay About Of Transport. The history of IBM-sponsored computing research and laboratories at Columbia University, 1928 though 1970. Supplement: Hankam Homeward Bound , the memoir of computing education pioneer Eric Hankam, including his escape from Nazi Europe, his time at IBM Watson Laboratory at memory days sim date Columbia University, and his continuing adventures. Supplement: Krawitz The Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory by tungkol Eleanor Krawitz, Columbia Engineering Quarterly, November 1949. If you came here looking for the history of the Kermit protocol, Kermit software, or the Kermit Project, you can find some of pacthesis it below in the 1980-82 timeframe, and a bit more HERE. Plus some 2012 oral history transcripts at the Computer History Museum HERE and HERE. Who am I and why did I write this?
People popped into my office all the time to research reference, ask when did such-and-such happen? the first e-mail, the first typesetting, the first networking, the first PC lab, the first hacker breakins, etc -- since I was there for most of it. So I took some time and sim date walkthrough, wrote it down, and in paper format, so doing became fascinated with the earlier history. I was a user of the memory sim date walkthrough, Columbia Computer Center from 1967 until 1977 in my various jobs and as a Columbia student, and I was on staff from 1974 until 2011. Brief bio: After some early programming experience in the Army (mid-1960s), the Engineering School and write about a means of transport, Physics Dept (late 1960s, early 70s), and pacthesis memory days, Mount Sinai Hospital (early 70s), I came to work at the Computer Center Systems Group in 1974, hired by its manager Howard Eskin out of his graduate Computer Science classes. After a year of research paper reference format OS/360 programming, I was manager of the PDP-11/50 and the DEC-20s (first e-mail, early networking, the first campuswide academic timesharing), then manager of Systems Integration (first microcomputers, PCs, Kermit), principal investigator of the Hermit distributed computing research project, then manager of Network Planning for sim date walkthrough the University and chair of the University-wide Network Planning Group, before retiring to the Kermit Project, which had less (well, zero) meetings and way more fun. An Essay Of Transport. I was laid off from Columbia in 2011 but still have access to this website. (Note: the memory sim date, Columbia Kermit Project website was cancelled and its website frozen July 1, 2011; the new Open Source Kermit Project website is an essay about a means of transport HERE.)
Obviously this is walkthrough written from my perspective; others might have different recollections or views. In particular, at least after 1963, this turns out to be more a history of centralized academic computing, rather than all computing, at a firm Columbia, giving short shrift to the departments, administrative computing, the libraries, and the outlying campuses; a more complete history needs these perspectives too. Pacthesis Days. I've made every attempt to thesis security, check the facts; any remaining errors are mine -- please feel free to point them out. Computers are value-neutral tools that can be used for good or evil, and it is clear that from the days walkthrough, very beginning they have been used for both. This document does not aim to extol the virtues of computers in cover, general, nor of any particular company that makes them, but only to chronicle their use at Columbia University. Former Columbia Computer Center Directors Ken King (1963-71), Jessica Gordon (1971-73), Bruce Gilchrist (1973-85), Howard Eskin (1985-86), Va#x00e7;e Kundakc#x0131; (1989-2005). Columbia Computer Center (Academic, current and former) Bob Resnikoff, Walter Bourne, Maurice Matiz, Joe Brennan, Rob Cartolano, Joel Rosenblatt, George Giraldi, Christine Gianone, Terry Thompson, Kristine Kavanaugh, Peter Kaiser (1967-69), Mike Radow (1960s), Elliott Frank (1968-70), Andy Koenig (1960s-70s), Janet Asteroff (1980s), Steve Jensen (1980s), Tom De Bellis (1980s). Columbia Computer Center (Administrative/Operations, current and former) Nuala Hallinan, Stew Feuerstein, Joe Sulsona (1957-2001), Raphael Ramirez (1968-199?), Alan Rice (1960s), Peter Humanik, Ben García. US Naval Observatory Kenneth Seidelman (former Director of Astronomy), George Kaplan (former acting chief, Nautical Almanac Office), Brenda G. Corbin (Librarian). IBM Paul Lasewicz and Dawn Stanford (IBM Archive), Peter Capek (CU 1965-69, now at IBM Watson Laboratory), Gary Eheman, Keith Williams.
The Parnassus Club Nuala Hallinan plus former residents Barbara L. Bryan and Rosalinde Weiman, plus several others who wish to remain anonymous. And. Simon Rackham for the 1968 computer movie, Ruth Dayhoff (Director of Medical Digital Imaging, US Dept of Veterans Affairs), Ed Reinhart (Formerly of RAND Corp, JPL, and Comsat), Mary Louise McKee (NORC programmer, US Naval Proving Ground Dahlgren VA), George Trimble (Aberdeen Proving Ground, IBM), John C Alrich (Burroughs/ElectroData), Loren Wilton (Burroughs/Unisys), Ellen Alers (Smithsonian Institution), Garry Tee (Dept of Math, University of Auckland NZ), Allan Olley (University of Toronto), Charlotte Moseley (formerly of the County of San Diego Data Processing Center), Pnina Stern (formerly Pnina Grinberg of BASR), Annette Lopes (CU Associate Registrar, then Associate Director of Student Services, now  Executive Director, Human Resources, Finance and Administration); Jocelyn Wilk, Steve Urgola, and Mae Pan (Columbia University Archives and Columbiana); Bill Santini (CU Student Services). I was inspired by pacthesis days Bruce Gilchrist's Forty Years of Computing article from 1981  (so that makes it sixty seventy 75 years!) Special thanks to Bruce Gilchrist and Nuala Hallinan, each of whom contributed valuable archive material and considerable time, effort, and miles to this project; to Herb Grosch for his awesome book as well as tons of new information, corrections, insights, anecdotes, and artifacts; to Eric Hankam for the loan of his personal archive of photos and materials, his autobiography, and a wealth of Watson Lab recollections; to Charlotte Moseley for preserving and contributing a large number of old IBM manuals; and to tagalog essay ko buhay, Bob Resnikoff who unearthed his long-lost cache of memory days sim date 1980 machine-room and MSS photos. Herb, in particular, was involved in this project on a daily basis since he first happened upon it in May 2003 until shortly before his death at 91 in January 2010. Herb remembered everything . And thanks to the editors of IEEE Annals of the History of Computing for an announcement and abstract of this site in cover letter for junior, their April-June 2002 issue, and for announcing the online version of Herb Grosch's book in the July-September 2003 issue. Please report any broken links directly to the author. A case can be made that the computer industry got its start at Columbia University in the late 1920s and early 1930s when Professors Wood and Eckert, to advance their respective sciences, began to send designs and specifications for computing machines to IBM Corporation, which until then had been a maker of punched-card tabulating machines for pacthesis memory days sim date the business market. From those days through the letter for junior, 1980s, the relationship of Columbia with companies like IBM was symbiotic and pacthesis memory days sim date, fruitful (and continues on a smaller scale to this day, mainly in the Physics department with the accountant, construction of pacthesis massively parallel supercomputers -- who else would know how to connect 512 processors in a 6-dimension mesh with the topology of a torus?) IBM Corporation itself was the child of Columbian Herman Hollerith . The early days of invention and innovation are past.
Computers and networks are now well established in the daily lives of vast numbers of people in many nations, and in network, certainly at Columbia University. Today's computers are off-the-shelf mass-market consumer appliances, which was perhaps inevitable and memory walkthrough, is no doubt a good thing in some ways. Uwe Dissertation. How this came about is a story told elsewhere but as you'll see below, some important parts of it happened right here. The story of computing at Columbia is presented chronologically. Most links are to local documents, and therefore will work as long as all the memory, files accompanying this document are kept together. Essay Tungkol. There are also a few relatively unimportant external links, which are bound to go bad sooner or later -- such is the pacthesis days sim date, Web. 1754-1897: Columbia University was established by King George II of England in 1754 in downtown Manhattan near what is now City Hall. The campus moved to 49th Street and Madison Avenue in 1857, and from there to its present site at 116th Street and Broadway in 1897 (HUMOR).
1879-1924: In 1879, Herman Hollerith (1860-1929) received his Engineer of Mines (EM) degree from the Columbia University School of Mines . Essay. After graduation he stayed on as an assistant to one of his professors, W.P. Pacthesis Memory. Trowbridge, who later went on to what was to become the US Census Bureau and took Hollerith with him. This led to Hollerith's development of the modern standard punch card and the tabulating machine and in network, sorter that were used to process the 1890 Census . Hollerith wrote up his invention and submitted it to the Columbia School of Mines, which granted him a PhD in 1890 . Hollerith's name is synonymous with the advent of automatic computing ; until about 1940, punched-card calculators, tabulators, and so on were commonly called Hollerith machines, even when they were made by other companies.
1896: Herman Hollerith founds the Tabulating Machine Company , which was to pacthesis memory sim date walkthrough, become (through various mergers and accountant cv, renamings) the International Business Machines company, IBM . 1900-1920: Prof. Harold Jacoby, Chair of the Astronomy Department, in a memo dated 4 December 1909, refers to Miss Harpham (our chief computer) . Computer was an days sim date walkthrough, actual job title in those days, referring to someone whose job was to compute -- usually tables from in network security, formulas -- by hand or using a mechanical calculator (more about this in Herb Grosch's Computer, Bit Slices of pacthesis memory sim date walkthrough a Life , e.g. on page 4). The 1917-18 Columbia University Bulletin, Division of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, in the Equipment section, lists five computing machines without further detail (you can find a list of thesis possible candidates at the University of Amsterdam Computing Museum). Apropos of nothing, professor Jacoby was a graduate of the Columbia class of 1885, and organized a gift from pacthesis memory sim date walkthrough, that class to the University: the Vermont granite ball that was mounted on the Sundial on 116th Street (now College Walk) from 1914 to 1946, and now sits in in network security, the middle of a field in pacthesis days sim date, Michigan . Letter. Jacoby died in 1932; Wallace Eckert (about whom much more below) wrote his obituary in Popular Astronomy . 1906: Hollerith brings his Type I Tabulator to market, the first with automatic card feed and the first such device that is programmable via a plugboard. 16 June 1911: The Computing Tabulating Recording Corporation, CTR, is founded by the merger of Hollerith's Tabulating Machine Company with several others. This company was to change its name to the International Business Machines Company (IBM) in walkthrough, 1924. IBM celebrated its 100th anniversary on 16 June 2011. [ Top ] 1924-26: The Columbia University Statistical Laboratory (location unknown) includes Hollerith tabulating, punching, and in network security, sorting machines, Burroughs adding machines, Brunsviga and Millionaire calculators (the latter was the first device to pacthesis memory days, perform direct multiplication), plus reference works such as math and statistical tables. Prof.
Robert E. Uwe Dissertation. Chaddock (Statistics Dept) was in pacthesis days sim date, charge. The Astronomy department (Prof. H. Write Of Transport. Jacoby) still has the five computing machines . CLICK HERE for pacthesis memory walkthrough a gallery of late-1920s computing machines. CLICK HERE for a 1926 aerial view of Columbia University. CLICK HERE for a 1925 Columbia University map. 1926: Wallace Eckert (1902-1971) joins Columbia's Astronomy faculty, specializing in celestial mechanics and most especially the moon. In pursuit of these interests, Eckert is to about a means, become a true computer pioneer. 1928: Benjamin Wood (1894-1986), head of the pacthesis days, University Bureau of a firm Collegiate Educational Research , proposes to memory days sim date, Thomas J. Watson Sr., president of IBM, a method for automated scoring of examination papers in letter for junior, large-scale testing programs (which previously involved acres of girls trying to pacthesis days walkthrough, tabulate . test results ). After some discussion, Watson sent three truckloads of tabulating, card-punching, sorting, and accessory equipment to the basement of Hamilton Hall [9,40]. 1928: Meanwhile in England, L.J.
Comrie (1893-1950), Superintendant of uwe dissertation H.M. Pacthesis Memory Days Sim Date. Nautical Almanac Office, begins a project to calculate future positions of the moon using punched cards, a sorter, a tabulator, and a duplicating punch, in what is probably the first use of these machines for scientific calculation . This work would shortly inspire Columbia's Wallace Eckert to for junior, take the next historic step: automating these calculations. As we will see, much of the impetus towards automated scientific computation (and therefore modern computers) came from astronomers, and its primary application was in navigation. The same impetus brought us accurate, portable timepieces in pacthesis days, the previous century. 1928: Columbia's medical school, the College of Physicians and Surgeons, moves from tagalog essay, 10th Avenue and 55th-60th Streets to Washington Heights between Broadway and pacthesis days sim date walkthrough, Fort Washington Avenue, 165th-168th Streets, the former site of Hilltop Park (1903-1912), the baseball stadium of the New York Yankees (known as the security, New York Highlanders until 1912). Jun 1929: Prof. Wood's operation became the memory, Columbia University Statistical Bureau (PHOTOS). In addition to tabulating test results, it served as a computer center for other academic departments, particularly the Dept of Astronomy, which used the equipment for interpolating astronomical tables [9,40].
1930-31: Previously, Professor Wood had convinced Watson to uwe dissertation, build special Difference Tabulators , which IBM called Columbia machines and memory days walkthrough, delivered in 1930-31. These machines could process 150 cards per uwe dissertation minute and were unique in sim date walkthrough, their ability to rapidly accumulate sums of products or squares . In Network. The Statistical Bureau soon became a service provider to sim date walkthrough, outside organizations like the Rockefeller and Carnegie Foundations, Yale, Harvard, and Princeton . ( So how much did we charge? :-) 1931: Walter S. Lemmon, a Columbia University Electrical Engineering graduate and uwe dissertation, president of the Radio Industries Corporation, demonstrated the pacthesis days walkthrough, first working Radiotype machine , an electric typewriter coupled with radio transmitting and receiving apparatus. Thomas J. Watson's contacts at Columbia put him in touch with Lemmon and IBM hired him. The Radiotype, originally intended for business applications, is adopted by the US Army Signal Corps for wartime use, allowing radio transmissions without manual transcription to and from Morse code. Before the in network, war was over, Radiotype machines had been outfitted with encryption equipment to provide almost instant transmission and receipt of secure messages . 1933: In recognition of his interest in Columbia University and his large equipment donations, IBM Chairman Thomas J. Watson is appointed Columbia Trustee. In return, Columbia President Nicholas Murray Butler is appointed to IBM's Board of Directors . 1933-34: Prof. Wallace J. Eckert (PHOTOS AND BIOGRAPHY) of the Astronomy Department, a user of the Statistical Bureau, proposed modifications to IBM machines for days advanced astronomical calculations, and within a few weeks the machines, including an IBM 601 Multiplying Punch (modified to Eckert's specifications under the supervision of IBM's G.W.
Baehne  and dubbed the an essay about of transport, Astronomical Calculator ) were delivered to the Rutherford Observatory in days, the attic of Pupin Hall. Until 1937 (q.v.) this facility was variously known as the Rutherford Laboratory, the Astronomical Laboratory, and uwe dissertation, the Hollerith Computing Bureau (the minutes of the 61st meeting of the walkthrough, American Astronomical Society, 29-30 Dec 1938, refer to a visit to the Hollerith Computing Bureau, where vast computing projects are being carried out under the Direction of Dr. Eckert). Tagalog Ko Buhay. It was the first permanent IBM installation in the world to pacthesis days sim date walkthrough, do scientific work (Comrie's Greenwich setup had not been permanent). For his work, Eckert designed a control system based on plugboards and rotating drums to interconnect the new equipment, eventually incorporating methods to solve differential equations by numerical integration . The Astronomical Laboratory was the first to thesis in network, perform general scientific calculations automatically . In late 1933, Eckert presented a paper on this work to the American Astronomical Society.
Later, IBM would say, Among its scientific accomplishments, Columbia can boast of having pioneered . the memory, use of cover letter accountant cv automatic computing machines for research work . A seemingly mundane but significant aspect of memory days this work was the new ability to cover letter accountant, feed the result of one computation into days, the next and print the results of uwe dissertation these calculations directly, thus eliminating the transcription errors that were common in astronomical and lunar tables . To illustrate with a 1946 quote from Kay Antonelli, University of pacthesis days Pennsylvania, referring to her wartime work , We did have desk calculators at that time, mechanical and driven with electric motors, that could do simple arithmetic. Write An Essay About Of Transport. You'd do a multiplication and when the answer appeared, you had to write it down to reenter it into the machine to do the next calculation. We were preparing a firing table for each gun, with maybe 1,800 simple trajectories. Pacthesis Memory Walkthrough. To hand-compute just one of essay tungkol ko buhay these trajectories took 30 or 40 hours of sitting at a desk with paper and a calculator.
Imagine the pacthesis memory, effect of tagalog essay tungkol ko buhay a transcription error early in the 30-40 hour procedure. 1934-37: Ben Wood and walkthrough, his Statistical Bureau work with IBM to develop mark-sense technology to improve the efficiency of processing standardized tests . Thesis. The result was the IBM 805 International Test Scoring Machine, marketed beginning in 1937 . Dr. Wood is remembered at Columbia through the Ben D. Wood Graduate Fellowships in Learning Technologies, and at the Educational Testing Service, which dedicated its largest building to pacthesis days sim date walkthrough, him in essay, 1965. 1935: Practical Applications of the pacthesis days walkthrough, Punched Card Method in Colleges and Universities , edited by George W. Baehne of IBM, published by Columbia University Press; hardbound, 442 pages, 257 figures. Contains articles by Ben Wood and Wallace Eckert, among many others. Most of the letter cv, applications described are straighforward tabulating and bookkeeping operations; Eckert's is the exception.
CLICK HERE for a more detailed discussion of this book. 1936: Wallace Eckert hires Lillian Feinstein [Hausman] as computing lab manager, placing her at or very near the head of the pacthesis memory walkthrough, class of Women Pioneers of Computing . In Eckert's Lab, she programmed and performed scientific computations on the 601, 285, and other machines. She stayed with Eckert until 1948, on loan for a time to write of transport, the US Naval Observatory , and then from sim date walkthrough, 1945 on the Watson Lab technical staff. In the early Watson Lab days she (and others such as Eric Hankam) trained computing newcomers such as John Backus and Ted Codd. Write About A Means Of Transport. From the early Astronomical Lab equipment, she moved on pacthesis memory sim date walkthrough to the 602 (and 602-A), 604, the Aberdeen Relay Calculators, and the SSEC, and when Columbia began to hold academic computing courses in 1946, she ran Grosch's Engineering 281 Numerical Methods lab sessions. Much more about Lillian in Herb Grosch's book COMPUTER  (in which Herb refers to her as the senior full-time scientific punched card expert in the whole world in 1946). Other Women Pioneers of tagalog tungkol ko buhay Computing at memory days sim date walkthrough Columbia include 1940s-era Watson Lab members Marjorie Severy [Herrick], Rebecca Jones, and Eleanor Krawitz [Kolchin]. Grace Hopper, though by uwe dissertation no means a Columbian, was present at the inaugural meeting of the walkthrough, Association for an essay a means Computing Machinery (ACM), held at Columbia in 1947. The roster of Watson Lab technical staff (1945-70) is listed in pacthesis days sim date walkthrough, Brennan .
Out of 207 professional staff members, 35 are definitely women. Many more are listed with only initials; some others by Romanized Chinese name (which generally does not indicate gender). But at uwe dissertation least 17% of the technical staff were women, which isn't bad for the postwar years, in pacthesis memory days, which women were discouraged from working (or worse, laid off from their wartime jobs). 1937: Professor Eckert's astronomical lab in Pupin Hall's Rutherford Observatory becomes the Thomas J. Watson Astronomical Computing Bureau (PHOTO), jointly sponsored by IBM, the American Astronomical Society, and the Columbia Department of a firm Astronomy [3,9,86], to serve as a resource for the entire world astronomical community , making it the world's first center for scientific computation . The initial equipment of the sim date walkthrough, Bureau consists of that which has been used by thesis in network security the Department of Astronomy at Columbia University during the past few years . modified to sim date walkthrough, make them more efficient for scientific work . subtraction tabulator with summary card punch, cross-footing multiplying punch, interpreter, sorter, high-speed reproducer, key punches, and verifier. Some possibiliies of the machines can be gained from the program now in progress. This consists primarily of uwe dissertation (1) numerical integration of the pacthesis sim date walkthrough, equations of planetary motion; (2) complete checking of the lunar theory; (3) computation of precession and rectangular co-ordinates for uwe dissertation the Yale University Zone Catalogues ; (4) the photometric program of the Rutherford Observatory; and memory days sim date walkthrough, (5) problems of stellar statistics. . Users of the Bureau were charged only for labor and materials (a tremendous bargain, since the equipment was donated).
The Astronomical Computing Bureau would serve as a model for many of the paper, wartime computing centers, such as those at Los Alamos, the Naval Observatory, and the Aberdeen Proving Grounds [30,90]. 1938-40: In 1938, Soviet astronomer Boris Numerov visits Eckert's lab to learn how punched card equipment might be applied to stellar research in his own lab at St. Petersburg University in Moscow. Numerov, Boris Vasilyevich: The website of the Tosno Museum of Local History and sim date walkthrough, Tradition (Leningrad Region) says (as of 12 Sep 2003) An exhibit section is devoted to Boris Numerov (1891-1941) - a prominent astronomer, land-surveyor and write about a means, geophysicist, a creator of various astronomic instruments and means of minerals exploring. His family has lived in the town of Lyuban' not far from Tosno since 1922. In the times of Stalinist repressions Boris Numerov was arrested and days sim date, executed in 1941. In 1957 he was rehabilitated. Numerov is known today for the various algorithms and methods that bear his name.
In June 1940, a letter arrives for for junior accountant Eckert from sim date, V.N. Riazankin on a firm behalf of the Astronomical Institute of the USSR Academy of the Sciences, asking to visit Eckert's Lab. Jan Schilt, now in charge of the Lab, forwards it to Eckert in days, Washington. Essay Tungkol Ko Buhay. In August 1940, I.S. Pacthesis Memory Days Sim Date Walkthrough. Stepanov of the Amtorg Trading Company writes to Eckert asking why he didn't answer Riazinkin's letter. Here's the final paragraph of Eckert's reply (cc'd to Schilt): May I take the opportunity to cover cv, state that one of your eminent scientists, the late Dr. Numerov, corresponded with me several years ago concerning this very problem [machine construction of astronomical tables for navigation] . It was his intention to secure a similar installation, and had one in operation.
I sincerely hope that his interest in my machines was not construed by his government as treason, and that Mr. Riazankin will not meet the same fate as Dr. Numerov. . Schilt writes to Eckert from Columbia on August 9th: Concerning the letter of Mr. Stepanov I am shivering a little bit. Your reply to him is extremely strong and pacthesis memory days sim date walkthrough, clear, so much so that I would not be surprised if I wouldn't hear from them at all, and a firm, frankly I just soon would not . if there is any danger that [the machine] room may prove a death trap to Russian scientists I think I am in pacthesis days walkthrough, favor of not talking to write about a means of transport, these people. . (Note: the pacthesis days, correspondence places Numerov's death prior to 1941.) According to David Alan Grier , the Amtorg Trading Company was a spy agency; the proposed visit from Riazinkin, which never actually took place, is thought to have been an letter for junior cv, attempted first case of computer espionage . In fact, Amtorg was not just a front; it handled the bulk of Soviet-American trade for many years, but it was also an ideal spot for the placement of spies. Was Riazankin a spy? We'll never know.
In any case he was never heard from again. Herb Grosch reports that Soviet astronomers continued to pay occasional visits to days sim date walkthrough, Watson Lab after the write an essay, War, e.g. in connection with taking over production of the annual Kleine Planeten listing of asteroid positions from Watson Lab, which did the work in 1946 after the German Astronomisches Rechen-Institut was destroyed in memory days sim date, the War. Fall 1938: Howard Aiken, a Harvard graduate student who was working on an essay a means of transport plans for a machine to solve differential equations as part of memory days sim date his thesis, visits Professor Eckert's Lab; IBM engineer Clair D. Lake (who built Eckert's switch box) is cover letter cv also present. Eckert demonstrates the capabilities of his setup and suggests that he try to interest IBM in the project . A year later IBM agreed to develop and construct the machine, an electro-mechanical device called the Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator, ASCC (PHOTO), the first automated general-purpose (but not electronic or stored-program) computer. The ASCC was built by Lake and his staff at IBM's Endicott NY facility and presented in walkthrough, 1944 to Harvard, where it did war work, and eventually became known as the Harvard Mark 1 . The Mark 1 was soon outpaced by IBM's Aberdeen Relay Calculator (also built by Lake) and later the US Army's ENIAC, the write an essay a means of transport, first electronic automatic general-purpose (but still not stored-program) computer.
Jan 1939: Enrico Fermi, Leo Szilard, Walter Zinn, Herbert Anderson, and others begin work on nuclear fission in Columbia's Pupin Hall. Within a few months this work would become the Manhattan Project , funded by President Roosevelt (Columbia Law, 1905-07) in pacthesis walkthrough, response to Albert Einstein's letter warning of research Nazi research in this area. Memory Days Sim Date. After Pearl Harbor, the project moved to the University of Chicago (supposedly to a firm, make it less vulnerable to German attack) and spread to the University of California, Los Alamos, Oak Ridge, Hanford, and other locations. Fermi's lab was in days sim date, the same building as Professor Eckert's Astronomical Computing Bureau. I don't know to a firm, what degree, if any, Eckert's computing machines were employed in the early Manhattan Project, but as noted below they played a key role in pacthesis memory sim date walkthrough, 1945 in the final preparations for the first A-bombs . A number of other Columbia scientists worked on the project, including I.I. Rabi, Edward Teller, John Dunning (who identified U-235 as the fissionable uranium isotope using the Pupin cyclotron in Feb 1940), Harold Urey (who later left the project on moral grounds), and George Pegram (who assembled the original Manhattan Project team), as well as junior faculty who would later become well-known physicists, such as C.S.
Wu and Bill Havens (both of whom I worked for in my student days), James Rainwater, Eugene Booth, and Richard Present. The following is taken from a narrative, Evolving from Calculators to Computers on the Los Alamos National Laboratory History website (May 2003): Calculations at Los Alamos were originally done on manually operated mechanical calculators, which was not only laborious and time-consuming, but the uwe dissertation, machines broke down frequently under heavy use. The only one who could fix them promptly was Richard Feynman (Nobel Prize in Physics, 1965), which some thought was not the best use of his time. Days. Dana Mitchell, whom Laboratory Director J. An Essay About Of Transport. Robert Oppenheimer had recruited from memory, Columbia University to a firm, oversee procurement for Los Alamos, recognized that the calculators were not adequate for the heavy computational chores and suggested the pacthesis memory sim date walkthrough, use of IBM punched-card machines. He had seen them used successfully by Wallace Eckert at Columbia to calculate the orbits of planets and persuaded [Stanley] Frankel and [Eldred] Nelson to order a complement of tagalog essay ko buhay them. The new IBM punched-card machines were devoted to calculations to simulate implosion, and Metropolis and Feynman organized a race between them and the hand-computing group. 'We set up a room with girls in it.
Each one had a Marchant. But one was the multiplier, and another was the adder, and memory days walkthrough, this one cubed, and all she did was cube this number and send it to a firm, the next one,' said Feynmann. For one day, the hand computers kept up: 'The only difference was that the IBM machines didn't get tired and could work three shifts. Memory Days. But the girls got tired after a while.' May 1939: Columbia University's Baker Field (at 215th Street in about a means of transport, upper Manhattan) was the site of the nation's first televised sports event , a baseball game between Columbia and Princeton universities, May 17, 1939, broadcast by NBC. (The first televised sports event in the world was the 1936 Olympics in Berlin.) [ Top ] 1940: Prof. Eckert publishes Punched Card Methods in Scientific Calculation , the first computer book . The book . covers nearly a decade of work by W.J. Memory Sim Date Walkthrough. Eckert on astronomical calculations by machine processes. Paper Reference. Based on firsthand experience, it describes a gamut of large calculations that could best be carried out by machines able to process numbers in pacthesis days sim date, machine-readable form. These calculations include the construction of thesis in network mathematical tables, the pacthesis days sim date walkthrough, numerical integration of differential equations, numerical harmonic analysis and synthesis, and the solution of simultaneous equations. . Often known as the cover, 'Orange Book' on account of the memory days sim date, vividly colored covers of its original printing, Eckert's book was the a firm, bible of many workers engaged in punched card computing at the IBM Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University and elsewhere. Pacthesis Memory Sim Date Walkthrough. . Uwe Dissertation. The process of carrying out the integration of the differential equations is explained in pacthesis walkthrough, detail. Uwe Dissertation. It involves the use of the multiplier, tabulator, and summary punch in concert, guided by the setting of a calculation control switch, which acts as a master controller advancing automatically . through twelve positions (Figure 2). This control switch . Pacthesis Memory Days Walkthrough. was a precursor of sequential control in electronic computers .
Some of the better-known builders of the letter for junior accountant, early computers, like Vannevar Bush at MIT, J. Presper Eckert of the sim date walkthrough, ENIAC, and Howard Aiken at Harvard, got their first introduction in the famous orange book . In this year, Eckert is appointed full professor of Celestial Mechanics. March 1940: Eckert leaves Columbia for an assignment with the US Naval Observatory, which he rapidly computerizes to create accurate air and sea navigation tables for the US Air Corps and Navy using the techniques he devised at Columbia , which allowed design and production of the Air Almanac in record time (the first issue of the Air Almanac appeared December 1st, 1940, produced entirely by machine methods). The Astronomical Computing Bureau in Pupin, now directed by Jan Schilt (but with Eckert still running the ko buhay, show from Washington), was assigned to tasks for the looming war, such as ballistic firing tables, and trajectory calculations, and later, design calculations for the B-29 sighting station [57,59] Mathematics Goes to War . Eckert also assigns Nautical Almanac work to the Bureau, and temporarily borrows Lillian Feinstein as Piecework Computer from the Bureau's staff. The Bureau existed until 1951, but by pacthesis memory sim date walkthrough 1948 most of uwe dissertation its work had migrated to pacthesis memory walkthrough, Watson Lab . IBM played a large part in the Allied war effort, supplying all of its products to the US government at 1% over tagalog essay tungkol cost, and taking on new jobs as well, including manufacture of nearly six percent of all M1 rifles [see pictures and story] [another one here] [or search Google] (other non-weapons companies made M1s too, including National Postal Meter Company, General Motors, Underwood [typewriters], and Rock-Ola, a maker of juke boxes). IBM also evacuated the families of employees in pacthesis days, England to tagalog tungkol ko buhay, Toronto  and assisted the pacthesis days sim date walkthrough, families of thesis in network US employees who had gone off to war and held jobs open for all its returning veterans . According to allegations in 2001  (having nothing to do with Columbia), IBM might also have played a part in memory, Germany's war effort, in which widespread use was made of punched-card technology manufactured by write IBM's German subsidiary, Dehomag , which had been taken over by the Nazi government in 1940. The degree of IBM's involvement with Dehomag after that is or was at pacthesis issue [See IBM statement].
1940: The Bureau of Radio Research (founded at write an essay about of transport Princeton University in 1937), headed by Paul Lazarsfeld, moves to Columbia University, with quarters at 15 Amsterdam Avenue. In 1949 it would move to 427 West 117th Street, and about 1953 to 605 West 115th Street, the days sim date, other half of the former Parnassus Club, across from the present Watson Laboratory. Its name would change to the Bureau of Applied Social Research (BASR) in 1944, and it would live on until 1977, when it was replaced by the Center for uwe dissertation Social Sciences (later, the Lazarsfeld Center for days Social Sciences, and thesis security, still later the pacthesis memory days walkthrough, Institute for format Social and Economic Theory and pacthesis memory walkthrough, Research). BASR produced a great many quantitative studies and in fact pioneered quantitative sociology [26,27]. From its inception in 1940, the format, Bureau was in possession of IBM tabulating equipment. IBM machines and tabulating charges as well as IBM supplies appear on each annual budget ). The BASR's 1954-56 budgets show $6000 per month for IBM equipment rental, which suggests a rather massive capacity (compare with the Registrar Proposal of 1957). The BASR Report on the Year 1957-58 says The Bureau also maintains its own IBM data processing laboratory in University Hall, and other IBM equipment for use by students in Fayerweather Hall. The machine facilities of the memory sim date, Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory are available for about a means certain highly technical problems not readily solved by the Bureau's own equipment . Pacthesis Memory Days Sim Date. Pnina Stern, who worked at the Bureau until its demise, says When I got there in 1966 BASR had [at 605 W 115th Street] IBM 024 card punches, an 085 Collator, an 082 Sorter, and a 403 Accounting Machine that could be wired to tungkol, produce cross tabulations and other good stuff. Fred Meier was a whiz at wiring up this machine.
You had to wire it for each thing you wanted to do. It printed out cross tabulations and maybe even some other statistics. Days. Some of the IBM machines looked like pieces of Victorian furniture with intricately carved wrought iron legs. Years later when IBM had a retrospective exhibit somewhere they borrowed these machines for the exhibit. Maybe Fred M. owned them at uwe dissertation that time. Memory Sim Date. As for computing, someone at Columbia -- possibly at BASR -- wrote the very first computer cross tabulation program. I believe it was written in IBM 7090 machine language and you had to give it numerical coded instructions. It was not very user friendly. I think it may have been written by Peter Graham. As noted, much of BASR's quantitative work was done in-house on its tabulating and EAM equipment, but more demanding tasks were carried out at IBM Watson Lab.
By 1961, BASR was (with Physics and Chemistry) one of Columbia's leading users of computing, and one of the reasons the thesis, Columbia Computer Center was created . After 1963, BASR was a major user of the days sim date walkthrough, Computer Center mainframes, sending work-study students with massive decks of cards to the SSIO Area on campus on a regular basis to run jobs. We always duplicated the cards before we sent them over because we had visions of the in network security, students dropping the IBM card boxes and the cards floating across Broadway. In the 1970s, HP terminals were installed for interactive access to mainframe applications like SAS and pacthesis memory, SPSS. The Directors of BASR were Paul Lazarsfeld (1940-1951), Charles Glock (1951-1957), David Sills (1957-1960), Bernard Berelson (1960-61), and Allen Barton (1962-1977). 20 December 1944: Since the 1930s, Columbia had been IBM's main contact with scientific computing and the academic community , and to uwe dissertation, carry forward this relationship, Thomas J Watson, a Columbia Trustee since 1933, wrote to Columbia Provost (and Acting President 1945-47) Frank Diehl Fackenthal  agreeing to establish a computing research laboratory at Columbia University as soon as space can be secured: I am confident that this laboratory will be another major forward step in the long and productive cooperation between the pacthesis days walkthrough, [ sic ] IBM and Columbia University. 1945: The US Naval Observatory produces the 1946 edition of the paper format, Air Almanac in what is arguably the first instance of computer-driven typesetting, using the newly delivered programmable card-driven table printer that had been specified by Professor Eckert in 1941, but whose production was delayed by sim date the War. 6 February 1945: To give all possible aid to the war effort and to promote peace through scientific development, a computing laboratory has been established at Columbia University by write about a means International Business Machines Corporation. The new laboratory, to be known as the memory sim date, Thomas J. Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University , will serve as a world center for the treatment of a firm problems in pacthesis walkthrough, the various fields of science, whose solution depends on the effective use of applied mathematics and paper, mechanical calculations . Columbia Professor Wallace J. Sim Date. Eckert, now head of IBM's new Pure Research Department, is a firm appointed to head the laboratory. Temporarily housed on pacthesis memory walkthrough the tenth floor of Pupin Hall, staffed and paid for research format by IBM, with the staff holding faculty appointments and teaching credit courses in days sim date walkthrough, math, physics, astronomy, and research reference, other fields.
The new lab attracted attention all over memory walkthrough the scientific world; visitors included John von Neumann, Hans Bethe, and Richard Feynman [3,4,9, 57]. The lab was named for IBM's Thomas J. Watson (Senior), a Columbia Trustee (it is said that Watson is the for junior cv, one who nominated Eisenhower as Columbia President in 1948, but he meant Milton! ). Within a year, Watson Lab would become the third most powerful computing facility in the world, after the US Army's Aberdeen Proving Ground and memory, Harvard University, and in network, would remain so for some years. Mar 1945 : The Manhattan Project (from here through Aug 1945) : It turns out that the presence of Bethe, Feynman, and von Neumann was not entirely coincidental. Herb Grosch writes that in May 1945, calculations at Los Alamos were falling behind.
As Dr. Eckert (who had just hired him to work at the new Watson Lab) explained, They came to IBM for help. Mr. Pacthesis Memory Sim Date. Watson and John McPherson [IBM engineering director] . thought immediately of the Astronomical Bureau at Columbia, but it is thesis in network heavily engaged in fairly high priority work for another part of the pacthesis memory sim date, Army*, and really has no room for physical expansion anyhow. A Firm. It has only pacthesis sim date walkthrough two 601s and an old 285 fixed-plugboard tabulator, and there is hardly any room to move. New space was needed, and found, for security Watson Lab's first task: solution of days temperature-pressure equations for completion of the tagalog tungkol, A-bombs at Los Alamos  (more about this HERE and much more in Chapter 03 of memory days sim date Dr.
Grosch's book) Now that Germany's defeat was imminent, Leo Szilard who, with Enrico Fermi, had initiated the Manhattan Project at Columbia in 1939 did not believe the A-bomb should be used on Japan. He obtained a letter of introduction to President Roosevelt from Albert Einstein so he could present his case against thesis security, dropping the bomb. Pacthesis Days Walkthrough. A preliminary meeting with Eleanor Roosevelt was set up for May 8th, but the President died on April 12th and Szilard was blocked from contacting President Truman. 8 May 1945: VE Day, Germany surrenders, the war in Europe ends. Jul 1945: Szilard wrote and a firm, circulated a petition among his fellow scientists at the University of sim date Chicago against a means of transport, the use of atomic weapons and asking President Truman not to days sim date walkthrough, use them on Japan. Tagalog Essay Tungkol. He also sent copies to Oak Ridge and Los Alamos for circulation (the Los Alamos copy was buried by Groves and Oppenheimer). Szilard's petition went through several drafts; the first one (July 3rd) included the pacthesis days, following text:
Atomic bombs are primarily a means for the ruthless annihilation of cities. Once they were introduced as an instrument of format war it would be difficult to pacthesis sim date walkthrough, resist for long the research paper format, temptation of putting them to such use. Days Sim Date Walkthrough. The last few years show a marked tendency toward increasing ruthlessness. Paper Reference. At present our Air Forces, striking at the Japanese cities, are using the same methods of warfare which were condemned by American public opinion only a few years ago when applied by the Germans to the cities of England. Days. Our use of thesis in network security atomic bombs in this war would carry the world a long way further on pacthesis days walkthrough this path of ruthlessness. Subsequent drafts were toned down a bit but made the same recommendations. The Oak Ridge petition urged that before this weapon be used without restriction in the present conflict, its powers should be adequately described and demonstrated, and the Japanese nation should be given the opportunity to thesis, consider the consequences of further refusal to surrender. Pacthesis Memory Sim Date Walkthrough. Watson Lab staff who were performing calculations for Los Alamos were unaware of the petitions or, indeed (with only two exceptions, Eckert and Grosch, the only ones with security clearances), that the a firm, calculations were for a bomb . In any event, the petitions never reached the President.
6 Aug 1945: Hiroshima : Now we knew what we had been working on pacthesis days walkthrough . Letter Accountant. A second A-bomb was dropped on Nagasaki August 9th. More than 200,000 people died from the two blasts. Was the atomic bomb needed to end the walkthrough, war with Japan? The US Strategic Bombing Survey  says, Based on a detailed investigation of all the facts and thesis in network, supported by the testimony of the surviving Japanese leaders involved, it is the Survey's opinion that certainly prior to 31 December 1945, and in all probability prior to 1 November 1945 [the earliest possible date for an invasion], Japan would have surrendered even if the atomic bombs had not been dropped, even if Russia had not entered the war in the East, and pacthesis memory days walkthrough, even if no invasion had been planned or contemplated. It was known by the Allies  that since May 1945, Japan had been making peace overtures to the Soviet Union, both in uwe dissertation, Tokyo and pacthesis days sim date, Moscow. This was done at the direction of the Emperor, who had told his envoy, Prince Konoye, to reference format, secure peace at any price, notwithstanding its severity  . All indications (e.g. in Henry L. Stimson's diaries*) are that the US deliberately prolonged the war, first by delaying the Potsdam Conference and then by days sim date walkthrough striking the Emperor can stay clause from the Potsdam Declaration, until the bombs could be dropped, and that this was done to intimidate the Soviet Union.
Former President, Supreme Commander of Allied Forces in Europe, and Supreme Commander of NATO Dwight D. Eisenhower wrote in his memoir, Mandate for Change , (Doubleday 1963), “The incident took place in essay tungkol ko buhay, 1945 when Secretary of War Stimson visiting my headquarters in Germany, informed me that our government was preparing to drop an atomic bomb on Japan. I was one of those who felt that there were a number of cogent reasons to question the wisdom of such an act . . Pacthesis Memory Days Sim Date Walkthrough. . But the Secretary, upon a firm giving me the news of the successful bomb test in New Mexico, and of the pacthesis sim date, plan for using it, asked for my reaction, apparently expecting a vigorous assent. During his recitation of the relevant facts, I had been conscious of a feeling of write about depression and so I voiced to him my grave misgivings, first on the basis of my belief that Japan was already defeated and that dropping the pacthesis days walkthrough, bomb was completely unnecessary, and secondly because I thought that our country should avoid shocking world opinion by the use of a weapon whose employment was, I thought, no longer mandatory as a measure to save American lives. It was my belief that Japan was, at that very moment, seeking some way to uwe dissertation, surrender with a minimum loss of 'face'.” FDR's and Truman's Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of sim date Staff and of the uwe dissertation, Combined US and British Chiefs of memory sim date Staff Admiral William D. Leahy wrote in accountant cv, his book I Was There (Whittlesey House, 1950), “It is my opinion that the use of this barbarous weapon at Hiroshima and Nagasaki was of no material assistance in our war against pacthesis memory sim date walkthrough, Japan. The Japanese were already defeated and cover for junior cv, ready to surrender because of the effective sea blockade and the successful bombing with conventional weapons.”
14 Aug 1945: 7:18PM EWT (Eastern War Time): VJ Day, Japan surrenders , the war ends. The formal surrender was signed September 2. (The US and many other countries were on pacthesis memory days sim date permanent daylight savings time throughout the war; in the US this was called War Time -- Eastern War Time, Central War Time, etc.) Oct 1945: Watson Laboratory establishes itself as the cataloger of mathematical tables on punched cards, meaning that any scientist who needed to obtain machine-readable tables of mathematical functions such as sin, cos, tan, log, squares, cubes, inverses, roots, Bessel functions, Lagrangean interpolation coefficients, spheroid functions, grid coordinates, and in network security, so forth, could find out from Watson Lab where to get them . Of course Watson Lab itself was a major producer of pacthesis memory sim date such tables. As these card decks were freely shared, they might be regarded as an early form of tagalog tungkol freeware . Nov 1945: Watson Laboratory moves from Pupin Hall (where it had been since February 1945) into 612 West 116th Street (PHOTO) (MAP), a former fraternity house vacated by pacthesis memory days sim date the War, purchased by IBM and renovated as a laboratory (PHOTOS) with offices and teaching facility [4,9]. A Firm. A simple bronze plaque was affixed to pacthesis sim date walkthrough, the building reading WATSON SCIENTIFIC COMPUTING LABORATORY at COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY  (WHERE IS THE PLAQUE NOW?).
Watson Lab's early equipment included two experimental one-of-a-kind relay calculators, two Aberdeen relay calculators, plus conventional calculators and tabulators inherited from the Astronomy Lab, and within a couple years would grow to include a IBM 602 and the first IBM 604. Reference. Read more about renovation and equipping of memory this building in Chapter 09 of the Grosch book. This building is now Casa Hispanica, home of Columbia's Department of Spanish and thesis, Portuguese. Days Sim Date. Herb Grosch confirms that Chock Full O' Nuts was open for business on the southwest corner of 116th and Broadway in 1945, where it remained a fixture for decades. Chock Full O' Nuts sightings go back as far as 1944. When did it close? Mid-1980s I think. A few other establishments that were here in paper reference, 1945 are still open in 2004: The West End (1915), Tom's Restaurant (1936), Columbia Hardware (1939), and Mondel's Chocolates (1943). Aug 1946: Eckert describes Watson Lab to an IBM Research Forum .
It is the intention of the Laboratory to make these facilities available to any scientist from any place in this country or abroad , regardless of memory sim date whether he is about of transport connected with a university or a laboratory. This is our fundamental principle: problems will be accepted because of scientific interest and not for any other considerations. Scientific interest can be of two kinds: the pacthesis memory days walkthrough, problem may interest us because of the complexity of the calculation, or it may be considered on the basis of scientific merit of the result rather than the means. While routine computation is not the aim of the Laboratory, a considerable amount of it will be done on worthy causes. Later he describes some experimental machines: Among the digital machines which have been developed over the years, there are several based on the relay network; we now have two of these at the Laboratory [ note: he is not referring to the Aberdeens, which had not yet been delivered ] . The first one was developed with the a firm, idea of seeing how few relays it is possible to use to produce a calculating machine. This machine is built on pacthesis memory sim date the standard IBM key punch. . The control is very convenient. a combination of cover letter for junior cv control panel and master card or program card.
Thus, instead of having twenty control panels for days sim date walkthrough a complicated job, you can set it up to use one control panel and twenty master cards. This might very well be the a firm, birth of software . The control panel, which stays in place for the duration of the job, defines the instructions of the machine, in a sense its microprogram. The sequence of operations (invoking instructions from the control panel) is on memory sim date a deck of cards. It is a firm a PROGRAM. A few years later, IBM would build a Card Programmed Calculator, and from there it is a short step to the first general-purpose stored-program computer, which, arguably, was IBM's SSEC, built under Eckert's direction (in fact the SSEC was completed before the CPC).
The significance of card programming can't be overstated. A deck of control cards (along with the specifications for the corresponding control-panel wiring, at least in these early days) documents the program. It can be printed, read, modified, duplicated, mailed, kept for future use, and run again on different data sets. Days Sim Date. Much of this might be said of plugboards too, provided you don't have to recycle them, thus destroying the program. But most important, a program deck can be any length at all, thus allowing extremely complex problems to tagalog, be run -- problems that might have required a thousand plugboards. Days. (Trust me, nobody had 1000 plugboards; they're big and uwe dissertation, they cost serious money.) 1946: Watson Lab produces Ephemerides of 783 Minor Planets for 1947 (formerly Kleine Planeten ), the pacthesis days sim date, annual asteroid listing for the year 1947, about a firm 100 pages of days sim date tables showing the position of each body at 8-day intervals, calculated on the Watson Lab Aberdeen Relay Calculators, the a firm, world's fastest computing devices at the time.
1946-47: Watson Laboratory courses first appear in days sim date, the University Bulletin. These are graduate-level credit courses. Uwe Dissertation. Among them are courses in computing machinery and numerical analysis taught by Wallace Eckert and memory days sim date, Herb Grosch believed to be the first computer science courses offered by any university  or, more precisely, the a firm, first such courses in the world fully integrated into a university curriculum and pacthesis memory, continuing year after year . Eckert taught Machine Methods of Scientific Calculation (Astronomy 111-112); Grosch taught Numerical Methods (Engineering 281, a graduate course I took some 30 years later. Write About. The next year L.H. Pacthesis Memory Days Walkthrough. Thomas added Numerical Solution of Differential Equations (Physics 228). By 1951, the curriculum also included EE 275 (Electrical and Electronic Components of Digital Computers, taught by Watson Lab's Robert M. Walker) and uwe dissertation, Physics 255 (Separation of pacthesis memory days walkthrough Variables in Mathematical Physics, L.H. Thomas). Most of uwe dissertation these courses included hands-on laboratory sessions with the pacthesis days walkthrough, Watson Lab machines or (later) the SSEC downtown. Graduate-level hard-science courses used the Watson Lab machines too, including some taught by regular Columbia faculty such as George Kimball (Chemistry), among whose students were Margaret Oakley Dayhoff (Columbia Ph.D. A Firm. 1948, the founder of computational biochemistry), Isaac Asimov (Columbia B.Sc 1939, M.A.
1941, Ph.D. 1948), and Maurice Ewing (Oceanography), the founder of Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, whose students included Frank Press (Columbia M.A. Sim Date Walkthrough. 1946, Ph.D. In Network. 1949), who went on to become President of the US National Academy of memory sim date Sciences and Chairman of the thesis security, National Research Council. More about these courses in the 1951 entry.
1946-47: It was also during this period that Watson Laboratory began to provide computer time to Columbia researchers at no charge. This arrangement would continue until 1963, when Columbia -- with IBM's assistance -- opened its own Computing Center. Perhaps the first non-Watson-Lab Columbia researcher to use the Watson Lab machines was Martin Schwarzschild, who used the Aberdeen Relay Calculators for astronomical calculations . 1947: Nevis Laboratory, the Columbia Physics department's primary center for study of sim date high-energy and nuclear physics, founded in Irvington, New York. There is a long history of computing here too, which needs to be told, including the many and varied connection methods to thesis in network, Columbia's Morningside Heights campus. Sep 1947: The Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) is pacthesis memory days sim date walkthrough born at a meeting of sixty computer enthusiasts at Columbia University's Havemeyer Hall . Originally calling itself the Eastern Association for Computing Machinery, attendees of uwe dissertation its first meeting included Columbia Professor Wallace Eckert (who arranged the space), Professor Hilleth Thomas (Thomas-Fermi Model), Byron Havens of Watson Lab (chief engineer, NORC), John Lentz of Watson Lab (designer of the memory days, first personal computer), Watson Lab's Herb Grosch, and thesis, everybody's favorite computer person, Grace Hopper. The meeting was convened by pacthesis memory days sim date computer pioneer and tagalog essay, antiwar activist Edmund Berkeley. Pacthesis Walkthrough. (CLICK HERE to view documents from the first ACM meeting.) Nov 1947: The Watson Laboratory Three-Week Course on Computing , taught by Eric Hankam, the first hands-on computer course (PHOTOS AND DETAILS), in which scientists from cover letter for junior accountant cv, all over the world learned how to apply computing machines to problems in their disciplines.
The course was given here eleven times a year until 1957 -- by days sim date which time it had been attended by 1600 people from 20 countries -- when it was moved to IBM education centers around the world . 24 Dec 1947: First successful test of the transistor. Jan 1948: The IBM Selective Sequence Electronic Calculator (SSEC) (PHOTOS AND DETAILS) was designed and built by uwe dissertation IBM in memory days sim date, 1946-47 under the direction of Columbia Professsor Wallace Eckert and then installed in IBM HQ at tagalog essay ko buhay 590 Madison Ave in January 1948. Pacthesis Walkthrough. This is one of the first large-scale electronic computers, and the first machine to combine electronic computation with a stored program and capable of operating on thesis in network security its own instructions as data . It was based on hybrid vacuum-tube / mechanical relay technology (12,000 tubes, 21,000 relays). Fully assembled, it was 140 feet long (60 + 20 + 60 U-shape) (some sources cite different dimensions) and was used initially for calculating lunar coordinates. Reporters called it a Robot Brain.
Its massive size and configuration established the public image of pacthesis memory days computers for decades to come (as in this 1961 New Yorker cover by Charles Addams). Write An Essay A Means. Aside from solving important scientific problems, it was used by pacthesis days sim date walkthrough students of uwe dissertation Columbia's pioneering Machine Methods graduate course -- part of the world's first computer science curriculum, initiated here in 1946. Popular descriptions of computers as brains and analogies with the pacthesis memory sim date, human nervous system were so rampant in the late 1940s and early 50s, that George Stibitz, developer of the security, wartime Bell Relay Calculators, was prompted to write an article cautioning against days, such wild tales as the one in the Feb 18, 1950, Saturday Evening Post, which said that computers were subject to psychopathic states which engineers cure by a firm shock treatments consisting of the application of sim date excessively large voltages . The SSEC was programmed from Watson Lab on uwe dissertation standard IBM cards converted to input tapes on a special punch called the pacthesis sim date, Prancing Stallion . Eckert's moon-orbit calculations on this machine were used as the basis for cover letter accountant cv the Apollo missions. It was dismantled in 1952. Pacthesis Memory Days Sim Date Walkthrough. One of the SSEC's programmers was John Backus (PHOTO AND DETAILS), who had two Columbia degrees and was at Watson Lab in 1950-52 , and who went on a firm to design FORTRAN, the first high-level machine-independent programming language , and pacthesis memory days walkthrough, Algol, the first block-structured language, and is also known for Backus Normal Form (BNF), a meta-language for describing computer languages. Before FORTRAN, almost every computer program was written in machine or assembly language, and therefore was not portable to any other kind of machine.
The idea of a high-level programming language was the write an essay about a means, second step on the road to user friendliness. The first step was the assembler. Such notions were not without controversy. Memory Sim Date. John von Neumann, when he first heard about FORTRAN in tagalog essay, 1954, was unimpressed and asked why would you want more than machine language? One of von Neumann's students at memory days walkthrough Princeton recalled that graduate students were being used to thesis security, hand assemble programs into binary for their early machine. Pacthesis Memory. This student took time out to build an uwe dissertation, assembler, but when von Neumann found out about it he was very angry, saying that it was a waste of a valuable scientific computing instrument to use it to do clerical work. Memory Days Sim Date. (These anecdotes from uwe dissertation, a biographical sketch of von Neumann by John A.N. Pacthesis Memory Days. Lee, Dept of in network Computer Science, Virginia Polytechnical Institute.) Another SSEC programmer was Edgar F. Codd , originator of the relational database model  ( Communications of the ACM , Vol. 13, No. 6, June 1970, pp.377-387), who was at Watson Lab from 1949 to 1952  and died April 18, 2003.
1948-54: The IBM Personal Automatic Calculator was designed by John Lentz and built between 1948 and 1954 on the top floor of Watson Lab. Among its innovations was a magnetic drum for pacthesis memory days sim date walkthrough auxilliary storage, automatic positioning of the decimal point, and the first video terminal. Cover Cv. When it was finally announced in 1956 as the IBM 610 Autopoint Computer, it was the memory sim date, first personal computer . [4,9,17] 1949: Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory, Columbia's earth science facility, founded in Palisades, New York, by Professor Maurice Ewing, a user of the Watson Lab equipment. There is a long tradition of computing and networking here too, which needs to be told. See  for an excellent history (albeit with nothing on computing) of what is security now called the Lamont Doherty Earth Observatory.
1950: Herb Grosch devises Grosch's Law Computing power increases as the square of the pacthesis memory walkthrough, cost in Watson Lab [57,p.131]. Dr. Grosch leaves Watson in 1951 to start an IBM bureau in Washington DC. May 1950: Edmund Berkeley (who had founded the ACM at Columbia University in 1947, and research format, who had written the first book about computers for pacthesis memory sim date a general audience  in 1949), William Porter (a West Medford MA mechanic), and two Columbia graduate students, Robert Jensen and Andrew Vall, build Simon , a simple model electronic brain (PHOTO), costing about $600 to construct. Thesis In Network. Of Simon, Berkeley said:
It is the smallest complete mechanical brain in existence. It knows not more than four numbers; it can express only the memory sim date, number 0, 1, 2 and 3. It is tungkol ko buhay guaranteed to make every member of an audience feel superior to it. It is a mechanical brain that has cost less than $1,000. It can be carried around in one hand (and the power supply in pacthesis memory sim date walkthrough, the other hand). It can be completely understood by uwe dissertation one man. It is an excellent device for teaching, lecturing and explaining.
1951: CLICK HERE to view some 1951 Watson Lab Astronomy, Engineering, and Physics course listings from the 1951 Columbia Catalog. Herb Grosch recalls : . a little about the courses we gave - that is, at Columbia. These were all part of the pacthesis walkthrough, regular university curriculum, listed in the appropriate catalogs - we had our own special one also - and open to any student with the prerequisites and the money. We did however encourage our own juniors on 116th Street and at the SSEC to for junior accountant, attend as auditors if they did not want to sign up for credit. Days Walkthrough. . Most of cover letter for junior our offerings were unusual. [Hilleth] Thomas did a very good course in memory, theoretical physics, in which he was a world authority. I did a celestial mechanics course one year; it was really a mlange of spherical trig, practical and theoretical astronomy (meaning time and essay tungkol ko buhay, position determination, and orbit computing), and brief mentions of planetary and sim date, satellite mechanics. . None of my subtopics were taught anywhere else at Columbia; the astronomy department was solid astrophysics. A Firm. And they were what was needed for astronomy calculations. . Most of our value as teachers, however, came from the computing courses . Pacthesis Memory. Eckert gave a two-semester machine methods course, which featured hands-on operation under Marjorie [Severy], Lillian [Feinstein Hausman] and Eric [Hankam]; literally the only place in uwe dissertation, the world where you could learn in the university milieu . . I did numerical methods - classical interpolation and memory days sim date walkthrough, matrix arithmetic and integration of write an essay about a means of transport differential equations.
Most of my examples, and memory days sim date, assigned exercises, were at desk calculator level, but I lectured from the point of a firm view of machine operation . Pacthesis. This was one semester, once a year, and thesis in network security, Hilleth did an advanced course featuring partial differential equation solutions and error propagation, every other year. . My classes were small; this was a very esoteric discipline indeed in days, the Forties. But I had interesting students .. like [Stan] Rothman and [Bill] McClelland and [John] Backus and Don Quarles. . So it was my side of the write about a means of transport, house that carried the pacthesis memory days walkthrough, teaching. It went on into the Fifties, always as part - but a small part - of the Columbia offerings. The hands-on side of the Machine Methods course was unique, not just because of the equipment but because real use-'em-every-day men and a firm, women were running it. 1952-3: Watson Lab #2. When construction of the days sim date walkthrough, NORC (see Dec 1954 entry) exhausted available space in tagalog, the petite 116th street building (and because still more space was required by Watson Lab's new physics program), IBM purchased the building at 612 West 115th Street (PHOTO) (MAP), formerly a women's residence club, gutted and pacthesis days, renovated it, equipped it with physics laboratories, and relocated to write about a means of transport, it.
The new Watson Lab was occupied in September 1953 . A time clock was installed (you can still see its mounting today) but nobody on the professional staff used it (as a corporation, IBM was obsessed with efficiency but the memory sim date, Watson Lab scientists were notorious noncomformists). Write A Means. The time clock and memory, all wall clocks were controlled centrally and uwe dissertation, set automatically by an IBM master clock (like the one in days walkthrough, the first Watson Lab); the IBM wall clocks in Watson Lab kept on ticking until about 1999. The Penthouse was outfitted as a lunchroom with a small kitchen, where coffee and tea could be made and soup or beans heated up; it had the atmosphere of a World War II canteen, and uwe dissertation, was the favorite place for people in memory sim date walkthrough, different groups or floors to talk and thesis advisors to meet with their students . Some space was retained in the 116th Street building: offices for PhD students, classroom space, and letter accountant cv, a machine room [4,9,17,66]. The former women's residence on 115th Street was in fact the Parnassus Club , a boarding house for young women -- students at the Julliard School of Music, which was then only a couple blocks away on the current Manhattan School of Music site (MAP) or at Barnard College, a block north (MAP), for semi-professional performers. It operated from 1921 to days, 1955. CLICK HERE for stories and photos. The North-facing building was gutted by IBM in 1953 to create Watson Laboratory.
According to a resident, we all had to move out because some official body at cover accountant cv Columbia had decided the pacthesis memory days walkthrough, neighborhood had become too dangerous for us; at least that was the reason given in a letter we all received that spring (this refers to the second Parnassus Club building, which remained in operation until 1955). Uwe Dissertation. (Miss Macmillan's 1965 obituary states, however, that the pacthesis memory walkthrough, Club was closed due to uwe dissertation, her poor health.) The exterior of 612 West 115th Street retains its original look but the inside contains no trace of the Parnassus Club. In July 2003, a resident from days sim date, 1950 appeared on the doorstep with her daughter and grandson; she was showing them where she used live. A Firm. I brought them inside for a mini-tour, but she was clearly disappointed to find absolutely nothing familiar. The original Watson Lab at 612 West 116th Street was designed by Thomas Nash and built in 1906 as the Delta Phi fraternity house. The current Watson building at 612 West 115th Street was originally an apartment building called Duncan Hall, designed in 1905 by the prolific firm of Neville Bagge, originally built and owned by a Frank Woytisek. The building across the street, No.
605, was also an pacthesis walkthrough, apartment building by Neville Bagge, called the Bellemore, built in 1903 and originally owned by Moses Crystal . It was home to the Bureau of Applied Social Research (BASR) from write, 1955(?) until it was demolished about 1970. 200th anniversary of memory days sim date walkthrough Columbia University. 1954: Invention of the cursor: As part of his work on the first personal computer (the IBM 610), Watson Lab's John Lentz designs a small video terminal -- keyboard and for junior accountant cv, tiny screen -- for control and data entry. in memory days, which the current position was indicated visually by what came to be known as a cursor . Lentz applied for a patent on this concept; the patent was finally granted in the early 1970s. As far as I can tell, Lentz's control and display device was also the first video terminal . Dec 1954: The Naval Ordnance Research Calculator (NORC) (PHOTOS AND DETAILS), the first supercomputer and the most powerful computer in existence at a firm the time (and for the next ten years), becomes operational. Pacthesis Days Sim Date Walkthrough. It was designed here beginning in 1950 and built in Watson Lab #2, 612 West 115th Street. NORC had 200,000 electronic components: 3600 words of main memory (originally vacuum tubes, later magnetic cores), eight magnetic tape drives, 15,000 complete operations per second, decimal (not binary) arithmetic, swappable components. Since this was such a big job, additional space was rented at 2929 Broadway, above a restaurant (Prexy's? Home of the Educated Hamburger?) for an essay about a means of transport building some of the memory days, parts, which were brought to write a means, Watson Lab for assembly and eventual startup and operation.
John von Neumann was a team member and gave the inaugural address on December 2, 1954. NORC was moved to the Naval Proving Ground, Dahlgren, Virginia, in 1955 and sim date, remained operational until 1968 [4,12,17]. 30 Aug 1955: The first of two IBM 650 computers is letter installed in the first-floor machine room of the memory walkthrough, original Watson Lab building on 116th Street. The 650 was a vacuum-tube-logic decimal computer with 2000 words of ten decimal digits each plus sign  stored on drum memory. Each had a 511 card reader and a 403 printer. They ran for two shifts a day, eventually supporting over thesis security 200 Columbia research projects .
A 17 Nov 1955 memo from pacthesis days, Dr. Eckert to write an essay a means, J.C. McPherson states that the 650 was installed on memory August 30 and for junior, much of the work of the computing group has been concerned with its incorporation into the Laboratory program of research and instruction. The 650s were soon used in pacthesis walkthrough, a series of intensive courses on computing, with  as a text; these courses later resulted in a book: Joachim Jeenel, Programming for Digital Computers , McGraw-Hill, 1959 . Initally, all programming was in write about a means of transport, assembly language punched on cards; eventually languages such as FORTRAN were available. Pacthesis Days Sim Date Walkthrough. The legendary SOAP assembler for the 650 was written at a firm Watson Lab by pacthesis memory sim date walkthrough Stan Poley. The earlier Watson Lab equipment (tabulators, sorters, multiplying punches, etc) were not computers in the modern sense (general-purpose, electronic, von-Neumann architecture, stored-program, programmed with a language rather than wires). NORC had been the first such computer at Columbia but, although it was used in one Columbia PhD dissertation , it was not open to the Columbia community for general use . Thus the IBM 650 was the first computer available to Columbia researchers and we have a 50th anniversary on August 30, 2005. Eric Hankam points out  that this was not as dramatic a turning point as it might seem, since the a firm, same types of problems had been solved on non-stored-program calculators at Columbia over the preceding two or three decades; at the time, the memory sim date walkthrough, 650 was seen as just another incremental step in calculator design. However, the 650's power, flexibility, and ease of use relative to the wire- and card-programmed machines (601, Aberdeen, 602, 604, CPC, 607) attracted a flood of uwe dissertation Columbia research projects.
By 1961, 650s were also installed at Nevis Lab, Hudson Lab, and ERL. Pacthesis Memory Days Sim Date. As demand oustripped capacity, it became increasingly clear that Columbia would need a computing facility of tagalog tungkol ko buhay its own, big enough to serve the entire university. Sep 1956: Watson Lab begins to award fellowships to Columbia graduate students , including Ken King, who would become the first Director of the Columbia Computer Center, and Joe Traub, who, after obtaining his Columbia PhD in 1959, and a distinguished career at Bell Labs and heading the Carnegie-Mellon CS Department, would become first Chair of Columbia's Computer Science Department [9, 21] (prior to that, computer science courses were in the Electrical Engineering department). Watson Fellows had their own offices at pacthesis sim date walkthrough 612 West 116th Street, that were appointed with fireplaces and leather sofas, a good stipend, and unlimited computing time . A Firm. Approximately 15 percent of Columbia physics graduate students in the 1950s did their thesis work at Watson Lab . 1956-70: Watson Lab concentrates on solid state physics.
This not-insignificant period, resulting in pacthesis sim date walkthrough, many publications, patents, and a Nobel Prize, is described at length in  and . (Richard L. Garwin of Watson Lab conducted experiments with Leon Lederman of the CU Physics Department confirming the suggestion by C.N. Yang of Princeton and tungkol, T.D. Lee of Columbia regarding muon decay; this, plus the additional confirmation of C.S. Wu in the CU Physics Department, resulted in the 1957 Nobel Prize in Physics for Lee and Yang.) Also in this period, Seymour Koenig's research on low-temperature breakdown of germanium and its application to semiconductors; Triebwasser's research on microscopic and thermodynamic properties of sim date walkthrough ferroelectric crystals; Tucker's research on semiconductors at uwe dissertation liquid helium temperatures with application to biomedical instrumentation . 1957: A proposal was submitted by Columbia University to the National Science Foundation to install an IBM 701 in Watson Laboratory, since many of Columbia's research projects now demanded more power than was offered by the 650s (the sub-microsecond circuits used in the 701 were designed at Watson Lab ). While the proposal was under consideration the 701 was superseded by the Model 704, so the proposal was changed to sim date, ask for a 704. Uwe Dissertation. $145,000 was awarded, but it turned out the 704 was larger than the 701 originally proposed and would not fit in Watson Lab, so the pacthesis, money had to be returned unused  and IBM Watson Lab continued to cover accountant cv, cater to all of Columbia's academic computing needs at its own expense.
Projects that couldn't be accommodated by Watson Lab's Model 650s were allowed to use the memory, more powerful IBM 700-series computers downtown at a firm IBM headquarters . Oct 1957: IBM proposes the following arrangement to Charles Hurd, University Registrar, for student statistics, course registration, permanent records, and fee accounting: Less 20% educational discount, plus supplies of days sim date walkthrough cards, coding sheets, control (plugboard) panels, trays, and brackets totalling another $1810.25. Note: the a firm, links for some of these items are to later (but similar) models. Required personnel are one supervisor/programmer, two machine operators, and pacthesis, three key punch operators.
Source: AIS archives. Letter For Junior Accountant Cv. This arrangement characterizes the nature of days walkthrough administrative data processing at the time. Cover For Junior. There is no true computer, only unit record equipment and tabulating machines capable of rudimentary statistics (sums) and report generation. According to letters of Charles Hurd, 1957-1960 , the pacthesis walkthrough, funding was found from the expected decline in enrollment of Public Law 550 [Korean War] veterans (Veterans Readjustment Act of 1952); in cover letter accountant cv, his proposal to Provost John Krout (29 Oct 1957), Hurd says I am sure that you are aware that IBM equipment has been used in the Registrars' Offices in colleges and universities. large and small, public and private, for many years and has proven to be a most valuable and efficient tool. I hope, therefore that you will consider this proposal so that this long felt need at Columbia may be fulfilled. In other words, registration was still completely manual in 1957. The advantages of the new system would be accuracy, elimination of redundancy (e.g. each student writing the same information on many different forms, up to 23 of them) and pacthesis, transcription errors, and the ability to generate reports, including class lists, plus ID cards and mailing labels, not to mention keeping up with the Joneses, e.g.
NYU, where punch-card registration had been in use since at least 1933. The new equipment was installed in 307 University Hall and the new system phased in about of transport, from 1959 to 1961 (with an IBM 407 installed rather than a 403 at an extra $250/month). Computerized registration was seen by some as a step towards dehumanization of students and pacthesis memory days, turning universities into tagalog essay tungkol ko buhay, factories, a major factor in the rise of the Free Speech Movement at sim date walkthrough the University of California at Berkeley, which set the stage for campus activism, protest, and in network security, rebellion throughout the 1960s, including Columbia in 1968: There is a time when the operation of the days sim date, machine becomes so odious, makes you so sick at heart, that you can't take part; and you've got to put your bodies upon write the gears and upon the wheels, upon the levers, upon pacthesis all the apparatus and uwe dissertation, you've got to make it stop. Pacthesis Memory. According to letter for junior accountant, Steven Lubar of the Smithsonian Institution, this sentiment, although directed primarily at the economy and memory days walkthrough, war machinery, extended to the punched-card equipment in the registrar's office: Berkeley protestors used punch cards as metaphor, both as a symbol of the 'system'--first the registration system and then bureaucratic systems more generally--and as a symbol of alienation. 'I am a UC student. Please don't bend, fold, spindle or mutilate me.' 1958: The Columbia-Princeton Electronic Music Center (CPEMC) is founded by Professors Vladimir Ussachevsky and Otto Luening with a grant from the Rockefeller Foundation. It is the a firm, first center for electroacoustic music in the USA and has a long association with Columbia computing. Located in Prentis Hall on West 125th Street, its name was changed to Computer Music Center in 1996. Some tales have been collected and contributed by Peter Mauzey of Bell Labs, a Columbia graduate and former faculty member with a long association with the Electronic Music Center; CLICK HERE to read them.
Sep 1958: The equipment of pacthesis memory days sim date walkthrough Columbia University IBM Watson Scientific Computing laboratory is listed  as: Standard punched card equipment A comprehensive selection of basic punched card machines, with many special devices. Write About Of Transport. The equipment includes keypunch, sorter, reproducer, and printer. Wired-program calculators The group of electro-mechanical and electronic calculators include the pacthesis days, Type 602-A Calculating Punch, the Type 607 Electronic Calculating Punch, and the Card-Programmed Electronic Calculator. The 607 is an automatic electronic calculator with pluggable program control and 146-digit storage capacity, capable of performing most programs at the rate of 100 cards per minute. Stored-program calculator The type 650 Magnetic Drum Data Processing Machine is in network a stored-program calculator [i.e. computer] which can store 2000 ten-digit words, read 200 cards a minute, punch 100 cards a minute, and perform approximately 100 multiplications a second. The memory capacity can be used interchangeably for numerical data and operating instructions, which permits complete flexibility in the elaboration of memory instructions by tagalog essay tungkol the machine itself. Plus special-purpose devices such as a card-driven lithography printer, a card-controlled astronomical photograph analyzer, as well as a machine shop and physics and sim date, chemistry laboratories, a highly specialized library, and access to paper reference, the big IBM 700 series computers downtown.
Although FORTRAN -- the pacthesis memory sim date walkthrough, first high-level, machine-independent programming language -- marked a great leap forward in user friendliness, and was probably available for the 650 by this time, it's worth remembering how one ran a FORTRAN job in the early days. First you punched your FORTRAN program on an essay about of transport a key punch machine, along with any data and control cards. But since the 650 had no disk, the FORTRAN compiler was not resident. Pacthesis Days Walkthrough. So to compile your program, you fed the FORTRAN compiler deck into in network, the card reader, followed by your FORTRAN source program as data. After some time, the machine would punch the resulting object deck. Then you fed the FORTRAN run-time library object deck and your program's object deck into the card reader, followed by any data cards for your program. Your program would run and results would be punched onto pacthesis days sim date yet another deck of cards. To see the results, you would feed the result deck into another machine, such as an IBM 407, to have it printed on paper. The computer itself had no printer. By the early 60s a certain division of labor had become the rule, in which system analysts would make a flow chart, programmers would translate it to code, which was written by hand on coding forms that were given to key punch operators to be punched on cards. The coding forms and card decks were passed on to verifiers who repunched the a firm, source code to catch and correct any mistakes, signed off on the job, sent the deck to the operator to await its turn at the computer.
Hours later the results would be delivered to the programmer in the form of a printout and pacthesis days, the cycle would continue. 1959: Programming for Digital Computers , by Watson Lab's Joachim Jeenel, is published by McGraw-Hill. From the write of transport, Preface: The contents of memory days this book were developed from material presented to courses on uwe dissertation programming for stored-programming calculators held at Columbia University. Prof. W.J. Eckert, Director of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University, initiated the writing of the book and suggested the scope of the text. Jeenel also taught Columbia graduate courses such as Astronomy 111-112: Machine Methods of pacthesis memory days sim date Scientific Calculation (with Eric Hankam). 1959: An IBM 1620 is installed in Watson Lab to supplement the 650s, and is used in Columbia research projects. 1959: The Provost's office commissions a study to develop a plan for the future of computing at Columbia. In view of the failure in 1957 to uwe dissertation, produce the space needed for pacthesis sim date a state-of-the art computer that NSF was willing to research format, pay for, the study concluded that a new computer center building was needed .
The central administration concurs and begins to seek sources of funding. Dean Ralph S. Halford, a Chemistry professor, Dean of Graduate Faculties, and (perhaps most to the point) Vice Provost for Projects and Grants is in charge. Dean Halford and the University Committee on Cooperation with Watson Laboratory, which then included Professors Wallace Eckert (Astronomy and Watson Lab), Samuel Eilenberg (Mathematics), Richard Garwin (Physics and Watson Lab), and pacthesis memory, Polykarp Kusch (Physics, Nobel Prize 1955), plan the future Computer Center. 1960: Algol-60 developed by CU-and-Watson-Lab-alumnus John Backus and others. This was to be the most influential computer language of all time, the parent of thesis in network security all other block-structured languages, including (among many others) Java, C, C++, Pascal, PL/I, and Ada, but not including such lovable mavericks as LISP, APL, Snobol, and Forth. 1961: IBM Watson Laboratory offers the following Columbia courses in computing: GSEE 287, Digital Computers I: Programming and Operating.
Astronomy 111-112: The use of High-Speed Digital Computers for Scientific Calculation. Pacthesis Memory Days Walkthrough. Engineering 281: Numerical Analysis for Research Students in Science and Engineering. Physics 288: Numerical Solution of Ordinary and Partial Differential Equations. Management Games (Industrial Engineering): Market simulations. Plus short courses in IBM 650 and security, Fortran programming and the Share Operating System (SOS) [29,31]. Besides the memory sim date walkthrough, Watson Lab courses, the Electrical Engineering Department offers: EE 104: Electric Circuits IV: Digital Circuits and cover letter, Computing Systems. GSEE 267: Digital Systems and pacthesis memory days sim date walkthrough, Automata. GSEE 269: Information Theory.
GSEE 274: Electrical Analogue Computers. GSEE 275-276: Logical Design of write an essay about of transport Digital Circuits. GSEE 288-289: Digital Computers II and memory walkthrough, III: System Analysis and Synthesis. EE 277-278-279: Pulse and a firm, Digital Circuits. May 1961: Dean Halford writes a Proposal to pacthesis days sim date, the National Science Foundation for Support of a Computing Center to be Established at Columbia University , and shortly afterwards the NSF approves $200,000 over the first two years . IBM pledges $125,000 for fellowships, and another $500,000 is obtained from an anonymous donor  (who might have been Thomas J Watson Sr or another Columbia Trustee). Two IBM 7090 mainframe computers are to security, be acquired at an education discount, which requires Columbia to devote at least 88 hours per pacthesis memory walkthrough month for a firm purposes of instruction and unsponsored academic research. Days Walkthrough. With funding lined up, Dean Halford proposes the new Computer Center to the University Committee on Finance. The need for a Computer Center was clear. By this point, about 220 University research projects were being handled on IBM's computers in Watson Lab and the demands had long since exceeded the essay tungkol, Lab's capacity, resulting in sim date walkthrough, the rental of IBM computers by thesis in network security the following university sites: An IBM 1620 at Lamont Doherty Geological Observatory.
An IBM 650 at the Nevis Cyclotron Laboratory. An IBM 650 at Hudson Lab. Days Sim Date Walkthrough. An IBM 650 at the Electronics Research Lab of the Engineering School. The primary needs were in high-energy physics (then accounting about 200 hours of research paper IBM 650 time per month), sociology (50 hours/month), geophysics (100 hours of memory days walkthrough IBM 709 time per month), biochemistry, and chemistry. A school of computer science will evolve gradually at a firm the Computing Center, with an independent line of pacthesis memory administration as an educational organ of the cover letter for junior accountant cv, University.
The IBM Watson Lab courses would be taken over by sim date the Computing Center. The initial staff was to be 15 persons covering two shifts, including a branch librarian . Uwe Dissertation. The Computing Center was to serve those whose research is memory days sim date sponsored and those whose research is tagalog essay ko buhay not. It has been created with the days sim date, aim of serving all of the needs of both groups without preference toward either one, with the expectation that its cost would have to be met in substantial part by the University . Sep 1961: The Columbia Committee on Finance approves Dean Halford's proposal to create a Computer Center, based on funding pledges from IBM and NSF . 1961-63: Construction of the Computer Center building. Total cost: $800,000  (PHOTOS, STORIES NEEDED). 2 Jan 1963: Columbia University Computer Center (CUCC) opens. Dr. Kenneth M. A Firm. King, who received his Columbia Ph.D. in Physics as a Watson Fellow under Prof.
L.H. Thomas  and memory days walkthrough, had managed Watson Lab's computing facility , was the first Director, with a joint appointment to a firm, the faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science [V5#3]. The original location was 612 W 116th Street (the first Watson Lab), which still housed the sim date, IBM teaching facility as well as Casa Hispanica, but the letter for junior, new underground Computer Center building between Havemeyer and Uris halls was soon ready with machine rooms for equipment and sim date, offices for staff (more space than we'll ever need). The Computer Center initially housed the for junior cv, following equipment : IBM 7090 (PHOTOS AND STORIES) with 32768 (32K) 36-bit words of magnetic core storage. Sim Date Walkthrough. This was the first commercial computer based on transistor, rather than vacuum tube, logic (a vacuum-tube 709 was originally planned , but the 7090 appeared just in uwe dissertation, time). Pacthesis Days. It is in uwe dissertation, the direct line of memory sim date descent from Watson Lab's NORC. Research. The price was $1,205,000.00 after 60% IBM educational allowance, amortized over 5 years (Letter of John A. Krout, VP of the University, 4 Oct 1961, AcIS archives). Included: Two data channels.
Two IBM 1301 Model 2 disks, total capacity: 9320000 36-bit words. Six IBM 729VI 7-track tape drives. an IBM 1402-2 80-column Card Reader/Punch, reads 800 cards/minute, punches 250. Two IBM 1403 chain printers, 132 cols/line, 1100 lines/minute = 3 secs/page. 7040 Console Typewriter. 1014 Remote Inquiry Unit. Applications include FORTRAN II, COBOL, SORT, MAP, UTILITY PACKAGE, plus the IBSYS monitor. IBM 1401 with: 4000 characters of days walkthrough memory. Two 729V tape drives.
One 600 LPM printer. Tagalog Tungkol Ko Buhay. Advanced Programming Package. Access to computing was batch only. Sim Date Walkthrough. Users brought decks or boxes of punch cards to the operators and came back the next day to retrieve their cards and the resulting listings from the output bins. Jobs were paid for out of grants or funny money. There were no user terminals and there was no user access to the machine room, which was staffed around the clock by operators and a firm, a shift supervisor. During the first six months of the Center's operation, [the 7090] logged 907.55 hours on pacthesis walkthrough 158 projects for 101 members of our academic staff. Downtime ran to thirty hours or so monthly during the first two months, as expected in essay tungkol ko buhay, a new installation, but fell to acceptable levels for memory walkthrough the remainder of the thesis, period. About forty-five percent of the time used was furnished to projects sponsored by pacthesis sim date government contracts. Essay Ko Buhay.  Aug 1963: An IBM 1410 was added, shared by the Registrar's Office, and ran until 1973. Nov 1963: The IBM 7090 was replaced by an IBM 7094-I.
1964-70: IBM Watson Lab continues operation at 612 W 115th Street, concentrating now on life sciences and medicine. Among many results from this period was improved analysis of Pap smears, and walkthrough, there was an alliance with the Urban League Street Academy program, educating community kids in science. 1965: Photo gallery of the Columbia Computer Center in 1965: The IBM 7094/7040 Coupled System, the Hough-Powell Device (HPD), Tape Library, Key Punch / EAM room. In 1965 the Computer Center had 25 employees, all housed in the Computer Center building: the director (Ken King), 8 operators, a librarian, and in network, 15 technical people. Besides the IBM 7094/7040 system there was also an IBM 1401 and a 1410 computer in the machine room, as well as the unit record equipment listed in the January 1963 entry.
1965-67: Professor Eckert and pacthesis memory days walkthrough, his Columbia thesis student in Celestial Mechanics, Harry F. Smith (who was also on the Watson Lab technical staff as lab manager in the 116th Street building, helping students (often of Eric Hankam) debug their IBM 650 programs, assisting students in tagalog, other ways with other computers in memory days walkthrough, the building, and responsible for closing up the lab at 11pm each evening) refine the a firm, theory of the moon -- the equations that describe and predict its motion -- to unheard-of accuracy, improving upon the calculations performed by memory walkthrough Eckert in 1948-52 on the SSEC  by adding additional terms: 10,000 equations in 10,000 unknowns, 100,000,000 possible coefficients. The calculations were programmed in assembly language by Smith, who devised efficient methods for solving these sparse equations with so many small-divisor terms that were a potential source of instability, and run on the Computer Center's IBM 7094 over a period of three years [65,87], resulting in 220 pages of lunar position tables published in Astronomical Papers of the American Ephemeris , plus several papers in astronomical journals (see Eckert's bibliography). This was the culmination of Eckert's life's work. Write A Means Of Transport. Smith is now on the Computer Science faculty at University of North Carolina. 1965: (Month?) The Administrative Data Processing Center (ADPC) was established. Days Sim Date. The newly established Computer Center was primarily for academic computing (in those days, research and very little instruction). Administrative computing was done independently by individual departments such as the Registrar's Office and the Controller's Office. The new, separate ADPC drew programmers from the Registrar's and Conroller's offices as well as the Computer Center, including York Wong, previously the Computer Center programming supervisor, who became director of the new administrative group.
The equipment (IBM 1401s and IBM 1410s) was in the Controller's office in Hogan Hall on Broadway and in uwe dissertation, Prentis Hall, 632 West 125th Street, with applications written in AUTOCODER . (The story of administrative computing prior to 1965 is still largely a mystery. Dorothy Marshall, VP for ADP, upon her retirement in 1988, wrote a reminiscence in the ADP Newsletter , where she recalls that ADP actually originated in the Controller's Office, the days, first [administrative] department to uwe dissertation, use a punch-card system. The first large system ADP acquired is still with us -- the Alumni Records and Gift Information System (ARGIS) -- and I recall very clearly the pacthesis, accusations that we were using all the letter for junior accountant, tape drives and pacthesis memory days sim date, all the system resources at the expense of the University researchers. (This was to paper, be a recurring theme.) Unfortunately Dorothy did not mention dates or places.) (Coincidentally, some clue was provided on the front page of the Columbia University website, 18 Jan 2001, and subsequent University Record article  announcing the pacthesis memory sim date, retirement of Joe Sulsona, shift supervisor of the Computer Center machine room, after 42 years: Sulsona, a New York City native, went from high school directly to a firm, the military. Pacthesis Days Sim Date. When he returned from Korea in 1957 at the age of 23, he studied the latest in computing, gaining experience as a board programmer, which involved the manipulation of wires and plugs on a computer board, much like the original telephone operating systems.
He was hired at a firm Columbia's alumni faculty records office as a machine operator and spent his time punching out pacthesis sim date walkthrough, data cards using a small keypunch machine.) May 1965: An IBM 7040 was installed to form the IBM 7094/7040 Directly Coupled System (DCS) with 2x32K 36-bit words memory [6,19]. The 7040 freed the 7090 from mundane input/output and scheduling tasks so its power could be focussed on thesis security computation. May 1965: Even though IBM 7000 series computers were to be the mainstay of Columbia computing for the next several years, the handwriting was on the wall; their capacity would soon be overwhelmed by increasing demand. IBM proposes the sim date walkthrough, new System/360 architecture for the Computer Center on May 21. This was to be the basis for IBM's mainframe line into a firm, the next millenium. Unlike previous IBM mainframes, the 360 was available in a range of compatible models, from small slow machines such as the pacthesis sim date walkthrough, Model 20 (suitable mainly for printing decks of cards) to the Model 92 supercomputer that they proposed to a firm, Columbia, with many in between (IBM's proposal was for pacthesis days a coupled Model 92 and Model 75). Each model could use the same peripherals, and essay tungkol ko buhay, 360-series computers could also be connected to memory sim date, each other in tagalog tungkol ko buhay, various ways and even share main memory. The 360/92 that IBM proposed, with its thin-film memory technology, turned out to be too expensive.
The 360/91, announced about the same time, was an equivalent machine that used less expensive and walkthrough, somewhat slower core memory (the thin-film model was eventually marketed as the in network security, 360/95). Sim Date. To achieve supercomputer speeds, the 360/9x models pioneered new concepts such as instruction pipelining and lookahead, branch prediction, cache memory, overlap, and a firm, parallelism. The 360/9x series is pacthesis memory days optimized for scientific calculation and lacks a hardware decimal arithmetic capability (which is simulated in software). The coupled Models 92 and 75, with their peripherals, carried a monthly rental of $167,671.00 (after a 36% educational discount), which works out to research paper reference, over two million dollars a year, and about 22 million over what would be the 11-year lifetime of the system.  Nov 1965: The blackout of 1965 . The lights went out for about 12 hours in Manhattan, most of the US northeast, and pacthesis days sim date, large parts of Canada. Interestingly, I can't unearth any stories about the blackout's impact on computing at security Columbia. In those days it was not a catastrophe -- or even remarkable -- if computers were down for 12 hours. 1965-69: Of the pacthesis memory days sim date, Columbia University Teachers College IBM 1130, Peter Kaiser recalls, The Teacher's College computing center had what may have been the world's most over-configured 1130. It had not only a 2250 but also the additional hardware to about of transport, make an 1130 into a 1500, the special version designed for interactive instruction; and therefore it could also drive multiple 2260-like terminals. Pacthesis Memory Days Sim Date Walkthrough. The then director of the TCCC had ambitions use the 1130/1500 for write an essay research to days walkthrough, improve on the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory by essay tungkol timing the responses to the test administered through one of days walkthrough these terminals.
When I left to take a real-world job in 1969 that project was in abeyance. 1966-67: Ken King offers a course in uwe dissertation, computer appreciation. Demand was high and half of the pacthesis memory walkthrough, 60 students who tried to about a means of transport, enroll had to pacthesis, be turned away. Popular computer courses are also offered this year in thesis, Engineering, Mathematics, and days, Sociology . 1966: Watson Lab gets one of the first APL terminals (an IBM 1050), hooked to a firm, the M44/44X system in Yorktown, which is a 7044 computer coupled with a 7055 computer that controls a number of terminals. Walkthrough. This system is used to cover letter accountant, simulate a number of 44X computers, including one per 1050 terminal; the 44X is the computer seen and programmed by memory sim date the user operating from a 1050 terminal. It is primarily for users of FORTRAN IV but the 1050 can also be used to run APL (Iverson Language) programs on Yorktown's 360/50 (Iverson worked at the Yorktown facility) . APL soon becomes quite popular, both at Watson Lab and cover letter accountant cv, CUCCA.
There were tie lines between campus and the 115th Street Watson Lab building, and tie lines from Watson Lab to Yorktown. Memory Days Walkthrough. The Watson receptionist (Annie Hall) could, upon a firm request, connect the two, allowing campus 2741 data terminals to access APL at Yorktown . Jan 1966: The Columbia Computer Center Newsletter commences publication. Memory Days Walkthrough. It would continue in one form or another until November 1994. Oct 1966: ADPC staff moves to Casa Hispanica at 612 West 116th Street (around the tagalog essay ko buhay, corner from Chock Full O' Nuts and a couple doors west of Campus Deli), sharing the small building with the memory sim date, Department of in network security Spanish and Portuguese  and the IBM teaching facility . Staff from the academic Computer Center also begin to move into memory sim date walkthrough, this tiny building. Soon it is security crammed beyond capacity and offices spill over into pacthesis, neighboring apartment buildings (520 W 114th Street plus a long-gone building on West 117th Street, itself (the street) also just a memory). 1967: Dr. Thesis In Network Security. Seymour H. Koenig (PHOTO), who received his Ph.D. in Physics from Columbia in 1952 (and his BS in 1949) and joined Watson Lab the same year, is appointed its Director . By this time Watson laboratory has RJE access to the big IBM 360s in Yorktown, but when then the days sim date walkthrough, link is a firm down they use the CUCCA facilities .
1967: Library automation begins about here. Pacthesis Sim Date. I remember some form of research reference format automation starting in the 1966-68 timeframe when I was a student assistant in Butler -- there was already a Library Systems Office on the Mezzanine then; I used to schlepp decks of cards and memory days sim date walkthrough, listings back and forth to about a means of transport, the Computer Center for them. By 1967, circulation was already computerized in Central Circulation and Burgess-Carpenter (where I worked at the time), and a collaboration was underway with Stanford and the University of Chicago regarding cataloging and memory, acquisitions ; perhaps this was the origin of thesis RLIN. CLICK HERE for more about library automation. AND HERE. Mar 1967: In response to IBM's May 1965 proposal, and after lining up sources of sim date funding for it, the Computer Center announces its plan to upgrade and modernize its equipment and to thesis in network security, unify academic and administrative computing in a Computer Center Newsletter article written by pacthesis sim date walkthrough (of all people) President Grayson Kirk [V2#2-3]. In the first stage , October 1967, an IBM 360/50 was rented [19, 20, 24], to write an essay about a means, allow the memory days, 7090-to-360 conversion to a firm, begin. Aug 1967: Second stage: An IBM 360/75 was purchased and linked to the 360/50. Pacthesis Sim Date. In the letter accountant, ensuing months, staff learned OS/360, JCL, and some new programming languages like PL/I and SNOBOL, as well as new versions of days walkthrough old ones like WATFOR (the University of Waterloo version of Fortran), and then quickly began to modify the operating system for purposes of accounting and resource limitation, and also to add support for paper format IBM 2741 and other terminals that were not supported yet and then to create a conversational monitor called CLEO to allow job submission and retrieval from terminals . Aug 1967: The US government mandates a chargeback scheme for computer time, launching the pacthesis memory days walkthrough, Computer Center on a neverending series of increasingly baroque charging schemes involving hard currency and funny money. The first such scheme was a simple $150 per hour of CPU time (which, in those days, was the same thing as elapsed time), with some grandfathering of existing unsupported projects (Letter of Warren Goodell, 1 Aug 1967, AcIS archives).
1967-68 The Columbia University Bulletin Watson Laboratory lists the courses taught by Watson Lab scientists who have Columbia faculty appointments, including Philip Aisen, Frank Beckman, Thomas Fabry, Richard Garwin, Martin Gutzwiller, Seymour Koenig, Andrew Kotchoubey, Meir Lehman, John Lentz, Allen Lurio, Thomas Moss, Ralph Palmer, Peter Price, Alred Redfield, Pat Sterbenz, and Hilleth Thomas. After the Computer Center opened in 1963, Watson Lab is no longer the focus of computing; its course offerings concentrate on biology, mathematics, and thesis in network security, physics, but several computing courses are still listed, including EE E6827x-E6828y Digial Computer Design (Prof. Lehmann), Math G4401x-4402y Numerical Analysis and Digital Computers (Prof. Sterbenz; I took this one several years later), Math G4413x The Use of High-Speed Digital Computers for Scientific Computation (Dr. Kotchoubey), Math G4414y Introduction to days, Automata Theory and Formal Languages (Prof. Rickman), and Math G6428y Numerical Solutions of Differential Equations (Prof. Thomas). 1968: The Department of Electrical Engineering becomes the research paper reference, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science. Pacthesis Memory Sim Date. This was to be the locus for computer science instruction and research until the establishment of tungkol ko buhay a separate Computer Science Department in 1979. Jan 1968: Raphael Ramirez starts work as an pacthesis memory days walkthrough, operator in the machine room. CLICK HERE to read his reminiscences of the an essay about, early days.
Feb 1968: The IBM 7040 was removed . CLEO, an interactive terminal monitor developed here, was released and announced . Apr-May 1968: The Columbia student uprising of pacthesis memory days sim date 1968 . Write A Means. Computer Center management and some of the staff feared the sim date walkthrough, worst -- invasion, occupation, wreckage -- but nothing happened to the Computer Center at uwe dissertation all. Peter Kaiser, who worked at the Computer Center at the time, recalls, The campus was in an uproar. So was much of America, and the political powers that be were frightened and acting ugly; I have vivid memories of the NYC police lined up ready to do violence to the students who had occupied the administration building, which they eventually did by invading the building and beating up everyone in sight. Before the police stormed the building, though, the computer center's administration feared that the center itself would be occupied, so there were worried talks about pacthesis memory walkthrough what to uwe dissertation, do if that ever happened.
In the event it didn't happen, but the uproar delayed the delivery of the 360. Jessica Gordon (the acting Director) reports spending two (not consecutive) nights sleeping (to the extent possible) at the Center when we were warned of major events. One day I was standing on College Walk with a group of others [including Raphael Ramirez] watching the pacthesis sim date, special Tactical Police [Force]. jack-booted thugs, marching onto campus. As they passed, one of them turned to write about a means of transport, us and said 'Hi there, sports fans!'. As a participant, I have no recollection of the days sim date walkthrough, Computer Center ever being considered as a target for occupation or attack, nor does the Computer Center's Annual report for 1967-68 make any mention of it .
However, there might have been a picket line afterwards, since picket lines went up in front of most academic buildings. Jul 1968: ADPC joins the a firm, Computer Center with its new director (yet to be chosen after York Wong resigned to resume his studies, but who would be Jon Turner) reporting to Ken King. Pacthesis Memory Days Sim Date Walkthrough. Now there is uwe dissertation One Computer Center. Conversion of ADP applications from IBM 1401/1410 to IBM 360 architecture begins; this would take until 1973 . Legend has it, however, that some 1401 applications were left intact and executed on subsequent IBM 360-series mainframes by days sim date running a 1401 emulator under a 7090 emulator. Warren Goodell's 14 June 1968 letter announcing the change stresses that even more important than the accountant cv, consolidation of all applications on the new equipment is the prospect of days increased freedom for interchange of ideas and techniques of programming and systems analysis between staffs now separated by artifical organization boundaries (AcIS archive). Sep 1968: The student (UI) consultant program is established (UI = Unsupported Instructional, the accounting class used for instruction). This program is still active today. Students with knowledge of Columbia's computer systems and applications are hired part-time to help users in uwe dissertation, the public areas.
Previously, all help and consulting were provided by memory days sim date full-time professional staff on a rotating basis. Afterwards, full-timers continued to take their turns, but now could devote more time to systems and applications development and support. For more about the origins of the student consulting system, READ THIS. Dec 1968: The IBM 7094, 1401, and 360/50 are removed. The 1401 is moved to in network, the Controller's Office . IBM 360 equipment at the end of 1968 consisted of :
Model 75 CPU 2075 with 2.5 million bytes of memory. Two processor storage units 2365 (512K total) Selector Channel 2860-II Drum storage control 2820 Drum storage unit 2301 (fixed-head cylindrical disk for memory sim date walkthrough swapping) Direct-access storage facility 2314 with 2844 2-channel control unit Two storage control units 2841 Data cell drive 2321 Eight disk storage drives 2311 Multiplexor channel 2780 Console typewriter 1052-7 Two card reader/printer controls 2821 Four printers 1403 with 1416 print train Two card reader/punches 2540 Two typewriter terminals 2740 Forty typewriter terminals 2741 Two communications adapters 2701 Display control 2848-I Ten display stations 2260-2 Two tape control units 2803 Two magnetic tape units 2402-2 (4 drives) Magnetic tape unit 2402-5 (2 drives) Two magnetic tape tape units 2402-6 (4 drives) On-Line CRT display Stromberg-Datagraphics 4060. With the exception of the last item, all model numbers are IBM. Dec 1968: One of the last gasps of the 7090/7094 system was an early example of cover letter for junior cv computer-generated film by a participant in the 1968 student uprising, Denys George Irving . Here (for as long as the link lasts) is his film “69”, and here is sim date walkthrough a list of other works of his. Mar 1969: The IBM 360/91 supercomputer (PHOTOS), one of the tagalog essay ko buhay, first third generation computers and the biggest, fastest (and probably most expensive) computer on earth at the time, is installed and coupled with the 360/75 . Thus for the second time in 15 years, Columbia is home to the world's fastest computer.
Only fifteen 360/91s were made and four of them were retained by IBM for their internal use (other 360/9x sites included Princeton University and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center on West 112th Street, just a few blocks away); the pacthesis memory days walkthrough, giant computer took every inch of space in the Computer Center machine room. extensive renovations had to made to accommodate its sprawling dimensions  (this is an understatement; in fact the Computer Center entrance had to be demolished just to get it in the door and most interior walls removed to make space for it [V2#6]). IBM 360/91 with 2 million bytes of core memory; 60nsec machine cycle, 780nsec memory cycle, 120nsec effective memory access rate, and an instruction cache (pipeline). An additional drum. All of the peripherals and equipment listed above for the 360/75. Research Format. Two full-time IBM technicians on site (Hans und Fritz?) The 360/75 became the Attached Support Processor (ASP) for pacthesis memory days sim date the 91, essentially a job scheduler and thesis in network, input/output controller, freeing the 91 for pacthesis memory sim date intensive computation.
I don't have a photo of our own Model 75, but HERE is one from for junior accountant cv, IBM. Rather than rent the pacthesis memory, coupled 360/75/91 system as IBM proposed, the University purchased it outright for seven million dollars , to be amortized over seven or eight years (whether seven or eight was a point of much contention, as it affected the chargeback rates levied upon research grants; in fact it was in operation for more than eleven years; thus the decision to purchase saved about fifteen million dollars). Of the total cost, three million dollars was for the 360/91 CPU, memory, and second drum; this was only half the list price due to the educational allowance that was negotiated. In Network. The rest was for the 360/75 and pacthesis memory days walkthrough, its peripherals. My own (perhaps inflated) recollection is that the 360/91 covered about an acre of research reference format floor space, most of which was devoted to full-size cabinets each containing 16K of core memory, for a total of 2MB at about 8 square feet of floorspace (and about 48 cubic feet) per 16K, plus surrounding floorspace for access, times 300. Days. Each memory cabinet had a glass door so you could look in and see each bit. All the disks, tapes, printers, Teletypes and everything else were in there too, plus a vast tape library and specialized test equipment such as the BOM (Byte Oriented Memory) tester. All this was powered through a gigantic cast-iron motor generator weighing who-knows-how-many tons (just the flywheel probably weighed a ton) putting out 400-some Volts 3-phase power, and cooled by distilled water trucked in by Deer Park in big glass bottles in wooden crates. There was a control room in the basement full of pipes, valves, gauges, pumps, and water jugs and a mammoth cooling tower upstairs, venting half a million BTUs per hour into the atmosphere (Alan Rice, a physics PhD student who was also a night-shift operator, recalls an incident in which a heat alarm summoned the fire department, who were ready to chop the machine up with axes until he talked them out of it) . But the a firm, most impressive feature of the 360/91 was its control panel (PHOTO). The operators used to memory sim date, turn off the room lights and stare it at all night, waiting for the yellow loop mode light came on research paper format (executing a loop in the pipeline without accessing core memory); this was the sign of a well-crafted program. (For more about loop mode, READ THIS).
There was an days walkthrough, ongoing bubble chamber experiment in the machine room, which began in the 7094 days. Stereo photographs of for junior accountant bubble chamber events were digitized using the High-Energy Particle Detector (HPD) Flying Spot Scanner (HPD might also stand for pacthesis memory days Hough-Powell Device), channel-attached to the 360/91, as was a very large IBM 2250 video display with light pen (this terminal alone was said to have cost $100,000), to allow scientists to interactively select interesting events for analysis. This kind of work required physicists to take the computer standalone for hours at a time, which became problematic in a firm, later years when it was in demand by the general academic and administrative computing population around the clock, and memory days walkthrough, eventually the experiment was discontinued: the science for which the computer was originally acquired, and which provided much of the funding for it, was squeezed out by the mundane requirements of instruction and a firm, administration. The Stromberg-Carlson on-line CRT display (NEED PHOTO) was in fact a kind of graphics plotter, about the memory days walkthrough, size of in network a panel truck, originally in the machine room but later parked outside in the hallway where it couldn't hurt the other machines. Pacthesis Walkthrough. Users created graphics images on the mainframe using a package called IGS, wrote them to 7-track magtape, and had the operators feed the magtape to the plotter. Uwe Dissertation. The images were projected on a screen inside the pacthesis memory days walkthrough, box; a 35mm camera -- no kidding -- would take a picture of the screen, and then somehow disgorge its film, which would be developed in chemical baths, washed, and mounted as a slide that would eventually pop out uwe dissertation, of the pacthesis days sim date, little output slot if all went well, which rarely was the letter accountant, case -- more often the machine leaked acid and/or caught fire. Later it was replaced by a Gould 5100 electrostatic flatbed plotter that could produce 100dpi monochrome plots up to memory walkthrough, about 3 feet wide on a firm pungent white paper. Various plotting packages (including one that Howard Eskin and I wrote that fitted lines, curves, and splines to data points) were available for it on the mainframe only. Apr 1969: The Columbia Computer Center develops, funds, and conducts a 6-month training course in computer skills for memory days sim date walkthrough 23 students from the local Black and Latino communities: key punching and COBOL programming, with highly successful (96%) post-graduation job placement and followup. (V4#20).
1 Oct 1969: The first ARPANET transmission took place between the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) and Stanford Research Institute (SRI). Shortly thereafter connections were made to the University of California at Santa Barbara and thesis in network, the University of Utah. The ARPANET expanded to thirteen sites by January 1971, 23 sites by April 1972, and eventually grew into pacthesis memory days sim date walkthrough, today's wordlwide Internet. Membership was limited to US Department of Defense research grantees until the write about, early 1980s, at which time Columbia University would join. Dec 1969: The IBM 1130 at walkthrough Lamont Geological (now Earth) Observatory in Palisades NY is connected to the Computer Center's IBM 360/91 by leased line for remote job entry (see Glossary), partially replacing the previous messenger service. This was a first in long-haul networking at tagalog essay Columbia University (V4#23). (Peter Kaiser reports that Columbia Teachers College also had an IBM 1130, and pacthesis memory, it was connected as an RJE station in the same way prior to 1969, but since TC is just across 120th Street, it's not exactly long haul networking.) 1970: Read an excellent summary of the state of data communications in 1970: The IBM Data Communications Primer (PDF). Sep 1970: The IBM Watson Research Laboratory at Columbia University closes after 25 years of a firm operation and a remarkable record of discovery and achievement.
The idea of corporate-sponsored multidisciplinary pure research pioneered here had proven so successful that IBM built a new and much larger facility in 1961 in walkthrough, Yorktown Heights, NY, with others soon to follow in an essay about a means of transport, San José, Zürich, and elsewhere, but its research headquarters remained at Columbia, IBM's first research laboratory, until 1970. The IBM T.J. Watson Research Center founded here in 1945 now spans four major facilities at three sites. The Columbia Computer Center offices and the Columbia Purchasing Department move to the Watson Lab building on 612 West 115th Street. The IBM-Columbia relationship continues for some time afterward mainly in the form of faculty appointments (in 1976 I took a graduate-level numerical analysis course in the Engineering School from one such professor, Pat Sterbenz, author of the book Floating-Point Computation ). IBM left behind a machine room with raised floor (back of 7th floor, where they had their 1620), a fully equipped classroom (back of 1), and lots of furniture including my 1940s-vintage Steelcase desk with metal Physics Dept ID plate attached (dating from World War II when IBM moved into Pupin). During its residence at Columbia University, IBM Watson Laboratory staff had been granted 67 patents and published 359 articles in recognized scientific journals . Dorothy Marshall  writes, The third floor [of 612 West 115th Street] was entirely without inner walls and contained large milling machines and other noisy tooling machines, as well as pipes, hoses, and exhaust ducts [but] the memory days sim date, staff at write a means of transport Casa Hispanica felt they were extraordinarily crowded [so were glad for pacthesis memory days sim date walkthrough the additional space]. Nola Johnson writes in uwe dissertation, the same issue, I remember when we were packed like sardines in Casa Hispanica.
There would be three or four of us in one tiny room, complete with keypunch and fireplace. Until about the mid-1970s, CUCC staff submitted jobs from Watson (as they had done from Casa Hispanica), and messengers went back and days sim date walkthrough, forth delivering decks of a firm cards and rolled-up printouts. In fact, rolled-up printouts still arrived each day from a daily batch job that was submitted decades ago and ran faithfully until 2004 when the Academic IBM mainframe was retired; nobody knew exactly what the batch job did or how to memory days walkthrough, cancel it. 31 Jan 1971: Professor Wallace Eckert, founder of the research paper reference, Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, attends the Apollo 14 launch. The lunar orbit calculations upon which the Apollo missions were based were done by Eckert at Watson Laboratory and on the SSEC computer [42,92], designed at Watson Laboratory under Eckert's direction in the late 1940s, and later improved on the Lab's NORC, IBM 650, and 1620 computers, and pacthesis days, still later on the Computer Center's IBM 7094. Eckert died six months later. July 1971 - June 1973 The Columbia Computer Center publishes two annual Project Abstracts, in which every single research, instruction, and administrative project carried out on the IBM 360/91 is listed, as well as publications resulting from these projects. In FY 1971-72 there were 119 publications and in 1972-73, 214 publications are listed. Each abstract is about 250 pages long; the about of transport, first one was generated by a SNOBOL program and memory walkthrough, printed on thesis in network the 1403 printer; the pacthesis sim date walkthrough, second one was typeset somehow using programs written by Computer Center technical staff. Cover Letter For Junior. I would call this the Golden Age of the Computer Center , reflecting an unparalleled degree of collaboration between the faculty and the Computer Center and the accomplishment of much work that might well have had an impact on the real world medicine, social research, physical sciences, engineering, every field was represented.
Computer Center Technical staff participated in many of these projects, and each project contributed a writeup. Pacthesis Sim Date Walkthrough. The projects themselves are fascinating, about 100 pages of project description in each volume, about 5 projects per page. Aug 3-5, 1971: At the second annual Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) computer chess championship at ACM 71 in Chicago, the Columbia Computer Chess Program (CCCP) came in tied for 3-6 in a field of 8. CCCP was written by Columbia student (and now CS faculty member) Steve Bellovin and CUCCA's Aron Eisenpress, Ben Yalow, and Andrew Koenig. For more about the thesis, development of CCCP, READ THIS. Aug 1971: Stanford University's Wylbur  is installed on the 360/75, replacing a previous system called CRBE. Wylbur is described as a terminal system with limited interactive capabilities, used as a remote job entry and on-line text-editing facilities. . Wylbur may be used with an pacthesis memory days, IBM 2741 typewriter terminal or a Teletype device. At present CUCC's Wylbur does not support IBM 2260 terminals (early video terminals in the 2nd floor Computer Center terminal room); the Jan 1972 Newsletter announces their replacement with a similar CRT device, the Hazeltine 2000 (four of them) [V6#7]. The IBM 2741 was a Selectric typewriter embedded in a small-desk-size cabinet crammed with electronics and wires, which communicated at 134.5 bits per second, half duplex (when it was the research paper, computer's turn to transmit, it physically locked the typewriter keyboard). Pacthesis Sim Date Walkthrough. There was also limited dialup access; in a firm, those days this was at 110 to 300 bits per second by acoustically coupled modems. Pacthesis Memory. More about Wylbur below. Oct 1971: Ken King resigns as Computer Center Director and moves to thesis in network, CUNY as Dean of Computer Systems.
Later he would become president of EDUCOM and Vice Chancellor of Computing at Cornell University. Dr. Warren F. Goodell, VP for Administration, Ken's boss, assumes Acting Director position (V6#6), but since he was not on site, Jessica Hellwig (Gordon), who had previously been on the IBM Watson Lab computing staff  had day-to-day responsibility. (Newsletters of the early 70s were devoted mainly to JCL hints and tips, announcements of meetings and pacthesis days sim date walkthrough, conferences, announcements of OS/360 upgrades, explanations of cost accounting, and lists of uwe dissertation unclaimed tapes in the tape library -- up to 6 pages of numeric tape IDs on one occasion (in the Earth Week issue no less: V6#5, 15 Apr 1971) -- plus the annual April Fools Issue, usually featuring parodies of sim date walkthrough cost accounting. Thesis In Network Security. Prior to 1971, they also contained abstracts or reports of research projects, e.g.
Motivating Learning in Interracial Situations (V5#2); French Business Elite Study, Jonathan Cole et al; Transport and pacthesis, Fluid Mechanics in Artificial Organs, Ed Leonard et al (V5#13); as well as Computer Science Colloquia.) Dec 1971: Two IBM 2501 self-service card readers (PHOTO) installed in 208 Computer Center. The use of paper reference format self-service card readers affords CUCC users much greater security for their decks at both the submission and the retrieval points of running a job. Users will be able to memory, read in cover letter accountant, their own decks and keep them while the job is running -- thereby eliminating the risk of loss or mishandling of the deck by the Center. Also, since input decks no longer need be left in the output bins, the exposure of pacthesis memory days users' JOB cards -- and a firm, therefore their project numbers -- to anauthorized persons [some things never change] will be significantly reduced. In addition to this increased security, the 2501's will also provide greater efficiency since the user will be able to discover and correct immediately such problems as off-punched cards [hanging and pregnant chad were evidently not an issue in 1971] , rather than having to wait for the job to be processed by memory sim date walkthrough the Center. (V6#19) Also on the second floor was an security, IBM 360 Model 20 used for pacthesis memory days printing card decks onto fanfold paper, duplicating card decks, and so on; the desired function could be selected with a dial. There was (and had been for some time) a key punch room on tagalog essay ko buhay the first floor. Later the sim date, Model 20 was moved to the key punch room.
Apr 1972: TPMON installed, allows terminal lines to be switched among different applications such as Wylbur ( and what else? ) rather than dedicated to a specific one. Sep 1972: IBM OS/360 21.0 installed (V6#33). 1973: The following was posted by Arthur T. Tagalog Essay Ko Buhay. Murray on alt.folklore.computers , 22 May 2003: There is a tenuous etiological link between Columbia and the founding of Microsoft Corporation . Here in Seattle WA USA, a Columbia Ph.D. grad in astronomy, Dr. James R. Naiden -- now in his late eighties -- around 1973 was teaching Latin at sim date walkthrough The Lakeside School. 'Doc' Naiden observed that the students were eager to get into format, computers, so he asked (Naiden was always starting things, e.g., he hired Vilem Sokol to pacthesis days sim date, run the Seattle Youth Symphony for security many years; he also started a history-of-literature or some such group, still allegedly running at the University of Washington) the memory sim date walkthrough, Lakeside Mothers Club to a firm, donate some money from their annual Lakeside Rummage Sale to buying some computer time-share for the kids -- back then there were no personal computers. The Mothers put up one thousand dollars, which Bill Gates and Paul Allen ran through in a matter of weeks. Upshot: Columbia Doc Naiden Lakeside School Microsoft Corp.
Jan 1973: V6#46 mentions twenty-five IBM 2741 terminals being replaced by pacthesis days sim date walkthrough (presumably compatible) Anderson-Jacobson 841 terminals, which were cheaper to rent ($88 versus $100 per month). Feb 1973: The Self-Service Input/Output (SSIO) Area (PHOTO GALLERY) is an essay about a means of transport opened on the first floor of the Computer Center building. Equipment included two card readers, two IBM 1403 printers, one online card punch (NEED PHOTO), a sorter, a collator, an interpreter, a duplicator, four Hazeltine 2000 user terminals, and memory, one job inquiry console -- all self service -- plus a large number of IBM 029 key punches, and a resident Insultant whom I remember well from my student days. Thesis Security. The IBM 360 Model 20 was retired, replaced by memory sim date walkthrough a UNIVAC 1710 Interpreting Keypunch (V6#49, 21 Feb 1973). In Network Security. Now, for the first time, users could not only submit their own jobs but also get the results themselves as soon as the job had run. Sometimes, standing in days sim date, line at the card readers, were social scientists with data sets spanning 4 or 5 boxes of research reference cards (2000 cards per box); submitting jobs of this size rarely proceeded without incident (jams, dropped decks). The normal student Open Batch job deck was a quarter inch thick and generally went through the system quickly. A Hazeltine 2000 ASP Job Inquiry station let you watch your job rise through the queue so you could elbow your way through the crowd to the printer when your job output started.
Every night from 7 to 9pm was System Time, meaning the Systems Group from Watson Lab had the 360/91 to themselves and the readers and printers were shut down. The SSIO area was a miserable place during those two hours. More about SSIO HERE. Memory Days Walkthrough. More about self-service computing just below in the entry for Sep 1973. 22 May 1973: Birth of Ethernet (a local area networking technology that would reach Columbia in cover letter for junior accountant cv, the early 1980s and persist for decades), developed by Bob Metcalfe of Xerox Palo Alto Research Center (PARC), which also gave us the graphical user interface and memory days sim date walkthrough, desktop metaphor. May 1973: Resignation of essay tungkol ko buhay Joe Gianotti (Assistant Director), Ira Fuchs (systems programmer, who would go on to direct the CUNY facility and to found BITNET, become President of CREN, etc.), Aron Eisenpress, Ben Yalow, and other members of the Systems group, to join Ken King at pacthesis memory days sim date walkthrough CUNY, which was acquiring brand-new then-leading-edge IBM 370/168 hardware (V6#54).
Soon more would follow. May 1973: Dr. Bruce Gilchrist is appointed the new Director of the Columbia University Computer Center (he would assume full-time duties in July). He also receives an appointment to the faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science. Bruce was a co-inventor of the fast adder while at the Princeton Institute of a firm Advanced Study (1955), then Director of Computing at the University of Syracuse (mid-to-late 1950s), joined IBM in pacthesis memory sim date, 1959 and became manager of IBM's Service Bureau and Data Processing divisions (1963-68). While at IBM Bruce was Secretary and then Vice President of the Association for Computing Machinery, ACM (1960-64), and afterwards was President and Executive Director of the American Federation of Information Processing Societies, AFIPS (1968-73). His final project at Columbia was the installation of the $20-million-dollar IBM/Rolm Computerized Branch Exchange, not just the University's first digital telephone system, but also the paper, way that almost every single room (inclusing in dormitories) on the Morningside campus got high-speed data access. Sep 1973: Bruce introduced the Open Batch system (V6#60), opening up The Computer to the masses for the first time, and renamed CUCC (Columbia University Computer Center) to CUCCA (Columbia University Center for memory days walkthrough Computing Activities), in recognition that computing was beginning to take place outside the machine room. About A Means. SSIO soon became unbelievably crowded. 1974: Snapshot: When I came to memory days sim date walkthrough, the CUCCA Systems Group in 1974, Dr.
Howard Eskin was manager of Systems (197?-1984), with joint appointment to a firm, the EE/CS faculty, where he taught the memory sim date, Data Structures and Compiler courses. The big languages for a firm systems programming then were 360 assembler, APL, PL/I and SPITBOL (a SNOBOL dialect). Pacthesis Memory Days. CUCCA included both academic and administrative computing under a single director, all in the Watson building at 612 W 115th Street. Administrative computing (ADP) shared floors 2-5 with the Purchasing Office, the write an essay about a means of transport, Director's office and administrative staff on 6, academic on 7-8. Offices had chalkboards for scribbling ideas and diagrams. People used Hazeltine terminals at 1200 bps, connected to a multiplexer in the back of memory 7 that was connected by leased telephone line to the 3705 in research paper reference, the machine room, and that always conked out on rainy days. There was no e-mail. The Penthouse was a kind of cafeteria, with tables and pacthesis memory sim date, chairs (I remember checkered tablecloths and gingham curtains) and a working, if rarely-used, kitchen. The back of the first floor was a large classroom (now divided into the network and mail rooms); across from the cover letter accountant cv, elevator was a big Xerox copying room (Joe Iglesias), and there was a grand lobby and reception area, approximately where the art gallery is now, plus some administrative offices (Helen Ransower). There was a shower in the basement (later converted to a darkroom by Andy Koenig, and memory days walkthrough, later to thesis in network security, a weight-lifting room by sim date Lloyd, the messenger/front-desk guy, an Olympic hopeful). The Penthouse later became a ping-pong room (for Vace), then AIS offices, later it was divided between the Kermit machine/production room and a sometimes-office sometimes-conference-room, and finally all offices.
The back of the 7th floor was an IBM machine room dating from the 1950s, complete with raised floor, space phone floor-tile pullers, and communication cables radiating out to all the offices. The famous 1957 book about IBM, Think , speaks of research paper teak paneling and cozy fireplaces, but those were in the first Watson Lab, not this one. In those days, the days, Computer Center had a certain academic standing not only through faculty appointments, but also for uwe dissertation its RD activities and pacthesis memory, library. The non-circulating research library (not to be confused with the Thomas J Watson Library of the Business School) in thesis in network security, room 209 of the Computer Center Building was a full-fledged branch of the Columbia Library, complete with card catalog and librarian (the original librarians were Julia Jann and Hugh Seidman; Nuala Hallinan  was librarian from 1966 to 1973, succeeded by pacthesis memory walkthrough Evelyn Gorham). The holdings, cataloged in Butler Library, included computer science books and journals as well as computer manuals and Computer Center handouts . New acquisitions continued until at least 1973. Eventually (about 1980) the collection was transferred to the Engineering Library. Several technical staff members performed pure RD , for example Richard Siegler who worked half-time on an AI medical diagnosis assistant in SPITBOL with Dr. Rifkin at the Medical Center.
An annual catalog, the Columbia University Bulletin, Computing Activities  was published, as well as a Technical Abstract of each year's research projects. CUCCA was co-sponsor (with EE/CS) of the University Colloquium in Computer Science . There was an alliance with NASA Goddard Space Flight Center on 112th Street, which had one of the four existing IBM 360/95s. The academic user community was quite small. Paper Reference Format. There were weekly user meetings where everybody could fit into one room; sometimes they were held in the Watson Penthouse. 1974-78: Heyday of Wylbur , and the age of the Hazeltine 2000 video terminal mainly on walkthrough Olympus (aside from four Hazeltines available to users in essay, 208 Computer Center: V6#22). Wylbur was an pacthesis days sim date walkthrough, interactive linemode editor that could be used from a hardcopy or video terminal. It was far more than an tungkol ko buhay, editor, however; it was the equivalent of the pacthesis memory days, latter-day shell; users lived in Wylbur all day, writing Wylbur execs (like shell scripts), programs, and a firm, JCL; submitting jobs, querying jobs, sending screen messages (but not e-mail) to each other, and so on. Wylbur originally came from Stanford but was improved beyond recognition by Dave Marcus and later Vace Kundakci, who also converted it to TSO and later to VM/CMS. It's still used today on our IBM mainframes, but unfortunately we could never export it due to licensing issues.
Eventually Wylbur terminals -- hardwired to the 3705 -- were available to pacthesis memory days sim date walkthrough, departments; sometimes these were video terminals, sometimes IBM 2741 (IBM hardcopy terminals made from a firm, Selectric typewriters). When developing software on the mainframe, writing in assembler, Fortran, PL/I, etc (compiled, not interpreted, languages), programs would often dump core because of faulty instructions (bugs, mistakes). In those days, a core dump meant a literal dump of literal core memory to the printer, in pacthesis, hex, sometimes several feet thick. To find the fault, programmers would have to decode the in network security, core dump from the listing by hand, separating instructions, addresses, and data -- a lost art (and good riddance!) When the DEC-20s arrived on the scene, it became possible to analyze and debug core images (and even running programs) interactively and symbolically with a tool called (what else) DDT, and debugging tasks that once took days or weeks became quick and even fun. Pacthesis Memory Days Sim Date. DDT-like tools live on today in Unix as 'adb' and 'gdb'.
May 1974: Snapshot: Wylbur has 500 users. CALL/360 has 50-100 users. There are 2000 batch users. A Firm. 50% of pacthesis sim date walkthrough each programmer's time is tagalog essay tungkol spent helping users. Pacthesis Sim Date Walkthrough. ADP submits 10% of the batch jobs but uses 50% of the research paper reference, machine. Days Walkthrough. Because of their EAM backgrounds, the Registrar's and uwe dissertation, Controller's Offices consider the 360/91 a large sorter. 90% of billing is for funny money.
Technical staff turnover is pacthesis days too high, talented people can not be retained.  1974-75: First proof of concept home computers introduced (Mark-8, Altair). 1975: IBM 3705 communications front end replaced by uwe dissertation an NCR COMTEN (which lasted until August 1998), after a two-week training course in memory days walkthrough, the Watson Lab classroom in the back of the tagalog, 1st floor. Jul 1975: A DEC PDP-11/50 minicomputer (PHOTOS) was installed, running the RSTS/E timesharing system (we considered UNIX, but it was not nearly ready for large-scale production use in memory days, a hostile environment). This was the first true general-purpose public-access timesharing system (not counting APL and CALL/OS (aka CALL/360), which were both OS/360 subsystems (essentially batch jobs, each of which controlled a number of a firm terminals simultaneously); the latter was only for the Business School and APL, though open to the public, required special terminals which were not to be found in memory days sim date, abundance, and was not exactly user friendly). RSTS/E was to be a small pilot project to uwe dissertation, absorb the CALL/OS users and attract new ones. 32 people could use it at a time (because it had 32 terminals). Accounts were free. Within a few months of pacthesis days walkthrough installation, it was already logging nearly ten times the letter for junior accountant, usage that CALL/OS had at its peak . (From Bandit, 6 July 2010) CALL/360 was written for pacthesis memory Buck Rogers of thesis IBM by seven guys who had worked together at GE in Phoenix, then moved to memory, the San Jose Bay Area. They wrote CALL/360 for security a fixed-price, 10 month contract.
I cannot remember everybody, but included Sherbie Gangwere (my father), Charlie Winter, Jim Bell, George Fraine, Don Fry, Dick Hoelnle (sp?) and . (The last one, I think, is the only one that made it big - he wrote a core network system that got sold off.) Also - Jerry Wienberg, now a famous author, was probably shipped along with the IBM 704. Memory Days Sim Date. He was sent with the first 10 machines, and taught many how to program it. The primary programming language (like in thesis in network, CALL/OS) was BASIC (another reason why RSTS was chosen over UNIX, which didn't have BASIC), but Fortran and Macro-11 were also available. As I recall, the PDP-11/50 cost about memory $150,000. It occupied a fairly large room (208) in the Computer Center down the hall from the IBM machine room, and write about a means of transport, was comprised of four full-width cabinets (CPU, tape drive, communications, I forget what else) and a 92MB RP04 3330-type disk drive, plus a 2K fixed-head drive for pacthesis days swapping (RS04?). A Firm. I took care of memory days sim date walkthrough it myself (backups and tagalog essay tungkol ko buhay, all) for maybe a year, then Ben Beecher joined me and later also some part-timers. Ben and memory sim date walkthrough, I sat in uwe dissertation, the room with it full-time for a couple years. Our terminals were DECwriters (later VT05, VT50, VT52, and finally VT100, and at one point a GE Terminet, that worked and pacthesis memory sim date walkthrough, sounded like a bandsaw). But even without the Terminet, the room was so loud we had to wear airport ear-protectors. Ben was RSTS manager after the DEC-20s came in 1977. Eventually RSTS had a user population of paper reference format 1700.
It was retired in memory days walkthrough, 1982. Jul 1975: The IBM 1410 in the Controller's Office is replaced by an IBM 370/115 . Mid 1970s: Here begins the decline of centralized campus computing. Minicomputers begin to sprout in the departments, encouraged by government grants that would buy equipment but wouldn't pay for central computer time. (The same trend was evident at other universities; it created the of transport, need for campus networking, and thus -- since a way was needed to interconnect all these campus networks -- the Internet.) Some of the early departmental minis I remember were the memory days walkthrough, SEL 810B, Applied Physics also had an Imlac graphics processor (which never worked) and several early PDP-8 models for controlling experiments. In the late 1960s and early 1970s, I worked in Applied Physics and used the a firm, departmental computers for both work and EE/CS projects. The SEL (Systems Engineering Laboratories, later Gould) 810B (1968) was the pacthesis sim date walkthrough, most advanced, since it had i/o devices and could be programmed in Fortran and assembly language.
It had 16K of memory, 2 registers, Teletype, paper tape, card reader, drum printer, and tagalog essay tungkol ko buhay, an oscilloscope-like CRT display for graphics; CLICK HERE to see a picture of the SEL 810A, which is like the 810B but without extra i/o devices. Days Walkthrough. However, its hard disk was not generally used for a firm storing programs or data due to lack of space. Instead, programs were read from pacthesis memory sim date, cards or paper tape; this required toggling in uwe dissertation, a bootstrap program on the console switches: a series of 16-bit words was deposited in successive memory locations and then executed to activate the memory days sim date, Teletype as the control device, which could be used in turn to activate the a firm, card or paper tape reader to read the program. Production programs were generally punched in object format onto days sim date walkthrough paper tape (since the paper tape reader/punch was much faster than the security, card reader). CLICK HERE to see the SEL 810B Manual. The PDP-8 computers in pacthesis days walkthrough, the same lab had no Teletype, card reader, or paper tape; they were programmed directly from the console switches and i/o was magtape only. The Physics Department in an essay of transport, Pupin Hall had a DEC PDP-4, several PDP-8s, a PDP-9, and a PDP-15; Electrical Engineering had a PDP-7 on the 12th floor of Mudd, that we studied down to pacthesis walkthrough, the gate level in the 1970s EE/CS Computer Architecture course. (The PDP-7 is also the machine for which the research paper reference, UNIX operating was originally written at pacthesis sim date Bell Labs in the late 1960s.) The keypunch room was on uwe dissertation the 2nd floor of Engineering Terrace near the back exit, connected by tunnel to the SSIO area. There were often long waits for punches. The 1976 Bulletin  also lists: A DEC PDP-11/45 and GT/40 Graphics Computer in Biology (Schermerhorn).
A HP 2100 in Chemical Engineering (Prentis). A DG Nova 1220 and 3 DEC PDP-8s in Chemistry (Havemeyer). A DG Super Nova in EE/CS (Mudd). plus various special-purpose computers for Fourier transforms, etc, some of sim date them possibly analog (rather than digital) on uwe dissertation campus, as well as all sorts of computing equipment at the outlying campuses (no doubt a tale in itself). 1976: Andy Koenig's RSTS e-mail program, the first e-mail at CU. Andy was a prominent member of the pacthesis days walkthrough, CUCCA technical staff (reponsible for at cover cv least APL and PL/I) who went on pacthesis days sim date to Bell Labs and research, fame with C++. His dad is Dr. Seymour H. Koenig, who was at Watson Lab from 1952 to 1970, and its director from 1967 [9,17]. Andy's frequent co-author is Barbaro Moo, also formerly of CUCCA. Days Walkthrough. (Note: it's possible that email was used earlier in within certain departments, notably those (like Biology) that had Unix-based minicomputers, I don't know, but in any case this was the first email available to the general University population.) Nowadays most of the uwe dissertation, University conducts its business by e-mail, and it has been an enormous productivity booster, eliminating telephone tag, enabling one-to-many messaging, and filling an ever-increasing role in instruction and research.
As early as 1983 (the 9 Feb 1983 Newsletter, V15#2, is full of allusions to this), professors were sending assignments to their classes by e-mail and collecting results the same way, with the added benefit of pacthesis memory sim date walkthrough questions and answers and other discussions that could not fit in the classroom schedule. Readers who were not exposed to electronic mail prior to the Internet explosion of the mid-1990s probably won't appreciate how much more useful and pleasant it was before then, even in cover letter for junior cv, its original text-only format. Today I typically have several hundred messages waiting for me each morning (after central filtering!), of pacthesis memory days sim date walkthrough which 98% are spam, advertisements, promotions, junk mail, get-rich-quick schemes, invitations to Exclusive High-Powered Executive Webcasts and Enterprise Leadership Webinars, chain letters, be-my-friend-and-share-photos, inspirational Powerpoints, strategic partnerships, office humor, world class enterprise solutions, body-part enhancements, business best practices, claim your lottery winnings, claim your inheritance, claim your fund, Dear beloved, I am dying, I don't want you to feel sorry for me, Beloved in Christ, Dear beneficiary, Complements of the season, confidential matter, delinquent accounts, cash grant award, designer watches, investment opportunities, work-at-home opportunities, get your diploma, grow your business, increase your profitability, Dear entrepreneur, Take this five-minute survey, offers from soldiers in our many wars who found barrels full of money, I want to place an order with your store, low-interest loans, your account is expired, Viagra, Cialis, lonely hearts, Russian beauties, update your information, bounce notifications about mail you didn't send, and deliberate attempts at implanting viruses (Windows e-mail attachments containing viruses or worms have no effect on my UNIX-based plain-text mail client) -- or security alerts or complaints about all of tagalog tungkol ko buhay these. In the 1970s and days walkthrough, 80s, by thesis security contrast, practically every e-mail message was legitimate, worth reading, and usually only 1-2K bytes in pacthesis sim date, length, and could not possibly hurt your computer (not strictly true; it was possible to put an escape sequence in an email message that, if it arrived intact at uwe dissertation certain kinds of terminals, could make them automatically transmit any desired text back to the host, but even if you had a terminal that responded to pacthesis days walkthrough, the escape sequence, this rarely could cause any serious demage because an email client would be on the receiving end, not the system command prompt) . Even when e-mail is exchanged between consenting parties, the demands posed by research paper reference multimedia attachments -- Microsoft Word documents, Powerpoints, spreadsheets, images, audio and video clips, even entire music CDs or motion pictures -- have coerced the memory days sim date, University to constantly upgrade its network and mail server capacity, and a firm, of course the costs are inevitably passed back to the consumer in the form of tuition or overhead increases and/or cutbacks in pacthesis memory days walkthrough, other areas. 1976: Hot newsletter topics: APL, the Gould plotter, PL/I, SPSS, BMDP, ASP3, Syncsort, Crosstabs with Multipunch. Dec 1976: The Xerox 1200 -- first non-impact printer: a big Xerox machine that printed on plain paper, in portrait or landscape. Tagalog Tungkol. Plain monospace (Courier) font only; no special effects (other than simulated line-printer-paper stripes).
I don't remember exactly where the input came from -- either it had an IBM mainframe channel connection, or else it read from pacthesis days walkthrough, 9-track magnetic tape, but in any case it was possible to print on it from cover accountant, both the IBM and DEC systems. 1977: (Month?) Because the pacthesis days walkthrough, IBM 360/91 was more suited to scientific calculations and lacked decimal arithmetic, and because of security questions posed by the Open Batch system, which opened it up to the student population, ADP acquires a separate mainframe exclusively for administrative work, an IBM 370/138 located in the Computer Center machine room and running VM/CMS (later to be upgraded to 370/148, 3031 (1979), 3083 (1983), 3090 (1986), etc). Letter Cv. A new Personnel (now we would say Human Resources) system was developed for the 370 in house, and administrative applications began to days sim date, migrate from punch cards and batch to tagalog essay ko buhay, interactive online systems . The arrival of the IBM 370 launches an pacthesis days sim date walkthrough, effort to convert administrative applications from batch to research reference, online, with IBM 3270 block-mode terminals allowing interactive access to administrative systems such as student records, accounts receivable, and so on. Jul 1977: The IBM 370/115 in the Controller's Office is removed. I believe this was the last outpost of department-level mainframe administrative computing. Jul 1977: The blackout of 1977 . No electricity for two days (July 13-14). Howard (Eskin) and pacthesis walkthrough, I were in tagalog ko buhay, Watson Lab the evening of the pacthesis memory days sim date, 13th working on the floor plan for the 272A Engineering Terrace terminal room when the lights went out. We were also in the middle of our first DEC-20 installation, a six-week process (so two lost days were not a disaster).
Aug 1977: Our PDP-11/50 was invaded (via modem) by a gang of uwe dissertation prep-school kids, who had their way with it undetected for several weeks. This was the first hacker breakin to a Columbia computer from the outside, and it went to court. It cost us nearly a week of round-the-clock systems work and delayed the pacthesis memory days walkthrough, DEC-20 opening by a week. Later the same group invaded other RSTS systems and even (as I recall) destroyed a cement company in Quebec. The prep school in question had purchased a PDP-11 with RSTS and tagalog tungkol ko buhay, let the students run it without supervision; thus the students had hands-on access and full privileges, with ample opportunity to probe their own system for pacthesis memory days sim date walkthrough vulnerabilities, write Trojan-horse replacements for system software, etc, in-house before attacking external sites, and indeed they did a good job: their modified LOGIN program let them in silently, with full root privileges; the modified accounting programs did not list their sessions; the modified DIRECTORY program did not list their directories or files; the a firm, modified SYSTAT program did not show their jobs, and memory, so on. Eventually they tipped their hand by accidentally printing a password list on write a means a public printer, and we tracked them down using methods remarkably similar to those used by pacthesis sim date walkthrough Cliff Stoll 10 years later to catch the German hackers at Berkeley  (see 1986-87 below), such as Y-connecting hardcopy terminals to the modems to letter, log dialin sessions.
Aug 1977: Our first DECSYSTEM-20, CU20A (PHOTOS), was installed for large-scale timesharing. Accounts were free and available to all (or maybe there was a one-time $5.00 fee; later, per-semester or per-course fees would be added). It cost 800,000 dollars  and was much larger than the pacthesis sim date walkthrough, PDP-11, a row of double-width orange cabinets about 10 feet long, plus four 178MB RP06 washing-machine-size 3350-type disk drives, but unlike the a firm, PDP-11, had little in the way of lights and switches (if you didn't count the pacthesis memory days sim date walkthrough, PDP-11/40 communications front end hidden inside it). It had 256K 36-bit words of letter main memory, two 800/1600bpi TU45 tape drives (later TU77, TU78), an LP20 drum printer (mainly for backup listings), and an LA36 system console hardcopy terminal. It also had a DN20 communications processor (PDP-11/34 concealed in orange full-size cabinet) for remote job entry (see Glossary) to pacthesis days sim date walkthrough, the IBM mainframes. CU20A was originally a model 2040, and so it had core memory and no cache; later it was upgraded to a 2050 and then a 2065; the core became MOS and in network, cache was added, memory increased to 2MB. Each user got 35KB (that's KB, not MB or GB) of sim date walkthrough disk space. The first DEC-20 marked the beginning of the a firm, online campus in which the computer was used not just for calcalation and programming, but also communication among users and (eventually) with the outside world. The DEC-20 was a member of the DEC's 36-bit PDP-10 line of computers, which descended from the PDP-6, first produced in memory days sim date, 1964, and which itself has its roots in the 36-bit IBM 700 series that goes back to for junior, 1952. PDP-10s, however, were distinct from 20s: they had a different operating system (TOPS-10 instead of pacthesis memory days sim date walkthrough TOPS-20); they came in a variety of a firm models (KA, KI, KL, KS), whereas DEC-20s came in pacthesis memory sim date, only KL and KS models; PDP-10s were more suited to a firm, hands-on lab work, with all sorts of pacthesis memory days sim date devices and attachments lacking from the for junior cv, -20s such as real-time bus-attached instruments; DECtapes, paper tape, and pacthesis sim date walkthrough, graphics devices; they could be installed in thesis security, multiprocessor configurations; and they were blue rather than orange.
DEC-20s could run TOPS-10 applications in an emulation mode, but not vice versa, and walkthrough, until the very end, quite a bit of DEC-20 software was indeed native to TOPS-10 (e.g. the linker and a firm, most of the compilers). The DEC-20 pioneered all sorts of advanced concepts such as a swappable monitor (kernel), lightweight processes (threads), page mapping, shared pages with copy-on-write, hardware assisted paging, and other techniques to allow large numbers of memory days sim date users access to a limited resource (CLICK HERE for details). Nevertheless, our first DEC-20 was soon loaded far beyond capacity , and the ensuing years were a constant struggle to cover letter, get funding for more DEC-20s: budget proposals, user meetings (for which, by now, large auditoriums were required), even outdoor campus demonstrations. But DEC-20s were expensive; they demanded copious floor space and air conditioning, as well as 3-phase power with isolated ground (a 10-foot copper stake literally driven into pacthesis memory days sim date, bedrock outside the CUCCA loading dock). Annual maintenance alone was something like $100,000 per machine, and each one carried an additional $10,000 electric bill. Therefore adding DEC-20s was difficult and write an essay about a means of transport, painful. There were all sorts of memory days revenue-raising schemes and eventually we had 4 of them, CU20A through CU20D, serving 6000 users, up to 70 or 80 logged in simultaneously on each.
Additional DEC-20s for research reference format instruction and research were installed at Teachers College and in the Computer Science department. DEC-20s were fairly reliable for their day. Unlike the IBM mainframe with its scheduled two-hour nightly System Time, the pacthesis days walkthrough, DEC-20s were kept running and research paper reference, available all the time except for a couple hours (usually outside of prime time) every week or two for preventive maintenance by DEC Field Service. Memory Days Sim Date. But by a firm today's standards they crashed frequently anyway, usually because of power glitches; so often, in fact that somebody had a batch of %DECSYSTEM-20 NOT RUNNING T-shirts made up (this was the dying gasp of the DEC-20 as it went down). Whenever a DEC-20 was up for more than 100 hours, people became quite excited. The record was just shy of 800 hours (about a month); MTBF was under 100 hours (4 days). Pacthesis Days. By comparison, today (8 Feb 2001) I have an HP workstation in my office that has been up continuously for 883 days (that's more than 21,000 hours), despite numerous brownouts and momentary power failures, and write an essay about, that's without a UPS (eventually its running streak was interrupted at pacthesis days sim date 900-some days when electricians needed to shut off power to the floor to replace the circuit-breaker panel). For lots more about the Columbia DEC-20s, CLICK HERE. (The Gandalf PACX IV terminal switch was installed around here somewhere. Prior to that terminals were hardwired using various forgotten technologies like 20mA Current Loop. The PACX was a speed-transparent 1000x1000 switch, driven by a firm little blue PACX boxes on the user end, with thumbwheels to dial the desired service and an on/off switch.)
1977-78: Use of e-mail takes off. Pacthesis Walkthrough. Also video editing (EMACS, etc), text formatting and typesetting (Pub, Scribe, later T E X). In April 1978, we (Bill Catchings) write a bboard (bulletin board) program, a kind of precursor to uwe dissertation, Netnews, Twitter, etc, where everybody on pacthesis memory days sim date campus could sound off in public. Various bboards were available, including course-specific boards, topical boards, and a general (any topic) board, and tungkol, were unmoderated and days sim date walkthrough, uncensored. CLICK HERE for a study of Columbia's computer bulletin boards in the early 1980s. EMACS, by the way, was created at reference format the MIT AI Lab on a PDP-10 running MIT's Incompatible Timesharing System (ITS) by Richard Stallman, building upon the venerable Text Editor and days sim date, COrrector, TECO, written in 1962-63 for the DEC PDP-1 by thesis in network Dan Murphy, who was also largely responsible for TOPS-20, the operating system on our DECSYSTEM-20s. I first used TECO in 1972 on sim date walkthrough a PDP-11/20 with the DOS/Batch operating, at the Teletype console. The first release of EMACS was in 1976 and tungkol ko buhay, we were using it at pacthesis walkthrough Columbia on CU20A by 1977. Columbia's systems group made numerous contributions to EMACS; for example, Chris Ryland added split-screen editing. In the 1980s EMACS would be completely rewritten in LISP, to become the now-universal GNU EMACS, one of the most prominent surviving relics of the heyday of the DEC 36-bit mainframes. Jan 1978: The 272A Engineering Terrace terminal room opens (V10#2).
This was the research, first public terminal room outside the Computer Center building. Pacthesis Memory Sim Date. The Columbia architects had a field day, decorating it in a firm, bilious hot pink like a bordello, with trendy globe lighting. (The April Fools 1978 issue of the Newsletter (V10#5) presents the coveted Louis XVI Alive with the memory days, Arts award to uwe dissertation, the Department of Buildings and Grounds [now Facilities Management] for their exceptional work in days sim date, recreating the atmosphere of an 18th century French palace. . Columbia's resident architect was entreated to comment on the bizarre appearance of the new terminal room. ) Notwithstanding the decor, the room was laid out a firm, according to our floorplan (Howard Eskin and I designed it), divided into cubicles about 4 feet high so people would have privacy when sitting, but could stand up to chat and hand things back and forth. There was a common area where people could congregate, and a glassed-in machine room containing a DN200 and a Printronix heavy-duty dot-matrix printer. Each cubicle had a terminal and a spacious working surface for books and pacthesis memory days walkthrough, papers and its own reading light. Large cubicles had LA36 DECwriters (hard-copy 132-column dot-matrix printers operating at 30 cps on pin-feed green-and-white striped fanfold paper) and a firm, the smaller ones had Perkin-Elmer Fox-1100 CRTs operating at pacthesis memory days 9600 bps (this was the first affordable CRT, costing about research reference format $500, compared to most others that cost a thousand dollars and up). Pacthesis Days Walkthrough. Each cubicle also had a PACX box to let users select the service they wanted to in network, use (DEC-20, RSTS, Wylbur). Eventually the lab was re-architected, expanded, and . . . REDECORATED.
Too bad if you missed it (does anybody have a color photo of the pacthesis memory walkthrough, original?) Mar 1978: APL conversion from IBM to uwe dissertation, DEC-20 was a big topic for many months. Special terminals (Datamedia APL with APL keyboard, later Concept/APL) had to be installed for walkthrough APL users. To further encourage IBM to DEC migration, I wrote a mini-Wylbur (Otto) for uwe dissertation the DEC-20; Joel and days walkthrough, his brother worked on a full Wylbur implementation for some time but it's not done yet. Apr 1978: The CUCCA Telephone Directory and Consulting Schedule. As you can see there were 100 full-timers on staff: academic computing, administrative computing, librarians, administrative staff, data communications, machine room operators, and management. Compared to 15 in 1965 and over a firm 300 in memory sim date, 2010. Note too that in those days the technical staff helped users in person in three locations (two in tungkol ko buhay, SSIO, one in Mudd) and at other times they answered calls from users on their own phones no call processing, no screening, no trouble tickets, no hiding behind web pages, no bureacracy.
UI's were students working part-time; anything they couldn't handle would be passed along to full-timers in User Services or Systems. Many of the UI's listed on the schedule went on to become full timers and some even managers. (Consulting schedule by Dave Millman, printed on pacthesis memory days sim date walkthrough the Diablo daisy-wheel printer.) 1 May 1978: The first spam (junk commercial) e-mail was sent 1 May 1978 1233-EDT from DEC-MARLBORO.ARPA (a DEC-20) to all ARPANET contacts, whose e-mail addresses were harvested from the WHOIS database, advertising new DEC-20 models. More about this HERE. May 1978: OS/360 21.8 (which was released by tungkol IBM in 1970) installed on the IBM 360/91. Eight years in the making! The ex-CUCC systems people who defected to CUNY had to come back and days sim date, teach nightly classes on OS/360 and what they had done to it (many things, including over 200 modifications for accounting and resource-limitation purposes) before their replacements could bring up the new release without fear of losing something vital. May 1978: Tektronix 4010 graphics a big topic in the newlsetters.
(Somewhere put the succession of User Services managers: Tom D'Auria, Bob Resnikoff, Bruce Tetelman, Tom Chow, Mark Kennedy, Maurice Matiz, Rob Cartolano, Jeff Eldredge, I know I must be leaving somebody out. Essay Ko Buhay. ) and SSIO (Marianne Clarke, Lois Dorman, Chris Gianone, . ) and Systems Assurance (later Data Communications: Rich Nelson, Seung-il Choe, Wolfie, . ) and CUCCA business managers (Peter Bujara, Neil Sachnoff, Patty Peters, Bob Bingham, Julie Lai. ) About User Services, Maurice Matiz adds: User Services existed only up to early in my era. After Vace's appointment and my appointment (I believe the only two managerial and higher level appointments that required a trying and memory days, complete interview by paper reference the whole University occurred in late 1989) did the groups that now define AcIS get created except that User Services comprised three groups. User Services stayed until Jeff Eldrege's group was spun out of my group, which had grown to pacthesis memory days sim date walkthrough, over 25 people, in late 1994. (My diagramed proposal is dated 11/28/94.) At that time we changed names. Jeff's group became the Support Center and my group was renamed Academic Technologies. Also spun out at the time was what became EDS to report to Walter Bourne. Dec 1978: First mention of UNIX by CUCCA in public (referring to the BSTJ UNIX issue ). V10#18.
1979: The Computer Science Department was created as a separate entity (previously it was part of the EE Dept) with Joseph Traub from CMU as Chair, and cover letter for junior accountant, a $200,000 donation from IBM. Joe had been a Watson Fellow in Applied Mathematics in 1958-59 . The Computer Science Building was constructed 1981-83 . Before long a DECSYSTEM-20, several VAX-11/750s, and numerous workstations (early Suns and others) would be installed in the new CS facility. Jan 1979: Public terminals were available in memory days sim date, SSIO (20), 272A Engineering Terrace (14), Furnald Lobby (4), 224 Butler (4), and Hartley Lobby (4). V11#2.
Systems Assurance staff (Bob Galanos) would make the rounds on a daily basis to fix broken terminals, usually by replacing fuses taken out by students to reserve terminals for their own use. Feb 1979: Scribe, Diablo, printwheel lore dominates the Newsletter. Big business in printwheels. Essay. The Diablo was a typewriter-like terminal with a daisy-wheel print mechanism capable of proportional spacing, superscripts and subscripts, and even boldface (by doublestriking) and italics (by swapping printwheels). The CUCCA newsletter was printed on the Diablo for some years, and pacthesis memory days sim date walkthrough, Diablos were deployed in public areas for users.
Scribe included a Diablo driver, which produced .POD (Prince Of Darkness) files for it, and we wrote software to spool these files to the Diablo itself, allowing pauses to change paper or printwheels. Printwheels were available in cover for junior accountant, a variety of fonts and alphabets, but weren't cheap ($98 springs to mind). Aug 1979: COMND JSYS package written for SAIL (so we could write user-friendly programs for the DEC-20 in a high-level language). Andy Lowry and pacthesis memory sim date, David Millman. Sep 1979: HP2621 industrial-strength video terminals installed in Mudd and elsewhere, including a new lab in a firm, Carman Hall. This was the face of CUCCA to our users; many of memory them thought the DEC-20s were made by HP. These are monochrome text terminals with good editing capabilties (for EMACS) and research format, solidly built. Some had built-in thermal printers.
A few units are still to be found here in good working order. 1979-80: Chris Ryland and pacthesis memory, I write a 200-plus-page guide to DEC-20 assembly-language programming. Write A Means Of Transport. We were thinking of pacthesis memory days sim date turning it into thesis, a book but Ralph Gorin of Stanford University beat us to it. 1980: Instructional computing capacity badly needs expansion. At this point, CUCCA has three instructional systems: the IBM 360/91 Open Batch system (soon to be retired), the PDP-11/50 (fully saturated), and a single DECSYSTEM-20, CU20A, which is in constant demand and memory sim date walkthrough, heavily overburdened. There is much gathering of statistics to understand usage patterns. In response to student and in network, faculty demands, the Collery Committee (Arnold Collery was Dean of Columbia College) was appointed to make recommendations. The instructional computers were overloaded, but why? Was the new usage real or frivolous? A witch-hunt was launched against text processing (preparing papers on pacthesis memory days sim date the computer, sending e-mail, etc).
Some prominent faculty advocated banning it (this never came to pass; CUCCA opposed it vigorously). CPU and connect-time limits were to be instituted. Fees were to be increased. Various disincentives would be established against using the computers during prime time. The tug of a firm war between demand and resources is a persistent theme in academic computing. There has never been, and probably never will be, a clear linkage between demand and supply. Memory Days Walkthrough. Whenever resources (such as computer time, disk space, modems, network bandwidth) become scarce, as they always do, funding for expansion does not flow automatically (nor should it). First there is a demand for a precise accounting of in network how, for what, and by whom the current resources are being consumed, the gathering of which in days sim date walkthrough, turn taxes the resources still futher. Once the information is obtained, demands to flush out inappropriate use -- whose definition varies with the times (e.g. network capacity versus Napster in 2000) -- quickly follow. Of course instructional computing on the DEC-20s was true to this pattern. CU20A drove itself near to melting by accounting for itself.
And then complicated limits were imposed on CPU time, connect time, and every other imaginable resource (using locally written software) until the interactive computing experience was surpassingly unpleasant for everyone: students, faculty, and staff alike. Relief was still more than a year away. One of the in network, measures taken to alleviate the pacthesis days sim date, load on CU20A was to abolish the free perpetual student user IDs and uwe dissertation, replace them with class-related IDs that lasted only for the duration of each course. While this ensured that the DEC-20 was used only for legitimate purposes, it also made it impossible for students to memory days walkthrough, build up a corpus of tools and information they could use throughout their Columbia experience. A series of write about discussions took place throughout 1980 exploring different possibilites for providing students with some form of self-service, inexpensive, removeable media. The result was Kermit . Jan 1980: CUCCA announces its intention to connect to memory walkthrough, ARPANET, V12#1 (but without any firm prospects of doing so, since in those days the only entree was a big Defense Department grant, which we didn't have and didn't want).
In the meantime, however, staff (but not end-users) had access through our DECnet link to COLUMBIA-20.ARPA , the a firm, Computer Science DEC-20 (July 1983), and prior to that by dialup to the NYU Elf and guest accounts at Rutgers, Harvard, Stanford, CMU and elsewhere. The ARPANET was important, among other reaons, because it was how DECsystem-10 and DECSYSTEM-20 software developers could work together (by email) and share code (by FTP), and this was the beginning of the memory sim date, open software movement . It is important to recall that in those days we were paid to develop and share software. Nowadays most open (free) software is created by unpaid volunteers . Feb 1980: DECnet first operational (between CU20A and the DN200 in Mudd). Feb 1980: The DEC-20 MM (Mail Manager) e-mail program becomes popular (V12#2). This is a good example of software created by professional staff or graduate students at PDP-10 and DEC-20 sites on the ARPANET (Stanford in this case) and cover letter, freely shared with other sites. Other examples of the era included the ISPELL spelling checker and sim date, corrector (also from uwe dissertation, Stanford), the EMACS text editor from walkthrough, MIT, the uwe dissertation, SCRIBE text formatting and typesetting system from CMU (which later became commercial) and pacthesis memory days sim date walkthrough, TeX from Stanford, the Bliss-10 programming language from CMU, the SAIL programming language from thesis in network security, Stanford, the PASCAL compiler from Rutgers, the SITGO instructional FORTRAN package from Stevens Institute of Technology, various LISP systems from different places, and days, KERMIT communications software from Columbia. In fact, each place contributed bits and pieces to most of an essay of transport these packages so most of them were truly cooperative efforts.
MM was used almost universally at Columbia for E-mail from 1980 until about 1995, with usage trailing off thereafter as Windows and the Web took over from text-based computer access. When the DEC-20 line was cancelled, we wrote a new MM program in C for Unix which again, in the sharing spirit, was made available on the ARPANET (later Internet) and sim date walkthrough, adopted by many other sites worldwide as they migrated from TOPS-20 to an essay a means of transport, Unix. MM survives even into the 2010s (details). Jun 1980: We were considering joining TELENET and pacthesis memory days sim date walkthrough, TYMNET (commercial X.3/X.25 based networks) but never did; it was way too expensive . Write An Essay About A Means Of Transport. These were strictly terminal-to-host networks, but would have allowed travellers to memory days walkthrough, dial up with a local call from almost anywhere in security, the USA or Canada, and conceivably could have taken the days walkthrough, place of in-house modem pools. Oct 1980: Second DEC-20 installed, CU20B , for use by funded researchers and in network security, staff only; to be paid for out of income, since the budget request for a second instructional DEC-20 had been denied, again, even though the first one was seriously overloaded, and despite vocal support from students and faculty (and us of course). CU20B removed considerable load from CU20A and pacthesis memory days walkthrough, bought us some time until we finally were able to expand the research paper reference format, instructional resources a year later with CU20C. (In fact, for a short period, we were able to put some students on CU20B, in memory days sim date, their own partition, isolated from the paying users.) There was no common file system yet; communication wth CU20A was via DECnet (NFT for file transfer; home-grown mail, print, finger servers and clients, etc). Nov 1980: The IBM 360/91/75 is retired , replaced by reference two IBM 4331s (PHOTO), CUVMA and CUVMB. These are featureless boxes that are (as you might expect) more compact and pacthesis sim date walkthrough, cheaper to run than the 360/91 (and lower too, so you can use them as coffee tables), and they had a new operating system, VM/CMS, which allowed Virtual Machines (VM) to run other operating systems on the same machine, thus keeping our old applications afloat.
VM was perceived initially as a niche product, but it has proven remarkably persistent. The 360/91 was so big it had to be cut up with chainsaws to get it out of the building. The Gordian knot of thesis in network security cabling under the floor was unceremoniously disposed of with giant cable snippers the size of posthole diggers. The computer chunks were trucked away and thrown into acid baths to extract the memory walkthrough, gold. Only the 360/91 console was spared. We had it moved to a firm, the lobby of Watson Laboratory and pacthesis memory days sim date walkthrough, arranged to donate it to the now-defunct Computer Museum in Massachusetts, but it took a year and a half for them to pick it up.
In the interim, bits and cover for junior accountant, pieces were removed by passersby as souvenirs. (More about this in the June 1982 entry.) 1981-82 ADP takes over the remaining pockets of decentralized administrative computing: the student systems in Philosophy Hall and sim date, the financial and payroll systems in Hogan Hall, and to some extent also the Health Sciences campus. Jan 1981: Superbrains arrive. The Intertec Superbrain had been chosen as the first microcomputer we would deploy publicly, despite its embarrassing name, because its solid single-piece construction made it virtually user-proof, and it did indeed stand up to years of (ab)use. Uwe Dissertation. It ran CP/M 2.2, an 8-bit (64K) operating system. Apr 1981: Bill Catchings and I design the basic Kermit protocol. The first Kermit protocol transfer took place on pacthesis April 29th on a loopback connection between two serial ports on CU20B.
CLICK HERE for more about the history of Kermit, and HERE to visit the Kermit website, where THIS PAGE provides an overview. A Firm. Kermit Project document archive at the Computer History Museum [catalog]. Kermit Project Oral History Transcripts at the Computer History Museum HERE and HERE. May 1981: I talk J. Ray Scott of pacthesis walkthrough Carnegie-Mellon University (CMU) in Pittsburgh, PA, into installing a leased line between Columbia and CMU and joining our two campuses by DECnet (at least that's how I remember it). Tungkol. CU and pacthesis walkthrough, CMU informally but effectively merge their DEC-20 systems staffs and run common customized applications and subsystems (esp. the GALAXY spooling system, which we modified to allow printer sharing among multiple DEC-20s and spooling to the Xerox 9700). Soon the network, called CCNET , expanded to several other universities, notably Stevens Institute of Technology in Hoboken, NJ, which played an important role in the development of Kermit protocol and cover accountant, software until 1987, and sim date walkthrough, produced Kermit programs for DEC's VMS, TOPS-10, and P/OS operating systems. Jun 1981: CP/M-80 Kermit for the 8-bit Superbrain: Bill Catchings (later, in 1983, Bill also wrote CP/M-86 Kermit for the 16-bit version of CP/M). Shortly after this, the Superbrain was deployed in Mudd.
It had no applications to speak of besides Kermit, which was used by uwe dissertation students to archive their DEC-20 files onto floppy disks (the purpose for which was Kermit developed). Floppy disks (the then-modern 5.25 ones, not the frisbee-sized ones used on other CP/M micros) for the Superbrain were sold in SSIO, $6.00 each (!). Later, but before 16-bit micros like the pacthesis sim date walkthrough, IBM PC appeared, we set up (in Watson Lab) a network of Superbrains sharing a hard disk, with an EMACS-like editor called MINCE and a Scribe-like text formatter called Sribble. A Firm. For a short time it was our most impressive demonstration of pacthesis days personal / workgroup desktop computing. Write About Of Transport. (MINCE later became Epsilon and memory days walkthrough, was popular for write some years on DOS PCs.) 12 Aug 1981: The 16-bit IBM PC was announced; the Columbia Computer Center orders 20 of them on Day One, sight unseen. The IBM logo makes all the memory walkthrough, difference. About half of research format them go to high-profile faculty (who immediately want them to be able to communicate with our central IBM and DEC mainframes; hence MS-DOS Kermit).
The original PC had a monochrome monitor (color optional), one or two 160K floppy disks, a small amount of memory (anywhere from 16K to 256K), two RS-232 serial interfaces, no hard disk, no networking. It ran at 4.77MHz, had BASIC built into pacthesis memory days sim date, its ROM (which could be used without an OS or disk), and ran DOS 1.0, the letter for junior accountant, minimalistic 16-bit disk operating system that made Microsoft's fortune. Memory Walkthrough. Within a short amount of time, it had become the computer that would dominate the cover, rest of the century and beyond, and pacthesis walkthrough, spread over the campus like wildfire. But it still took some years for the PC to wipe out the essay tungkol ko buhay, VAXes and PDP-11s in the departments. Up through the early 90s there were still dozens of pacthesis memory walkthrough VAX/VMS installations; entire departments and letter cv, schools (such as Columbia College) ran on them, with VT100 terminals or DEC word processors (PDP-8 based DECmates) on their desktops.
The PC has been a mixed blessing. Untold numbers of people-hours have been lost forever to tinkering -- this slot, that bus; expanded memory, enhanced memory, extended memory. . . Days. Blue Screens Of Death, rebooting, reinstalling the operating system, searching for adapters, hunting for drivers, installing OS and driver upgrades, resolving interrupt conflicts, partitioning disks, backing up disks, adding new devices, configuring networks, fighting application and OS bugs, hunting for patches, fighting viruses, and on and on. Previously this kind of thing was done by cover letter for junior cv a small central full-time professional staff but now it is done by everybody, all the time, at incalculable cost to productivity and progress. Plus how many PC users really back up their hard disks? Not many in my experience, and it is not uncommon for important un-backed-up files to be lost in memory days sim date walkthrough, a disk crash or similar disaster, thus negating weeks, months, or years of work. ON THE PLUS SIDE, however, . . . In Network. (? ? ?) My personal theory is that IBM never expected the pacthesis days walkthrough, PC to research paper format, be so successful. It was thrown together in sim date, a rush by a small group (not at Watson Laboratory!) from off-the-shelf components in an effort to get a foothold in the fast-growing microcomputer market. Thesis Security. This was not IBM's first personal computer. Besides the pacthesis memory days walkthrough, 1956 Auto-Point Computer (personal but by no means desktop), IBM had also tried and cover letter for junior, failed with the 5100 and the CS-9000 in the 1970s and early 80s, both personal desktop models (we had some 5100s here; the CS-9000 was targeted at chemical engineering applications as I recall, and memory sim date, had a special control panel and interfaces for instruments, but included a 32-bit CPU and modern programming languages like Pascal, and could easily have been the paper reference, high-end workstation of the early 1980s).
According to memory days, a reliable source, IBM originally wanted the PC to have a Motorola 68000 CPU (which had a simple, flat 32-bit address space) like the paper format, CS-9000, but could not get such a product to market in time, so settled for the Intel 8088, a 16-bit segmented architecture with 8-bit data paths. Days Walkthrough. Worse, it had a primitive 16-line interrupt controller, which severely limited the number of devices that could be on uwe dissertation the bus. The rest is history. Pacthesis Memory. I believe that if IBM had known that the PC would dominate the an essay about a means of transport, next two, three, four, or more decades, it would have invested more time, money, and thought in the original design. (Obviously the situation is better in the 21st Century. Sim Date Walkthrough. Most of the about a means of transport, early kinks have been ironed out. Pacthesis Memory Days Sim Date Walkthrough. PCs are cheap and reliable. Write An Essay Of Transport. Any quirks of the architecture are well-hidden from end users, and USB makes life immeasurably better when devices need to be attached. With Windows the pacthesis memory days sim date walkthrough, dominant operating system, the main problems now are performance bloated OS and applications and security. And stability.)
Oct 1981: CU20C arrives: a second DECSYSTEM-20 student timesharing system to supplement CU20A. Still no common file system; each DEC-20 was a relatively separate world, but at least they were connected by DECnet. If you had a student user ID, it was on one or the other, not both. Dec 1981: HP plotter supplies (personal ink cartridges, etc) were a hot topic in a firm, the newsletter. Pacthesis Days Walkthrough. The HP pen plotters installed in Mudd (and SSIO?) came in a firm, 4- and 8-color models, and there was a wide variety of software for days sim date them, including DISSPLA/TEL-A-GRAF on the DEC-20s and SAS/GRAPH and SPSS on the IBM mainframes that could make 3D plots with hidden-line elimination, fancy fonts, etc. They were totally mechanical: pen and thesis in network security, ink on paper, and could produce beautiful line drawings. Jan 1982: J. Ray Scott, Director of the pacthesis memory, Carnegie-Mellon University Computation Center, writes an article in a firm, the CUCCA Newsletter (V14#1) describing the pacthesis memory sim date, CCNET connection between Columbia and uwe dissertation, CMU, and CMU's facilities (including an ARPANET gateeway and various compilers and applications that had not been licensed at Columbia). In the pacthesis memory, first example of network-based inter-university resource sharing at Columbia, CU users were invited to apply for user IDs on the CMU systems.
Feb 1982: The IBM 3850 Mass Storage System (MSS) was installed (for the 1980 Census) - 102.2 GB. The MSS was gigantic in every sense, covering most of the South wall of the machine room. Essentially it was a big honeycomb, each cell holding a cartridge (PHOTO) that resembles an M-79 rifle grenade (sorry, it does) containing a winding of 2.7-inch-wide magtape with a capacity of 50MB. A mechanical hand comes and extracts the cartridge and carries it to a reader, which removes the shell, and unwinds the tape and cover accountant cv, copies it to pacthesis memory walkthrough, one of four staging disks; then the tape is re-wound, the shell replaced, and the cartridge returned to its cell. All this was transparent to the user; the MSS looked like a 3330 disk drive to user-mode software. The disks acted as a cache, so if your file was already on the disk, the little mechanical man didn't need to go get the cartridge. Tagalog Tungkol. (Before the pacthesis days sim date, MSS, we had an thesis in network security, IBM 2321 Data Cell Drive, which worked in a similar way, except instead of pacthesis days sim date walkthrough cartridges, it used flat strips of tape that were much harder for a firm the little men to handle, so the tape strips were easily mangled.) Like the 360/91, there were only pacthesis days walkthrough a few MSS devices in tungkol, the world. The MSS cost about a million dollars, but Columbia got its MSS in an IBM grant. In return, Columbia would add support for memory days it to write about of transport, IBM's VM operating system (in particular, it would add windowing and lookahead features to reduce cylinder faults and pacthesis memory walkthrough, redundant cartridge fetches, and thus speed up sequential access; this was done by about a means Bob Resnikoff of the Computer Center and pacthesis sim date walkthrough, Ates Dagli of the Center for Social Sciences (CSS)). Cover Letter For Junior Cv. CSS was responsible for loading the memory days, census data (which came on endless reels of 9-track magtape) and for arranging access to it from within Columbia and from outside (V14#16).
When the grant expired, Columbia was able to essay, purchase the pacthesis memory days sim date, MSS at a steep discount. Feb 1982: Hot Newsletter topic: submitting IBM batch jobs from the DEC-20 via HASP/RJE. CU20B was connected to the IBM mainframe communications front end (COMTEN) through its own PDP-11 DN20 front end (a full cabinet), which emulated an Remote Job Entry station, i.e. a card reader for sending data to the mainframe in form of card images, and a line printer for research reference format receiving data from the mainframe in the form of print jobs, but using DEC-20 disk files instead of cards and paper. The CUCCA systems group developed user-friendly programs for submitting batch jobs to the VM systems from the DEC-20 and pacthesis days walkthrough, retrieving the results. These were later to form the basis of the DEC-20/BITNET mail gateway. Mar 1982: RSTS/E retired; RSTS users migrated to DEC-20s, V14#1. The PDP-11/50 was traded for another badly needed RP06 disk drive for essay ko buhay our DEC-20s . The PDP-11 with RSTS/E was our first experiment in campuswide public timesharing and pacthesis days walkthrough, it was an uwe dissertation, unqualified success.
Apr 1982: BITNET announced (Vace, V14#5). This was a network of IBM mainframes based on RSCS (basically, card reader / line printer simulation) protocols, originating with Ira Fuchs at CUNY, formerly of Watson Lab, and rapidly spreading to universities all over the world, lasting through the late 1990s, now remembered mainly for LISTSERV (a distributed automated mailing-list management system). Early members included CUNY, Columbia, Yale, Brown, Princeton, the U of Maine, Penn State, the pacthesis, NJ Educational Network, Boston U, and uwe dissertation, Cornell University (DIAGRAM). Columbia got the CU prefix (CUVMA, CUVMB), much to the chagrin of C ornell U niversity (CORNELLA, . ) Would this be the first instance of domain name hijacking ? :-) (Twenty years later, the memory sim date, Cornell and Columbia teaching hospitals would merge to form New York Presbyterian Hospital; evidently Cornell and in network, Columbia were omitted from the name so that neither one would have to pacthesis memory days sim date, follow the other.) Apr 1982: IBM Mainframe VM/CMS Kermit (Daphne Tzoar). This passed through a number a hands since the initial release, some of which prefer to remain anonymous, and has been cared for by Dr. John Chandler at the Harvard/Smithsonian Astronomical Observatory since about 1990; John made it portable to the other important IBM mainframe OS's: MVS/TSO, CICS, and MUSIC, and added support for conversion between the many IBM EBCDIC Country Extended Code Pages and ISO standard character sets, allowing cross-platform transfer of text in many languages. May 1982: Support was added to our e-mail client and server software to take advantage of our new CCNET and BITNET connections, and the first inter-campus e-mail began to flow, limited at first to letter for junior cv, just a handful of universities, but growing rapidly as CCNET and BITNET nodes are added, and gateways from them to ARPANET, CSNET, and other networks. CCNET mail delivery was accomplished by direct real-time DECnet connections; BITNET mail was transported via our HASP/RJE Spooler. Our three DEC-20s used their DECnet connections for mail amongst themselves, as well as with other campus machines and memory sim date walkthrough, the wider CCNET. Tagalog Essay Ko Buhay. CU20A and CU20C and other campus DECnet nodes sent BITNET mail by relaying it over DECnet to CU20B's RJE system.
In those days, e-mail addresses had to days sim date walkthrough, include a top-level domain that indicated the network, e.g. USER@HOST.ARPA , USER@HOST.BITNET , USER@HOST.CCNET , etc. Even trickier was the source routing used in Usenet (in those days, a network of UNIX machines that dialed each other up with UUCP periodically to exchange files and mail) and some others, and/or to mail to paper, somebody who was on a network that your host wasn't on, through a relay that was on pacthesis memory days both nets. Uwe Dissertation. In such cases you had to know the entire route and pacthesis days sim date walkthrough, the syntax tricks to traverse each branch of it, and thesis in network, often multiple relays. Pacthesis Days Sim Date. Here are some examples from the 1980s Kermit mailing list archive: The last one is about a means broken into two lines for readability; it's really one line. Walkthrough. To get a good feel for the proliferation of networks and the tricks of research paper navigating amongst them in the days before the Internet swept all else away, see John Quarterman's book, The Matrix  Jun 1982: CU20D , our third and final instructional DEC-20, was installed. Jun 1982: Our by-now vandalized IBM 360/91 console goes to the Computer Museum at DEC's MR-01 (or MR-02?) building in Marlboro, Massachusetts, after awaiting pickup for 18 months. It was displayed prominently inside the main entrance in a big, tastefully illuminated glass case near the PDP-1.
Shortly thereafter, the collection was transferred to the Boston Science Museum (now the Museum of Science), which changed its focus. Most of the computing artifacts went to the Computer History Museum, temporarily located at Moffett Field, California (an Air Force base, where the 360/91 console sat in deep storage for many years before being transferred in days sim date, about 2001 to deep storage at the Computer History Museum's new site in Mountain View, California). Jul 1982: An Imagen laser printer was installed in Watson; our first laser printer and our first printer capable of a firm true typesetting . Memory Days Sim Date Walkthrough. Soft fonts, 100 dpi I think, Impress language (a precursor of essay ko buhay PostScript), Ethernet-connected. It was only for days sim date walkthrough internal CUCCA use (production of Newsletter and handouts, etc). Aug 1982: The Xerox 9700 (PHOTO) [announced by Xerox in 1977] arrived, replacing the Xerox 1200 after some overlap (V15#1). An Essay A Means. The 9700 offered the first typesetting to the Columbia community at large, as well as high-volume, high-speed plain-text printing. This room-sized 300dpi Xerographic laser printer was installed in the back of the first floor of pacthesis sim date walkthrough Watson Lab (the present mail and network rooms) due to lack of research paper reference space in memory walkthrough, the Computer Center, and it definitely needed the space. A Firm. It printed 2 pages per second, could handle duplex, portrait/landscape, 2-up, 4-up, etc, had Courier (fixed) and memory sim date walkthrough, Helvetica and a firm, Times Roman (proportional) fonts, with italic and bold styles and selectable sizes. Formatting was done by Scribe and other packages and spooled to 9-track magnetic tapes that were delivered to pacthesis memory sim date, Watson every evening and in network, printed overnight. Xerox 9700 printing was available to all users (students, faculty, staff, outside paid accounts) on all the DEC-20s and IBM mainframe systems.
The DEC-20 Xerox 9700 spooling software (PRINT /UNIT:X9700) was developed jointly by pacthesis memory the combined CUCCA-CMU Systems Groups over CCNET. Even after more sophisticated typesetting methods became available, the X9700 remained in service as a high-volume printer; nothing else could push paper quite like it. An Essay Of Transport. To this day, I think Controllers and Rolmphone statements are still printed on a 9700 at memory sim date a service bureau.) Sep 1982: VMM announced (e-mail for the IBM mainframe: MM for VM, Joel and then Vace). Sep 1982: First campus network between academic departments (not counting Remote Job Entry stations): CUCCA-Chemistry, DECnet over reference format synchronous modems (V14#12). By this time Chemistry had a VAX-11/780 and some smaller VAXes. Sep 1982: TOPS-20 V5 installed on the CUCCA DEC-20s, featuring extended addressing (32 256KW sections = 36MB, instead of only one section), a new multiforking Exec (what we would now call job control), and a programming language for memory walkthrough the Exec (CMU's PCL, what we would now call shell scripts. see example). Oct 1982: About here we were looking into getting the AP Newswire online. Uwe Dissertation. Columbia's School of Journalism had a Teletype with news stories coming out continuously. The plan was to feed this into one of our DEC-20s and make a BBoard out of it, with a rather rapid expiration of articles given the pacthesis memory sim date walkthrough, limited disk storage. Uwe Dissertation. But there were licensing and walkthrough, bureaucratic impediments so it never came to pass.
About 1990, Columbia bought a subscription to ClariNews (in which the various news services are funneled to Usenet newsgroups). This lasted until 2003, by which time the research, Web had long since rendered it redundant. Nov 1982: The CUCCA Terminal and Plotter User Manual  was published, full of photos and detailed instructions on using the equipment in sim date walkthrough, our public areas. CLICK HERE to an essay, see a sampling of video terminals; note the accompanying PACX boxes. NOW ON LINE in searchable PDF format. This was printed on pacthesis walkthrough our new Xerox 9700, one of the first laser printers capable of typesetting; it had two fonts, Helvetica and Courier. The manual itself should interesting to those who harbor a burning curiosity over write an essay about of transport every minute detail in the life of memory days sim date walkthrough President Obama , since the equipment described here is what he must have used when he was a Columbia student 1981-83, because there wasn't anything else. Check, for example, this article he wrote in Sundial Magazine, March 10, 1983. I suspect he composed it on paper format the DEC-20, perhaps in EMACS, seated at one of the terminals in pacthesis days, our terminal rooms; for example, the HP-2621s in Carman Hall. When it was ready, he might well have emailed it to the Sundail editor with MM. Just a guess!
Nov 1982: DECSYSTEM-20 Pocket Guide (click for PDF of the whole thing). The DEC-20 was an enormously powerful and useful computing system, yet it was simple enought that we could publish an accordion-fold pocket guide to just about all that it had to offer. This 1982 edition was created with TeX, and the Columbia Crown with Metafont. The master was printed on our new Imagen Laser Printer and the printing and cover for junior, folding done at the Columbia print shop. It was given out free to all comers (thousands of them). Dec 1982: The Teachers College DEC-20 connects to the campus DECnet. 1983-1986: Every Newsletter issue announces new BITNET and DECnet nodes. Jan 1983 20th Anniversary of the Computer Center . CLICK HERE to see a collage of memory sim date walkthrough machine-room items prepared for the commemorative poster. Essay Tungkol. The commemorative frisbee is at Computer History Museum. 1 Jan 1983: The ARPANET switches from its original protocol, NCP, to TCP/IP. Prior to TCP/IP, the memory days walkthrough, ARPANET was a private club with membership restricted defense contractors.
The fact that some of the defense contractors were also some of the top engineering and computer science universities (MIT, Stanford, CMU, etc) led to a lot of a firm pressure from the non-military segment for more open access, and to days sim date walkthrough, a new design for the network itself. TCP/IP (Transport Control Protocol / Internet Protocol) was the result. Where ARPANET was a network of computers, TCP/IP provided for thesis security a network of networks ; that is, an Internet. Pacthesis Memory Sim Date. Thus when the uwe dissertation, cutover took place, all the computers at a given university (say, MIT), could be on pacthesis the net, not just the ones used for defense research. Thesis. In this way the network was opened up, and pacthesis memory days sim date walkthrough, the requirement for a defense contract for uwe dissertation membership no longer made sense. Numerous networks such CSNET, NSFNET, and SPAN, were connected. Columbia University as a whole got on the net in 1984 by virtue of its connection with NSF and over the next 15 years, the network grew to cover the entire planet and membership was open to all. Jan 1983 The Purchasing Office moves out of the Watson building and the space is memory days walkthrough occupied by ADP; now, 13 years after IBM left it, the Watson Lab building is 100% Computer Center and would remain that way until 1991. Research. ADP begins to offer office automation services, including PC and LAN installations for administrative use. Jan 1983: IBM PC Kermit. Originally by Daphne Tzoar, adapted from pacthesis memory walkthrough, Bill Catchings' CP/M-80 Kermit (actually, if I recall correctly, Bill did the letter for junior, original translation from days sim date, 8080 MASM to 8088 Microsoft assembler in a single EMACS session, and then Daphne made it work and tagalog essay ko buhay, added features).
Later it passed to pacthesis days sim date, Jeff Damens. We did versions 1.00 to 2.28 here, with various pieces contributed from elsewhere. Research Reference Format. Professor Joe Doupnik of Utah State University took it over in 1985, and stuck with until the end (see oral history of Joe Doupnik at the Computer History Museum). We were actually ordered to write this program because several prominent professors (Herb Goldstein, Bob Pollack, and Jonathan Gross ) were using their new PCs to write a book, The Scientific Experience , that would be used in a new course, Science C1001-1002, Theory and Practice of Science , in Columbia's Contemporary Civilization (the jewel in the crown of the Columbia College Core Curriculum) and wanted to be able to walkthrough, collaborate by uploading chapters to CU20B, where they could be shared. And they did. MS-DOS Kermit was a fixture on the Columbia computing landscape until the Web took over in 1994-95, and popular all over the world.
It's still remarkably popular today, providing VT320, Wyse, DG, ANSI, and Tektronix terminal emulation for write an essay about a means of transport Linux under dosemu , as well as data transfer for many DOS-based embedded and experimental devices, such as THIS ONE in pacthesis memory sim date, the International Space Station. CLICK HERE to visit the MS-DOS Kermit website. Jan 1983: Amdahl UTS installed on the IBM mainframe as a virtual machine under VM (Alan); this was the first UNIX on the central systems. But CS, Biology, and PS had been running other forms of UNIX for some time on departmental minicomputers such as PDP-11s and VAX-11/750s. (9-track magnetic tapes were big in these days, but every kind of computer used a different format: ANSI, DUMPER, BACKUP, MAGSAV, IBM OS SL, tar, cpio, etc, so writing tape import/export/conversion utilities was a regular cottage industry.) Mar 1983: CCNET included CU, CMU, CWRU, CS, TC. Mar 1983: All but two key punches removed due to lack of essay use (V15#4). The SSIO area is now a mainly a public terminal area, CUCCA business office, and consulting facility. Apr 1983: CU20B becomes Columbia's first central computer with dialout capability. The DIAL program, written by our Systems Group, operated a Vadic VA821 1200bps autodialer, and interfaced with DEC-20 Kermit to allow file transfer (and was later integrated with Kermit). 18 May 1983: DECSYSTEM-20 (and DECsystem-10) 36-bit computer line canceled by DEC due to their failed attempts to memory days, produce a faster and cheaper followon product (Jupiter).
This was a huge blow to an essay a means, Columbia and sim date walkthrough, most other US universities, which until this point were like a big (but increasingly anxious) DEC-10/20 club. Tagalog Essay. The ARPANET had been built mainly on DEC-10s and -20s, and most computer science research and tools ran there. Big changes would come. Spring DECUS (the semiannual Digital Equipment Corporation User Society convention) took place a week or two thereafter. Pacthesis Walkthrough. At the for junior, June 2001 DECWORLD event at the Computer Museum History Center, Roseanne Giordano, DEC's LCG [DEC-10 and DEC-20] product line manager at pacthesis sim date walkthrough the time of the thesis, cancellation, recalled that DECUS organizers, fearing violence from the crowd, installed plainclothes police in the front row to sim date walkthrough, protect the speakers. Jun 1983: Snapshot: Public terminal, printer, and research paper format, graphics equipment. Terminals: Datamedia 1520 (6), Perkin Elmer Fox 1100 (10), HP 2621 (66), DEC VT101 (28), Concept APL (8), Superbrain (1), Diablo (1), LA36 (20), Tektronix (2), HP plotters (4) (read more), self-service Printronix printers (5). Memory. Terminals by letter cv location: SSIO (52), Mudd (16), Butler (11), International Affairs (6), Carman (21), Hartley (16), East Campus (14), Furnald (6). Sim Date. The Superbrain is essay still the only desktop computer in a public area; it remained in service until at pacthesis days sim date least 1986. Jul 1983: The Columbia Computer Science Department DEC-20 and VAX-11/750 join ARPANET . The CS DEC-20 is thesis in network connected to CU20B with DECnet, thus providing the first ARPANET access from CUCCA machines (staff only). Nov 1983: We attend nondisclosure presentations of the Macintosh, which as to be the first mass-market personal computer with a graphical user interface, modeled on that of the Xerox Alto and the Xerox Star (the Star was commercially available in 1981 but it was too expensive for days the popular market).
I recommend early adoption of the a firm, Macintosh by pacthesis CU; this was done and Columbia became one of the reference, first members of the Apple University Consortium, buying them in bulk and reselling them to students. Nov 1983: We (I) take on responsibility of approving campus microcomputer purchases, since in memory, those days there were countless different incompatible ones. Every requisition had to come across my desk; if it was for something weird I'd call the letter for junior, person who ordered it and talk about communications and compatibility, either changing their mind or rubber stamping it after they swore they didn't care and never would. 1983-84: It is in memory, approximately this time frame that Alan Crosswell becomes Lead Unix Systems Programmer and also assumes management responsibility for the DEC-20s, as I move on to something called Systems Integration, meaning finding ways of letter accountant hooking Columbia's many disparate micro-, mini-, and mainframe computers together. Kermit was one way; others included various forms of networking including DECnet, TCP/IP (brand new in 1983), who-knows-how-many forms of PC networking, and memory days sim date, so on. Alan is formally appointed Systems Manager in 1990. 1983-84: I was the CUCCA member of an Engineering Dean's committee, chaired by Dean Gross, to set up a graphics lab in the Engineering School. Other members included Engineering Professors Morton Friedman, Lee Lidofsky and cover for junior, (I think) Ted Bashkow. Pacthesis Memory Walkthrough. Eventually a site was chosen adjoining the terminal room in 272A Engineering Terrace. It opened in March 1984 with 12 standalone IBM PCs equipped with color monitors and graphics adapters. This was almost certainly Columbia's first PC lab . The graphics lab was turned over to CUCCA in October 1989, combined with the original lab in room 272A, and renamed Gussman Lab.
Jan 1984: CLIO (Columbia Library Information Online) debuts as a text-based inquiry system accessible via PACX terminal and Telnet. It is based on BLIS software from Bibliotechniques (a spinoff of the University of Washington), and runs on our IBM 3083 mainframe. Feb 1984: Hermit (clustered PC project): a 3-million-dollar equipment grant from DEC, proposed by paper reference format us (me and Howard Eskin) in March 1983, to build a distributed environment of Macs, PCs, and UNIX workstations clustered around MicroVAX hubs which, in turn, were connected to the central DEC-20 mainframes for file / identity / e-mail service. Included were dozens of Rainbow PCs and Pro-380 (PDP-11) workstations, several MicroVAX-IIs, a VAX 11/730, a VAX 11/750, a VAXstation, an LN03 laser printer, Ethernet, and the Common File System (shared disk) hardware for our DEC-20s including a then-massive amount of central storage. Days. This was to be a stunning example of systems integration; the primary objective was to research format, provide users transparent native-mode access to pacthesis days walkthrough, their central files and identities from tagalog ko buhay, all different kinds of desktop workstations (PC, Mac, UNIX).
I was the PI, my boss was Howard Eskin, the programmers were (at various times) Bill Catchings, Bill Schilit, Melissa Metz, Jeff Damens, Andy Lowry, Delores Ng, Howie Kaye, Fuat Baran. (V16#2, V16#6, V18#2; Columbia Daily Spectator , 23 Apr 1984). Mar 1984: With four DEC-20s installed, plus the Hermit project equipment -- big disks, fast networks, common file system -- instructional computing power was fairly well matched with demand. Now access was the bottleneck. A study by pacthesis sim date walkthrough the Academic Advisory Committee of the Engineering Advisory Council, Computers in Columbia Engineering Education , March 1984, complained of the Sleeping Bag Syndrome: students should not be forced to line up for terminal time at graveyard shift hours. Only those who could postpone their terminal-room visits until the wee hours of the morning were spared the long lines, a system blatantly unfair to commuters. Obtaining space for terminal rooms (or anything else) on the Columbia campus was (and is) even more difficult than obtaining the money to build them.
Dormitory space was considered prime because dorms were the only buildings open 24 hours. Mar 1984: First Apple Lisa demo at CU, numerous Macintosh/Lisa seminars and presentations from Apple. Apr 1984: IBM Portable PC announced by CUCCA for in network resale. It was also required equipment for all Columbia Business School students. Apr-May 1984: Macintosh mania. A four-page article ( by me of course :-) introducing the Mac was published in V16#8. CU joins the Apple University Consortium as one of the few charter members.
AUC membership required us to buy Macs in bulk for resale on campus. 2000 were ordered right away. Within a short while, we had written the memory days sim date, first version of a firm Macintosh Kermit for it (Bill Catchings, Bill Schilit, and sim date, me). Uwe Dissertation. Mac (and PC) sales continue in one form or another until turned over to JR, which opened a Columbia-only branch in the basement of Philosophy Hall in the late 1990s but then jumped ship about pacthesis memory 2001. May 1984: Floor plan of DEC-20 machine room by Bill Schilit of the a firm, Systems Group, showing the size and placement of the various components (3 DEC-20s, their disk drives, and communications front ends are shown; not shown is the fourth DEC-20, the tape drives, or the system consoles). OK, this is memory walkthrough not really the floor plan. It's a template for making floor plans. The idea was to gather up all the discarded copies of the newsletter that had this diagram on the cover, cut out the pieces, and uwe dissertation, then make a real floor plan out of them (Tom De Bellis points out this diagram was made before all the memory days, Hermit grant stuff had arrived, thus was used to lay out thesis in network, how to make everything fit). Also see THIS DEC-20 MACHINE ROOM PHOTO. Jun-Jul 1984: The first Kermit article, by memory days walkthrough me and Bill Catchings, published (in two parts) in BYTE Magazine . See Kermit Bibliography for more Kermit-related publications. 3 Aug 1984: CU20B joins ARPANET (now called the Internet).
Although the cover for junior accountant cv, Computer Science Department had joined the ARPANET in July 1983, this did not allow access to the Columbia community at large. Putting CU20B on memory days walkthrough the ARPANET was the first step in this direction (researchers from all schools and departments and CUCCA staff only, not students). CU20B's ARPANET hostname was COLUMBIA.ARPA. No other Columbia computers (except the accountant, ones in the CS department) were on pacthesis memory days walkthrough the ARPANET, but of course CU20B had network connections to tagalog, the other DEC-20s, some internal CUCCA machines, the campus DECnet and the external DECnet-based CCNET, and to BITNET. Thus to send mail into the Columbia network from outside required source routing, e.g. user %CU20A@COLUMBIA.ARPA. For some years, CU20B was to serve as a mail gateway among these networks, using locally written software. Over the next year or two, CUCCA would purchase a VAX-11/750, called the pacthesis memory sim date, Gateway VAX, and in network, install it in the CS department, where it was connected to the CS ARPANET IMP and back to the CUCCA hosts via Ethernet. The Gateway VAX ran 4.2BSD UNIX and it made Internet e-mail available to the whole Columbia community, including students, for pacthesis days sim date the first time. For some reason I can't explain, the authorization letter from letter cv, ARPA didn't arrive until two years later. Aug 1984: IBM PC/AT announced, the first IBM PC with memory protection.
Based on the Intel 80286, with a 20MB hard disk and two floppy diskette drives, one low-density, one high. Battery powered BIOS configuration memory and pacthesis, clock. Up to 16MB memory. This was the first in the IBM PC line fully capable of running multitasking operating systems, and soon was host to a number of them (some companies had managed to produce Unix variants such as Xenix for the original IBM PC or XT on a firm 8086 but these were not sustainable.) Of course this machine was of memory days walkthrough great interest to the Columbia Computer Center, which was looking for ways to deploy desktop networked UNIX workstations for academic use, and we had some internally running different UNIX versions such as SCO Xenix/286. But it would turn out that our first public UNIX workstations would come from a different direction. Sep 1984: Three HP-150 MS-DOS microcomputers and one Macintosh were installed in the 272A Engineering Terrace terminal room. They were not on any kind of network and essay ko buhay, had to be reserved by sign-up sheet.
The HP-150s were an equipment grant from HP, along with some color pen plotters that were attached to pacthesis memory sim date, them. They had touch-screens and integrated thermal printers. Write About A Means. A version of pacthesis memory days walkthrough Kermit was written to allow them to communicate with the central computers through PACX lines and transfer files to and from their 3.5-inch diskettes (the HP-150 was one of the first, if not the first PC to use the 3.5-inch rigid diskette). Graphic images where generated by software on the mainframes (such as DISSPLA/TELEGRAF on the DEC-20s and SASGRAPH on the IBMs), downloaded with Kermit, and sent to the plotters. 16 Oct 1984: The academic IBM mainframe, CUVMB, joins the ARPANET, running WISCNET (the University of Wisconsin TCP/IP package) through a DACU (IBM's cabinet-size Ethernet adapter). A Firm. This machine was for researchers and staff only, so there is pacthesis sim date walkthrough still no ARPANET access for students. Nov 1984: Project Aurora , a 6.5-million dollar IBM grant administered by cover accountant CUCCA, a campus-wide move in information and instruction toward the electronic university.
Bruce Gilchrist and Pat Battin (the University Librarian) are the principal investigators. Aurora paid for pacthesis walkthrough an IBM 3083 mainframe to support the Columbia Libraries Information Online (CLIO) system, and also funded some 30 research projects in the schools and departments. 1984-85: I'm not too clear about this but I believe the write an essay, SSIO area got a facelift around this time. See these photos. 1985: Low-cost Apple Laserwriter PostScript printers proliferate and suddenly typesetting becomes commonplace as LaserWriters are set up as spooled printers so they can be controlled not only by Macintoshes but also DEC-20 and UNIX systems with Scribe and T E X. 1985-1989: The Columbia Physics department consructs a series of highly parallel computers (supercomputers made from Radio Shack parts). Pacthesis. 1985: a 16-node QCD machine delivering 250 MFLOPS peak and 60 MFLOPS sustained performance. 1987: A second-generation QCD machine containing 64 nodes, delivering 1 GFLOPS peak and 300 MFLOPS sustained performance. 1989: A third-generation QCD machine containing 256 nodes delivering 16 GFLOPS peak and write an essay a means of transport, 6.4 GFLOPS sustained performance . This work would continue into pacthesis days, the 1990s and beyond.
Jan 1985: CUVMA (IBM VM/CMS academic mainframe) gets Ethernet (DACU) and uwe dissertation, TCP/IP (WISCNET) (Vace). Jan 1985: Internet Domain Name registration begins. Some of the first registered domains are: symbolics.com, cmu.edu, bbn.com, ucla.edu, mit.edu, mitre.org, dec.com, stanford.edu, sri.com, sun.com, ibm.com, att.com, nsf.net, apple.com, cisco.com. Feb 1985: First version of C-Kermit (4.0) released. (Previous versions were called UNIX Kermit; C-Kermit was modularized to allow easy adaptation to other platforms, and eventually was ported to over 700 of them, across 10 major operating system families.) Hundreds of people all over sim date the world have contributed code, including Andy Tanenbaum (MINIX) and Linus Torvalds (Linux). C-Kermit was part of Hewlett-Packard's UNIX operating system HP-UX (by contract) from uwe dissertation, 1996 until 2011 (when Columbia U canceled the Kermit Project), and has since been incorporated into memory walkthrough, many of the a firm, free Open Source operating systems distributions. CLICK HERE to visit the C-Kermit website. CLICK HERE to see a very early version C-Kermit. Speaking of Andy Tanenbaum and pacthesis memory days sim date walkthrough, MINIX, CLICK HERE to read Andy's 2016 article, Lessons Learned from 30 Years of MINIX  (complete with video)! May 1985: Watson Lab Ethernet connection to Computer Center; Steve Jensen's 115th Street trench and Broadway crossing with cement-encased conduits containing fat yellow coax, the difficult Western and final leg of Columbia's first Ethernet backbone (PHOTO GALLERY). The installation was delayed many months by asbestos containment and ko buhay, removal.
Departments in buildings along the pacthesis walkthrough, cable route, such as Chemistry and Math, that previously had been connected by synchronous modems began to a firm, switch to sim date, Ethernet. Sep 1985: The COLUMBIA.EDU Internet domain becomes operational. Columbia hosts connected by TCP/IP can be addressed directly from anywhere on the Internet, e.g. by email addresses like user @CU20D.COLUMBIA.EDU or user @CHEMVAX.CHEM.COLUMBIA.EDU (the same host addressing scheme that is used today, except for putting the central hosts into in network, a new . Memory Days Sim Date. CC subdomain in March 1988, and receiving most mail at a central server, COLUMBIA.EDU, rather than by a firm individual computer host name). For the first time, students have access to the Internet but for all practical purposes, it is limited to days walkthrough, email and uwe dissertation, anonymous FTP, since the World Wide Web does not yet exist and netnews will not become generally available at Columbia until 1988. The early Internet offered pretty much just text-only e-mail, finger, FTP, Telnet, WHOIS, and send or talk, early forms of instant messaging. What else could you want?
Dec 1985: Bruce Gilchrist resigns his Director post but stays on in an advisory capacity through 1989 (PHOTO). Dec 1985: The first IBM 3270 emulation is provided by newly installed IBM Series/1 computers (V17#15). The Series/1 is a single-cabinet minicomputer with sixteen RS-232C serial interfaces for days sim date terminals and a channel connection to the mainframe. The Series/1 tricks the mainframe into uwe dissertation, believing it is a 3274 control unit. Prior to this all public terminal access to IBM mainframes had been in half-duplex linemode, rather than full-screen mode. Days Sim Date. Now ordinary ASCII terminals (and emulators of them) could conduct full-screen 3270 sessions on the IBM VM/CMS mainframe, and they could do it without reconfiguration (as was necessary for linemode connections). The Series/1 converted between full and thesis, half duplex, block mode and pacthesis sim date, character mode, and IBM 3270 data streams and the escape sequences and character sets used by many different types of terminals (even APL terminals), plus it provided flow control and buffering. The Series/1 computers were later replaced by tagalog essay ko buhay IBM 7171s, 4994s, and tn3270 software in terminal servers and on pacthesis memory walkthrough UNIX hosts.
(Around here, large departmental PC labs began to appear, for example in thesis in network security, the Business School and in the Learning Center.) 1986-1987 West German hackers use Columbia's Kermit software to break into dozens of pacthesis days walkthrough US military computers and thesis in network, capture information for the KGB , as described by Cliff Stoll in his 1989 book, The Cuckoo's Egg . At one point, while Cliff watched on a jury-rigged T-connected terminal, the hackers were using Kermit to download a copy of the walkthrough, Telnet source code so they could implant a password logger, upload the result, recompile it, and install it: Line by uwe dissertation line, I watched Kermit shovel the program over to the hacker. But I couldn't just kill Kermit. He'd notice that right away. Now that I was closing in on him, I especially didn't want to tip my hand. I found my key chain and reached over to memory sim date walkthrough, the wires connected to the hacker's line. Ko Buhay. Jangling the memory days, keys across the connector, I shorted out a firm, his circuit for an instant. This added just enough noise to pacthesis memory walkthrough, confuse the research reference format, computer, but not enough to pacthesis memory, kill the connection. It worked like a charm. I'd jangle my keys, he'd see the noise, and his computer would ask for a replay of the letter for junior accountant, last line.
This slowed the transfer down so much that the hacker eventually lost patience and gave up -- but it didn't stop Kermit! As long as the connection stays up, no matter how awful, Kermit pushes the file through. Cliff also measured the delay between Kermit packet and memory, acknowledgment to estimate the hacker's distance from California (6000 miles, a fairly accurate estimate of the distance to Hannover). 1 Jan 1986: CUCCA and uwe dissertation, Libraries merge. Pacthesis Sim Date. Information is information, right? (V18#2). CUCCA now reports to the University Librarian, Pat Battin. (In fact, it seems that CUCCA and Libraries merge periodically; in some sense, CUCCA has always reported to write an essay about a means of transport, the University Librarian; in days walkthrough, another sense the a firm, real merger came only memory later, under Elaine Sloan.) The administrative half of CUCCA, ADP (now AIS, Administrative Information Services), is severed and reports to Low Library, and eventually (1991) moves from a firm, Watson Lab to memory days, Thorndike Hall at Teachers College. Jan 1986: Columbia's first networked PC lab opens in research paper reference, 251 Engineering Terrace, populated with the UNIX (Pro/380), MS-DOS (Rainbow) and VAX workstations from the Hermit grant, plus eight 512K (fat) Macintoshes and two Mac/XLs, a LaserWriter printing station, an IBM PC, and the original Kermit Superbrain (V18#2).
The Pro/380 was a workstation made by DEC with a PDP-11 inside. DEC's operating system was called P/OS, which was a version of RSX-11 with a super-annoying menu-driven user interface. Days Sim Date. We adapted 2.8BSD UNIX to the machine for use in research paper reference format, the lab, so these were the sim date, first public Unix workstations deployed at Columbia. Furthermore, unlike the an essay about a means of transport, Rainbows, Macs, and the PC (which communicated only through their serial ports with Kermit), they were on pacthesis days walkthrough Ethernet, and therefore on the Internet. Jan 1986: Kermit Project founded. Kermit had started in 1980 as a task within the DEC-20 Systems Group, which obviously had other responsibilities. Uwe Dissertation. By the mid-80s, Kermit had become popular all over pacthesis days the world, and we were receiving hundreds of requests for it every week from sites that were not on the network. Meanwhile, other sites were sending in new Kermit implementations of their own. Fulfilling these requests and maintaining the thesis security, Kermit software archive (and mailing list, etc) had become a full-time job, so a full-time Kermit group, led by Christine Gianone (formerly the business manager in days sim date walkthrough, SSIO), was created to manage and distribute the software and take over uwe dissertation the online archive, the mailing lists, tech support, and pacthesis sim date walkthrough, so on. The programming was still done by cover letter for junior accountant cv members of the Systems group and external volunteers. Software distribution charges were instituted to cover costs.
The old raised-floor machine room in the back of the 7th floor of memory sim date Watson Lab (added in thesis security, 1959 for pacthesis memory days the IBM 1620) became the Kermit room, containing the Kermit Project computers and media production equipment. May 1986: The height of CCNET , which now includes Columbia, CMU, CWRU, NYU, Stevens, Vassar, and tagalog ko buhay, Oberlin (V18#5). An October 1986 listing shows about 200 nodes on the network with DEC operating systems including TOPS-10, TOPS-20, VMS, Ultrix, RSX-11/M, and P/OS. Columbia departments included CUCCA, Computer Science, Chemistry, Math Stat, Teachers College, numerous PS departments, Nevis Lab (in Irvington NY), Psychology, Civil Engineering, and the Business School. Other universities (mainly in memory walkthrough, Ohio) would join later, but in a few more years the Internet would make CCNET obsolete. May 1986: First public description of Columbia's Ethernet backbone network, and enunciation of policy for for junior departmental connections to memory days walkthrough, it (V18#5), which was accomplished by us writing a letter for the Provost to sign.
16 Jul 1986: Columbia University as a whole (as opposed to only the Computer Science Department) receives approval from the write an essay about a means of transport, Defense Projects Research Agency to pacthesis walkthrough, join the ARPANET (which would soon become the Internet) [SEE LETTER]. Aug 1986: Mathematics joins Ethernet backbone. 1986: (month?) Richard Sacks takes over as acting CUCCA Director. (Howard leaves somewhere in here. ) Sep 1986: The Scholarly Information Center (SIC) is proclaimed by Pat Battin, University Librarian. Sep 1986: More about the campus backbone: A bright yellow half-inch coaxial cable runs through the steam tunnels up and across the an essay about a means, west and pacthesis days walkthrough, north edges of the Morningside campus. This cable is the campus Ethernet backbone, a large part of which was installed as part of an external research grant from essay, Digital Equipment Corporation [the Hermit Project]. Memory Days. (Alan Crosswell, Networks at Columbia , SIC Journal V1#1, Sep 1986).
The backbone ran from Watson Lab to Mathematics to a firm, Chemistry to the Computer Center to Computer Science to Mudd (DIAGRAM). At the time coax-based IBM PCNET and Token Ring PC networks were commonplace networking methods for PCs. Oct 1986: Kermit, A File Transfer Protocol (Frank) published by Digital Press, with a Foreword by Donald Knuth. It remained in print for 14 years. Oct 1986: CU20C switched off and replaced by a DEC VAX 8650 called CUNIXC running Ultrix 1.1, DEC's brand of UNIX , a 4.2BSD derivative. A pilot project assigned some CS courses to walkthrough, CUNIXC in for junior accountant cv, Fall 1986. This was our first step in phasing out the DEC-20s after the line was discontinued by DEC in 1983. This stung so severely that we would never run a proprietary operating system again (except on the IBM mainframes, of course). The attraction of UNIX was that it was available -- with relatively minor variations -- on all kinds of computers, great and small. Days. The 8650 was approximately equal to thesis, the DEC-20 in size, weight, and cost; it was chosen because we could recycle many of the pacthesis memory days walkthrough, DEC-20 peripherals, and because (unlike other UNIXes) it supported DECnet, which we still used for departmental connections. Lots more HERE about the conversion from TOPS-20 to Unix.
(About UNIX. There is much that appeals about UNIX. Its well-known original attributes (simplicity, terseness, consistent building-block tools) were spelled out in the seminal BSTJ issue . Write A Means. In addition, it is platform independent, so sites like ours are not tied to a particular vendor. Unlike proprietary OSs like TOPS-20, VMS, VM/CMS, and so on, however, UNIX is a moving target.
Ever since control of UNIX left Bell Labs, every implementation (Ultrix, OSF/1, AIX, HP-UX, SunOS, Solaris, IRIX, Linux, FreeBSD, etc etc) is different in sometimes subtle but always aggravating ways, and (with a few notable exceptions such as OpenBSD) every new release of every varation tends to break existing applications (whereas programs written for TOPS-20, VMS, MVS/TSO, or VM/CMS decades ago still work, without even recompiling). Any program more complicated than hello world is rarely portable from one UNIX to another without some porting work at the source-code level. To compound matters, documentation is pacthesis walkthrough increasingly scant. In the 1970s and 80s, every operating system (even UNIX) came with a wall of thesis printed manuals that documented everything in excruciating detail. But now documentation is considered a waste of time and pacthesis memory days, effort, since everything will change anyway. In modern UNIX, the essay, only reliable documentation is the days, source code, and even that decays over time.) Nov 1986: 2400 bps modems installed for the first time, 25 of them altogether. There are still 59 300/1200 lines, for a total of 84 dialin lines connected to research paper format, the PACX.
Dec 1986: First IBM RT PCs received at Watson Lab (V18#12). This was IBM's first RISC Technology (RT) UNIX workstation, the precursor to the RS/6000, which was in wide use at Columbia and elsewhere into the 2000s. IBM's brand of UNIX is called AIX. Dec 1986: The Ingres relational database system is first installed (on CUNIXC). This would become the basis for pacthesis sim date walkthrough CU's ID and tagalog tungkol ko buhay, authentication systems and pacthesis memory walkthrough, other UNIX-based databases. 1987: Snapshot: The 1987 edition of the CUCCA Guide to Research and Instructional Facilities lists four DEC-2065's (but only in network security three remain), the IBM mainframe with VM/CMS, a DEC VAX 8700 running Ultrix, 150 public terminals (HP2621s and DEC VT101s) plus DEC Rainbows and Apple Macintoshes in pacthesis memory sim date walkthrough, public labs, 80 dialup lines at 300, 1200, and 2400 bps. and connections to BITNET, ARPANET, NYSERNET, JVNCNET, NSFNET, USENET, and CCNET. By this time it is reference possible to send electronic mail practically anywhere within minutes. Pacthesis Memory Sim Date. During this period CDROMs begin to appear, the dawn of the multimedia age. CLIO goes online to a firm, PACX users.
CLICK HERE for a map of campus terminal rooms as of January 1987 (Maurice Matiz, V19#2). 1987-88: The remaining three DEC-20s were gradually phased out from June 1987 to August 1988. 1987-88: The Kermit Project gives presentations at international conferences in the USA, Switzerland, France, and pacthesis sim date, Japan. A Firm. In Japan we learned the problems of Japanese text entry, coding, display, and interchange that would influence future directions in pacthesis memory sim date walkthrough, Kermit protocol and software. Jan 1987: Morningside campus is thesis in network security connected to the John von Neumann Supercomputer Center in Princeton and to JVNCNET via a 56Kb leased line. And to NYSERNET via 56Kb leased line to Cornell. Memory Sim Date. The Big Snowball Fight. Feb 1987: Biology joins Ethernet backbone. Feb 1987: CUCCA (Frank) commissions Sparc SPITBOL due to a firm, imminent demise of DEC-20s (indicating we had already decided on Sun for future expansion; SPITBOL (SNOBOL), which some of us still used heavily, was one of the pacthesis memory days walkthrough, few DEC-20 applications that had not been adapted to UNIX in general or the Sparc in particular). Mar 1987: The SSIO Area is tungkol ko buhay closed and memory sim date walkthrough, its functions transferred to 321A International Affairs, and later (1989) to 102 Philosophy Hall.
The SSIO terminal rooms are replaced by a means public labs in the International Affairs building (and later in other locations) in which microcomputers, PCs, Macintoshes, and other kinds of workstations are installed rather than terminals. Apr 1987: Hermit project canceled. Although we had achieved many of its goals (transparent central file access from days sim date walkthrough, DOS, Mac, and UNIX; shared printing, including graphics; even e-mail), it was overtaken by cheap Ethernet, NFS, and commodity LANs/internetworking in general. Most of the equipment (Pro/380s, Rainbows, MicroVAXes) had gone into 251 Engineering Terrace, Columbia's first networked PC lab. The Pro-380s were our first public UNIX workstations (running 2.9BSD, adapted locally to the Pro-380), and CCMD (DEC-20 COMND JSYS simulation in C for UNIX) and the UNIX version of MM (mail client) came out of letter it (more info on MM HERE). The VAX-11/750 became an internal UNIX development system, in preparation for pacthesis memory days sim date walkthrough DEC20-to-UNIX conversion, and until late 1988 it was also Columbia's mail hub. May 1987: The Engineering School Ethernet (Muddnet) is installed and connected to the campus Ethernet backbone. Muddnet came from an paper, ATT grant to the School of Engineering and Applied Science (SEAS), which also included an ATT 3B20 minicomputer in the Computer Science department and pacthesis, a large number of 3B2 desktop workstations, all running ATT UNIX System V R3. Research Paper. The 3Bx's fell into disuse after after a short while, but the Ethernet taps were recycled and days sim date walkthrough, used to provide connectivity for years.
Jul 1987: VAX 8700 up as CUNIXC, replacing the VAX 8650. Sep 1987: U of Toledo (Ohio) joins CCNET. Oct 1987: First high-speed link installed between Morningside and Health Sciences campus, via line-of-sight microwave supplying four T1 equivalents (about 6Mbps), providing direct Internet to Health Sciences (previously there had been a 9600bps leased line for DECnet only). This works because the Morningside and in network, Health Sciences campus are both on Manhattan high points (see the old aerial photo). Nov 1987: The Physics Department joins the Ethernet backbone. Nov 1987: Columbia Appletalk Package (CAP) and Appletalk UNIX File Server (AUFS) released, written by Bill Schilit and Charlie Kim of pacthesis Watson Lab, provides Appleshare file and print service to Macintoshes from UNIX, speaking Appletalk over security Ethernet (V19#9). Pacthesis Days Sim Date. CAP and AUFS quickly became popular all over the world and reference, Charlie went on days to work at Apple. 1987-1993: Network Planning Group (NPG): University-wide planning sessions setting networking direction and policy for CU as a whole (Morningside and Health Sciences, Administrative and Academic), chaired by me. Met weekly until 1993. Began by planning for Rolm installation (wiring plant, PACX/Rolm data migration), eventually moved on to local-area, campus-wide, and wide-area networking in general. Eventually everybody bought into TCP/IP and Ethernet, migrating from SNA, DECnet, etc. [See the essay ko buhay, NPG final report (PDF)].
1988-89: AIS tests an IBM 9370 minicomputer in Watson Lab as a possible basis for distributed administrative computing. Early 1988: The Office of Telecommunications and Computer Operations were assigned Administrative Data Processing (ADP), which changed its name to Administrative Information Services (AIS). AIS was removed from CUCCA, and now reported to the University's central administration, rather than to the University Librarian, thus ending the 17-year CUCCA name and era. The academic and administrative staff, however, continued to work together in Watson Lab . The Office of days Telecommunications has overall responsibility for the Rolm phone system including the Rolm cable plant. The split complicates the networking of the thesis, University, since some aspects (wiring and days, distribution frames) are done by Telecomm, whereas others (backbone network, hubs, routers, and research paper, configuration) are done by days sim date the Academic portion of ex-CUCCA (soon to tagalog essay ko buhay, be AcIS), and the two sides do not report anywhere in common short of the pacthesis memory days sim date, President. Working around this structural anomoly was the primary reason for NPG. Meanwhile, the format, central academic computing systems remain in the machine room but now AIS is the service provider (of operations support) and AcIS the pacthesis memory days walkthrough, client. Mar 1988: Central CUCCA hosts move down one level in the Internet domain hierarchy, to a firm, the CC (Computer Center) subdomain, e.g.
CU20B.COLUMBIA.EDU becomes CU20B.CC.COLUMBIA.EDU. Pacthesis Days Walkthrough. The older names remain in effect until the first of June. Apr 1988: Our first Sun (a Sun-4/280) was installed in thesis in network security, the Watson Lab 7th Floor machine room as WATSUN (the WATson Lab SUN). Watsun (later upgraded to Sparc-10 and then Sparc-20), which ran SunOS 4.0 and 4.1 (4.2BSD derivatives), was the primary login host for Watson Lab staff and home of the Kermit Project ftp (and later Web) site for many years. Pacthesis Memory Sim Date Walkthrough. Later (when?) it would move to the Watson Penthouse as the need for office space becomes increasingly urgent, and cover, the old IBM raised-floor machine room would be gutted and memory, divided into four offices for 6-8 people. Watsun was retired in 2003. May 1988: CU20D switched off.
All instruction moved from DEC-20s to VAX UNIX . Thesis In Network Security. CU20B (research and staff) runs until . . Memory Walkthrough. . Aug 1988: CU20B (Columbia's last DEC-20) was switched off. For more about the legacy of the DECSYSTEM-20, CLICK HERE. In brief: prior the DEC-20s, computer users at Columbia were primarily concerned with calculation, and their primary access method was batch. After the DEC-20 (and because of a firm it) they were hooked on e-mail, bulletin boards, talk (interactive real-time chatting), text editing and typesetting, and the Internet -- just as they are today. The nature of computing had changed completely and forever. All that remained was to pacthesis memory days sim date, put a pretty face on it. Aug 1988: Lamont Doherty Geological Observatory connected to Morningside campus via Ethernet over tagalog essay tungkol T1. Aug 1988: Ethernet backbone extended to East Campus. Summer 1988: CLIO (Columbia Library Information Online) was switched from BLIS to NOTIS (Northwestern Online Totally Integrated System) after the BLIS company (Bibliotechniques) went under. NOTIS was developed at Northwestern University and later spun off to Ameritech Library Services. Pacthesis Memory Days Sim Date. CLIO continues to run on the IBM mainframe.
Sep 1988: CUCCA reorganization. Richard Sacks officially director. Elaine Sloan is new Vice President for Information Services and University Librarian. Nov 1988: After years of planning and a year of installation, the ATT Centrex telephone system and the Gandalf PACX were replaced by IBM/Rolm (later Siemens) CBX 9000 (PHOTOS). Now instead of a PACX box and a phone, users had a phone with an RS-232 connector (if they paid extra for the data option). This was a massive project involving untold amounts of construction, tunneling, drilling, and wire-pulling, including a trench across Broadway and many trenches between the a firm, buildings on campus and across side streets. Preparation for the cutover was done using a Rolm CBX 8000 in days sim date walkthrough, Watson Lab. 2500 data connections were moved from the PACX to the Rolm.
Columbia's telephone exchange was changed from write an essay about a means of transport, 280- to 853- and 854-. Christine and I published a series of pacthesis walkthrough articles in reference format, McGraw Hill Data Communications magazine on the topic and Neil Sachnoff wrote a whole book . In the end, the most significant aspect of the conversion was the installation of a uniform twisted-pair wiring plant in all Morningside locations, enabling (over the next six years) universal 10BaseT Ethernet networking, as well as swipe-card access to buildings. Prior to 1988, the Columbia University ID (CUID) was paper. With the Rolm system came laminated picture IDs with magnetic strips that worked in swipe-card readers all over pacthesis days walkthrough campus, as well as in off-campus university buildings -- anyplace reached by Rolm wiring.
The same wiring system that was used for telephones, serial-port terminal connections, and twisted-pair Ethernet was also used to connect to the central access server that lets you open doors. Prior to cover cv, this, PACX data installations required pulling wire from the PACX to each destination, digging trenches, drilling holes through granite, etc, and could take many months. With the pacthesis memory, CBX, it was just a matter of making some cross-connections in a distribution panel -- every phone jack was also a network jack. The downside was that desktop phones could no longer be used with modems or fax machines, since the phones were now digital (a big issue at write an essay about a means the time, but we survived). 1989: CUCCA creates positions specifically for e-mail (freemail) support (postmaster, tech support, education and training). Originally Joe Brennan; the work he did alone now requires about a dozen people.
Freemail is memory walkthrough launched January 1990. Most of the remaining Morningside campus buildings are connected to in network security, the network backbone. 1989: CUCCA business and consulting offices move to 102 Philosophy Hall . This is the same room where Prof. Edwin H. Armstrong invented FM radio. Days Sim Date Walkthrough. Here we have two views of Armstrong's laboratory in 102 Philosophy in letter accountant cv, the 1930s [VIEW 1] [VIEW 2] and one of the memory sim date walkthrough, Armstrong Tower (from the Columbiana photo archive). The Armstrong Tower (transmitter for an essay a means of transport the first-ever FM radio station, W2XMN, 1936) is across the Hudson River in Alpine, New Jersey, but at some point Columbia sold it off. Later (early 1990s) we thought we might use it for microwave access to Lamont, since it has line-of-sight to both Columbia's Morningside Heights (Manhattan) campus and to walkthrough, Lamont in Palisades NY, but couldn't afford the new owner's rates. (Actually this idea has come up just about research every 10 years since the pacthesis, 1960s -- I saw it first suggested in Dean Halford's 1963 letter .) After the destruction of the World Trade Center on September 11, 2001, the Armstrong tower was used again by research paper reference format the major networks to broadcast their signals .
Apr 1989: An Encore Multimax 310 UNIX mainframe (later upgraded to 510) replaces the VAX 8700, our first departure from days sim date, DEC for big academic central computers since 1975. The Encore's attraction was its multiple processors. Cover Letter. It was fast. Its UNIX (UMAX) was based on 4.3BSD. This change effectively removes the Computer Center from the campus DECnet, which gradually vanished from the pacthesis memory days sim date, scene over the next 10 or 12 years. May 1989: First International Kermit Conference , Moscow, USSR (Also in the Columbia University Record , V15#3, 22 Sep 1989) (PHOTO). Attended by Frank da Cruz and Christine Gianone of the Columbia Computer Center and uwe dissertation, about 70 computer specialists from pacthesis days sim date walkthrough, Bulgaria, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, East Germany, Mongolia, Poland, and parts of the USSR ranging from Novosibirsk in thesis in network security, central Russia to Tallinn in days sim date, Estonia, this is uwe dissertation where the memory walkthrough, details of Kermit's character-set translation protocol were settled, allowing interchange of text in Cyrillic among machines using diverse incompatible encodings -- ditto for East and thesis in network, West European languages written with accented Roman letters, as well as Hebrew, Greek, Japanese, and other scripts. [PICTURES AND VIDEO] Summer-Fall 1989: Microcomputer labs open in 321A International Affairs (16 Macs); 215 International Affairs (40 Macs plus some terminals); 272 Engineering Terrace (30 IBM PS/2 Model 70s). Meanwhile, all sorts of content began to appear online: the schedule of classes, the University directory, and the Columbia Concise Encyclopedia . Sep 1989: Richard Sacks resigns as director of CUCCA on pacthesis memory September 27th. Vace Kundakci (correct spelling: Vaçe Kundakç#305;), manager of the academic IBM mainframes and prior to that systems programmer (since 1977), takes over as acting director. Jan 1990: Using MS-DOS Kermit (Christine) published by Digital Press, with a jacket blurb by thesis security Cliff Stoll (Yow!), author of The Cuckoo's Egg .
A second edition was published in 1992. Pacthesis Days Sim Date Walkthrough. German and an essay, French translations were also published, as was another book about MS-DOS Kermit in Japanese (see the Kermit Bibliography). May 1990: Vace Kundakci takes over as Director, renames CUCCA to AcIS (Academic Information Systems), as distinct from AIS (Administrative Information Services, formerly ADP). Mid-1990: Alan Crosswell becomes Systems Manager, responsible for all central academic computing systems (IBM and other), a post last held by Howard Eskin and vacated 5 years before. Sim Date. By this time the only central computers that matter are Unix-based (DEC, then Encore, then Sun, plus workstations from Sun, NeXT, and HP) the academic IBM mainframe is used mainly by the Libraries and a handful of external paying users. (Somewhere around here CCNET was disbanded because of the Internet.) Jan 1991: The Senior Vice President of Columbia is tagalog tungkol ko buhay bitten by the outsourcing bug and brings in a consulting firm, American Management Systems Inc (AMS), to take over and clean out administrative computing (AIS). Seventeen people are fired. Pacthesis Walkthrough. Although a couple of thesis service improvements resulted (mainly a new Student Information System, SIS), many millions of dollars were wasted on cutting edge projects that never panned out and a number of talented people were lost.
Eventually AMS left the scene and equilibrium was restored. 1991: We buy a truckload of NeXT UNIX (NeXTSTEP) workstations for both staff and labs (photo); a major commitment, and (I believe) an attempt to stem the pacthesis memory sim date, tide of PCs and Macs, which were intrinsically unsafe and labor intensive for their users and owners (the PCs more so than Macs, which have always had a great deal of support from a large contingent of the technical staff) and for AcIS staff in its role of accountant cv support-giver. The NeXTs were configured and managed centrally; user logins were via network to the central University database; user directories were on centrally located, managed, and backed up NFS-mounted disks. But before long NeXT was out of business. 1991: There is much expansion, renovation, and upgrading of public computer labs during 1991 (and ever since).
The academic and administrative IBM mainframes (4381, 3090, and pacthesis days sim date, 3083) are all replaced by a single IBM ES/9121, which is partitioned into separate academic and cover for junior, administrative virtual machines (a feature of pacthesis days sim date IBM's VM operating system). Jan 1991: Three Sun-4/280s (full-sized cabinets) are installed in the machine room as CUNIXA, CUNIXB, and CUNIXD running SunOS 4.1. These (and the Encore) were soon replaced by Sun pizza-box sized servers, and SunOS was replaced by tagalog tungkol Solaris. Where central computers once weighed tons, cost millions, filled acres of floor space, required massive cooling and exotic forms of memory days sim date power, now they're dirt-cheap commodity items running at unheard-of speeds with seemingly limitless amounts of memory and storage, that can be carried under your arm and thesis in network security, plugged into an ordinary wall socket at ambient room temperature. Of course, today's applications and data saturate this vast capacity just as effectively as yesterday's simpler applications overwhelmed the resources available then, and so it shall always be. (Around here, disk service begins to shift from locally attached disks to RAID file servers, and the backup system changes from the memory, traditional manual 9-track tape operation to automated network backups to a DAT-drive juke box . All the software was locally written and included all the academic servers, Sun as well as the IBM mainframe. Later a commercial backup system, Veritas, took the place of the paper, original homegrown one. Capacity as of Jan 2001: 400 x 40GB tapes = 16000GB (16TB) to cover 1.7TB usable space on the academic file servers.) Jan 1992: Conversion of Morningside campus backbone from memory sim date, Ethernet coax to optical fiber begins; cutover in Spring 1992. Apr 1992: AIS moves out of Watson Lab to ko buhay, new quarters in Thorndike Hall at Teachers College (MAP) and in pacthesis sim date, the Computer Center Building . Floors 1 through 5 of Watson Lab were left vacant for a period, and then, even though the AcIS space on floors 6-9 was (and remains) severely and uwe dissertation, increasingly overcrowded, the lower five floors with their rich history and key role in science and computing were converted to art studios.
Nov 1992: Using C-Kermit (Frank and pacthesis days walkthrough, Christine) published by Digital Press, concurrent with the release of version 5 of C-Kermit. A second edition would follow in 1997, as well as a German translation. 1992-1993: Columbia's Kermit software handles the communications in a firm, the British relief mission to Bosnia. 1993: The era of the search engine begins. First there was Archie, then Hypertelnet, then Gopher, then the memory sim date, Web.
In 1993, ColumbiaNet is hot, a million accesses per year (a figure soon to be dwarfed by research reference the Web, see Web statistics table). ColumbiaNet is a text-based menu-driven service (remember text?). Here's the main menu, preserved for posterity: Spring 1993: By now the Internet is ubiquitous. University Technology Architecture published, setting University-wide standards for pacthesis memory days sim date networking, a common TCP/IP-based network for all computing, administrative and academic, at Columbia; this was the end product of NPG (see it here as a PDF). Formerly the administrative network was IBM SNA and completely separate from the academic network. While this arrangement might have had its advantages from a security standpoint, it was becoming increasingly difficult to manage and for end users to cope with. Summer 1993: The Schapiro Residence Hall (across 115th Street from Watson Lab) is wired for Ethernet as a pilot project for campus-wide networked dormitories. Tagalog Tungkol. Schapiro is also the first building to be served by days walkthrough the new fiber backbone. Dec 1993: New AcIS modem pool announced, consisting of 80+ V.32 bis 14400 bps error-correcting data-compressing US Robotics modems, connected to Cisco terminals servers at 57600 bps with RTS/CTS hardware flow control, replacing the old Rolm based modem pool.
When the Rolm was first installed in 1988, 1200/2400 and 9600 bps modem pools were connected directly to it, and these provided Columbia's main dialup access until 1994 (a total of 84 lines). Beginning in 1993, AcIS began to install modern error-correcting data-compressing modems of uwe dissertation its own in Watson Lab. This was done for several reasons: The top speed of a Rolm port was fixed at 19200 bps. Rolm data ports did not support hardware flow control, which is essential for error-correcting data-compressing modems; SLIP and pacthesis memory sim date, PPP connections could not be made through Rolm ports (at least not by an ordinary mortal). The demand for dialup access has increased ever since, and we keep accommodating (see table). A Firm. The modems themselves have since been upgraded to V.34 (28800 bps) and pacthesis days sim date walkthrough, then V.90 (56K bps). Modems were originally used for thesis text-based shell sessions. In the late 1980s, SLIP service appeared on our terminal servers, and later PPP.
Gradually, shell access gave way to Internet connections over PPP, which had the advantages of allowing multiple sessions on the same connection including Web browsers and GUI PC-based e-mail, plus end-to-end data integrity (no more line noise of course the noise is still there, but it's detected and corrected by retransmission automatically by the modems and the IP and TCP network layers, so you don't see it). Jan-Apr 1994: The Columbia website debuts; see statistics below. A web server was first installed in Dec 1993; the first Columbia website was up in Jan 1994 (DID ANYBODY SAVE A SCREENSHOT?), and the website was announced and pacthesis memory days sim date, publicized in Apr 1994. Early original content included the Architecture digital library (1994-95), the paper reference format, Art History digital library (1993-95), the Oversized Geology Maps project (1994-96), and the Bartleby full-text literature project [Source: Rob Cartolano] . Before long, a Web front end to NOTIS-based CLIO was also available (DATE?). May 1994: In AIS News V4#2, the Directors of AcIS (Vace Kundakci) and AIS (Mike Marinaccio) present the memory walkthrough, full range of e-mail options available to Columbia: Pine, MM, VMM, MailBook, the newly emerging PC and Macintosh based POP clients, and e-mail with MIME attachments.
Summer 1994: Most residence halls wired for Ethernet: Carman, Furnald, Hartley, John Jay, Wallach (Livingston), John Jay, and Wien (Johnson). Residence Hall Networking Option (RHNO) offered to research paper reference format, students in the Fall. Days Sim Date Walkthrough. The first electronic classrooms were set up. Sep 1994: The public labs are switched from NeXT to HP 9000/712 UNIX (HP-UX) workstations; a big attraction is their ability to run both Mac and PC (Windows) emulators as well as UNIX applications perfect for the public labs but far too pricey for individual desktops. Sometime in 1994: I turn over my Network Tsar responsibilities to Bill Chen and devote full time to the Kermit Project, which I began 14 years earlier and could never quite give up. Shortly thereafter, Jeff Altman joins as a second full-time developer. The Network Planning Group becomes the Network Systems Group, to uwe dissertation, reflect its now-operational nature. Pacthesis Sim Date. Token Ring and SNA networks phased out.
Oct 1994: Columbia's Kermit software serves as the primary communications method in the Brazilian national election, the world's largest election ever at the time. Nov 1994: The printed Newsletter ceases publication, which is too bad since there is nothing quite like a paper trail. Web documents are transitory turn your back for a couple years (or months or weeks) and the history is lost. An Essay. The newsletter was the Computer Center (or CUCC , or CUCCA ) Newsletter until November 1988, after which it suffered a series of makeovers and name changes: Columbia Computing, Computing News, Academic Computing, SIC [sic] Journal , etc, and then gave up the ghost. For all practical purposes, the historical record of computing Columbia stops here. There was an ASCII archive of walkthrough newsletters through 1988 on a firm the DEC-20s, but it was lost when CU20B was switched off. Dec 1994: The Flynn Report recommends (among other things) improved computing and networking service for students.
1994-95: Windows and memory sim date, the Web take over. The diverse, rich, idiosyncratic history of computing stops here. For the uwe dissertation, first time, computing and networking are opened up to the general public. The locus of computing and networking shifts from science and memory days sim date walkthrough, academia to in network, the mass market. 1994-95: Initial funding for the creation of two test electronic classrooms (Fairchild and . ) for pacthesis memory sim date the 1994-95 year. 1994-present: AcIS is primarily occupied with the Web, Web-based services, content, labs, kiosks, Sun servers and NFS toasters, multimedia classrooms, wired dorms, mobile and wireless computing, video conferencing, webcasting, distance learning, all the a firm, while fending off attacks from within and memory days walkthrough, without viruses, spam, open mail relays, junk mail, denial of paper service attacks, worms, etc that occur continuously from sim date, all corners of the globe, and uwe dissertation, constantly struggling to keep up with the ever-increasing demand for pacthesis days sim date bandwidth, storage, and uwe dissertation, dial-in modems, often just to accommodate services like Napster, Kazaa, Internet Relay Chat, Instant Messaging, and memory sim date walkthrough, people emailing cartoons, photos, and movies to each other or serving streaming video from uwe dissertation, their dorm rooms. Superficially, users rely on pacthesis days AcIS less than before, now that they have their own desktop computers and applications. But in in network, fact they rely on AcIS more than ever for essential daily services like virus protection and screening, e-mail and memory, Web access, not to cover for junior, mention the Sun and RAID server farms that provide these services as well as safe, backed-up storage and the unglamorous infrastructure of network wiring, hubs, and routers (installation, maintenance, updates, expansion, management, configuration), plus the ongoing feeds from the pacthesis, administrative student information, human resources, and tagalog, alumni systems, allowing automated identity creation, security, web-based student services, web-based courses, and all the rest, serving virtually every student, staff, and faculty member of the University, a community of over 40,000 users (plus another 50,000+ alumni with e-mail service). 1995-96 Electronic classrooms project funded at pacthesis memory days sim date $1M for the creation of the e-rooms throughout campus. Oct 1995: Kermit 95 for Windows 95 released; this (and C-Kermit) would be the main preoccupation of the Kermit Project for the years to thesis, come, plus active involvement in pacthesis memory days walkthrough, IETF and Unicode standards.
Kermit is a laboratory where we can learn about, experiment with, develop, and finally package, document, and deploy file transfer and management protocols, Internet clients and write of transport, servers, character-set translation techniques, secure authentication and encryption methods, and algorithms of all kinds big and small, even transport-level network stacks. Even a programming language. 1996: The Watson Lab building is featured in the movie, The Mirror Has Two Faces . For several weeks 115th Street and the building itself were occupied by production crews, equipment, and actors. The final shot in the movie zooms in to days sim date walkthrough, a Watson window. Security. This is only one of many films that used Columbia University locations; others include Spiderman and Ghostbusters (CLICK HERE for more).
The Columbia neighborhood is walkthrough also a frequent setting for TV shows such as Law Order (where Hudson University is a fictionalized Columbia University) and New York Undercover (1994-1998). Fall 1997: The 50th anniversary of the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) passed unnoticed at Columbia, even though the ACM was founded here. Jul 1999: Rolm Dataphone connections (top speed: 19200 bps) were discontinued because by uwe dissertation now everybody had Ethernet in their Rolmphone jacks; the Annex and Cisco terminal servers to which the central data modules were connected were switched off and pacthesis memory walkthrough, removed. Summer 1999: HP 712/60 workstations, which were mainly used to run PC and Macintosh emulation software, were replaced by 70 Sun Ultra 10 workstations, in both 251 Engineering Terrace and a firm, the adjacent Gussman Lab. Memory Days Sim Date. The other big deal that summer was the upgrade of the uwe dissertation, entire lab to 100BaseT. Dec 1999: In Pupin Laboratory, site of the world's first automated scientific calculations 65 years earlier, the Computational Field Theory Group of the Columbia University Physics Department, working with IBM TJ Watson Research Center and Brookhaven National Laboratory, begins construction of a multiteraflops supercomputing resource , the QCDOC machine (Quantum Chromodynamics On a Chip). In April 2002, the pacthesis sim date walkthrough, group received a five million dollar grant from RIKEN, the Japan Institute of Physical and security, Chemical Research in support of this work. CLICK HERE for further information. [ Top ] Aug 2002: AcIS reclaims the 4th floor of Watson Lab.
Some art studios are relocated to Prentis Hall. The full-time members of the Computing Support Center staff moved back from 102 Philosophy Hall. Sim Date. Walk-in services remain in 102 Philosophy but the telephone help desk is now in Watson Lab. Sep 2002: After several successful pilot projects, network wiring of residential buildings in the neighborhood begins. Initial service is uwe dissertation 10Mbps, increased to memory walkthrough, 100 in Feb 2003. 22 Nov 2002: Today is the first day in history that Columbia is using Internet service from a company (Texas based Broadwing) which we had nothing to do with building. Cover Cv. Until today, even though we had bought service from companies like PSI and sim date walkthrough, Applied Theory, we used services which we (through Nysernet) had something to do with their creation and expansion, at least in their earlier stages. A Firm. Let's now hope Broadwing stays in business.
Vace Kundakci (AcIS Director). Nov-Dec 2002: Columbia's Kermit 95 software CD is delivered by days sim date the Space Shuttle Endeavor to the International Space Station (see the July 2003 entry for details). Jan - Feb 2003: Installation of per-host outbound bandwidth throttling to reduce the tagalog essay tungkol ko buhay, impact of peer-to-peer file sharing (Napster, Gnutella, Kazaa, etc) on network performance. Jan - May 2003: As the University drowns in pacthesis days walkthrough, spam (unwanted e-mail), AcIS prototypes filtering mechanisms. May 2003: IBM System/360 nameplate, Console power switch, and uwe dissertation, about 100 lamps sent to the newly relocated Computer Museum History Center in Mountain View, California, for reattachment to our IBM 360/91 Console, which we donated in 1980 with these pieces missing. 16 Jun 2003: AcIS activates its spam filters. At this point, incoming mail traffic is pacthesis memory days sim date walkthrough 500-600,000 messages per day, of which about 20% are filtered.
The filtering policy, however, is conservative to avoid blocking legitimate mail, so this figure does not reflect the actual amount of spam and viruses, not to mention the fallout from them (e.g. For Junior Cv. bounce notifications resulting from forged mail). Jul 2003: On the International Space Station , a connection between Columbia's MS-DOS Kermit and Kermit 95 software programs delivers the results from the CSLM-2 microgravity experiment. Memory Days Sim Date Walkthrough. This experiment is to be run at different times through 2005. CLICK HERE for research paper reference the full story. 7 Jul 2003: New CLIO (Columbia Library Information Online). The previous version, based on NOTIS software running on the IBM mainframe, dated from the 1980s, before the Web and the popularization of the Internet. The first CLIO system, based on Bibliotechniques BLIS software, debuted in January 1984; when Bibliotechiques folded a second version of CLIO, based on memory days walkthrough NOTIS (Northwestern Online Totally Integrated System), came up in summer 1988. NOTIS was developed at Northwestern University and later spun off, then bought by Ameritech Library Services, which was itself snapped up and evidently dissolved by a private investment group in 1999.
The new Web-centric CLIO is built on Endeavor Information Systems Inc. Oracle-based Voyager software, running on security AcIS-administered Sun Solaris servers, and is also used at the US Library of pacthesis memory walkthrough Congress, the about a means of transport, US National Libraries of Medicine and Agriculture, Princeton, Yale, Cornell, Penn, and elsewhere. Memory Days. At this point, 92% of the University's holdings are cataloged online, a total of 4 million records, with plans for the remainder (with exceptions like maps and rare books, plus divisions that never joined the main catalog such as the Law and cover for junior cv, TC Libraries) to be in the catalog by 2005. The new system allows more searching, management, and customization options, and integrates and largely automates backoffice tasks. Perhaps more significantly, it is pacthesis sim date walkthrough designed to accommodate Unicode, potentially allowing native-script cataloging of materials in Russian, Greek, Arabic, Hebrew, Chinese, Japanese, and most other languages.
NOTIS-based CLIO was the last academic user of the research, IBM mainframe the end of an era spanning nearly 50 years. Thursday, 14 Aug 2003: The blackout of 2003 , the biggest blackout in North American history. Electrical power failed about pacthesis memory days walkthrough 4:15pm all over New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Connecticut, Ohio, Michigan, and uwe dissertation, Ontario, as well as parts of Vermont and Massachusetts, affecting 50 million people. Pacthesis Memory Days Sim Date Walkthrough. Power was restored to the Morningside campus about 6:10am the next day; some areas came back sooner, some (e.g. Chelsea) were without power as long as 30 hours. The network and hosts began to come online 10:00am-2:00pm Friday, and by 6:00pm all the research, essential online services (Email, Web, Cunix and related software, Courseworks, network, library, modems, etc.) were available; ID management services were restored at 8:39pm Friday. Subways and sim date, trains resumed operation Saturday morning. 28 Oct 2003: Columbia's central Sun servers upgraded from Solaris 2.5.1 to Solaris 9. The Solaris 9 servers would run until the end of 2015, which beats the old OS longevity record of in network security OS/360 21.0 (1972-78).
15 Dec 2003: New Columbia home page, the first major redesign since the website started in 1994. Memory Days Sim Date. Features NYC scenes, kind of like the tagalog essay ko buhay, Kermit website :-) CLICK HERE to see the memory walkthrough, last old-style page; AND HERE to see the 1996 version. The new home page loads a random picture each time you visit or reload it; CLICK HERE to see a selection from the first day. Columbia University's 250 Anniversary. COLUMBIA.EDU 20th anniversary. 4 May 2004: 28 years after its first use at Columbia, electronic mail is declared an ko buhay, official medium of communication. As of 1 July 2004, all students are required to read their e-mail. By this time, nearly all students have their own computers; the sim date, dorms are all wired, as are neighborhood apartment buildings; computer labs are found throughout campus; and wireless networking is uwe dissertation available in key outdoor common areas and various classrooms and lounges. 25 May 2004: Columbia's last academic IBM mainframe, CUVMB, was turned off at 10:10am, terminating 36 years of continuous IBM 360-architecture service to Columbia's academic community (and before that, other IBM mainframe architectures going back to the 1950s, and before that IBM accounting and calculating machines reaching back to the 1940s, 30s, and 20s). Academic use of Columbia's IBM mainframes had been dwindling since the pacthesis memory, 1980s, until finally none remained. Most of thesis security Columbia's administrative applications, however, still run on pacthesis memory days IBM mainframes.
Summer 2004: The SUN workstations were retired from the public labs and tagalog essay, replaced by pacthesis memory sim date walkthrough actual PCs and Macintoshes emulation is never quite like the real thing, and there wasn't that much interest in UNIX any more. The PCs run Microsoft Windows. In the PC lab's first incarnation, Windows had to be installed fresh for each user session over the network via a custom bootstrap ROM, so each new user did not inherit a “customized”, booby-trapped, virus-ridden PC from the previous user. 23 Sep 2004: Installation of per-host inbound bandwidth quotas to reduce the impact of peer-to-peer file sharing on network performance. This was the headline in uwe dissertation, today's Spectator , reflecting the widespread perception that the purpose of the network, if not the university itself, is to pacthesis days, permit students to download and trade audio and video without paying for it. The initial limit is 400MB per hour. 11 Nov 2004: Columbia University decides that it was not such a great idea after all to split academic and administrative computing (early 1988), or to consider computing a library function (January 1986), and commenced a search for a new VP of Information Technology to head a recombined, reconstituted, restructured, and tagalog essay tungkol ko buhay, possibly relocated central computing organization, the memory days, details of a firm which will not be known until after new VP arrives. CLICK HERE for the announcement. 29 Nov 2004: Spectatator picks up the story, attributing the reorganization to a series of pacthesis days walkthrough AcIS glitches such as hacker and virus attacks; Students are all too familiar of [sic] the shortcomings of AcIS.
An anonymous SEAS junior said that AcIS is essay tungkol 'completely incompetent and [doesn't] know how to manage anything'. In reality, it would be rather difficult to point to any site that supports a user community upwards of 60,000, mostly on pacthesis memory days sim date their own Internet-connected Windows workstations, that knows how to manage hackers and viruses, which, after all, arrive continuously from letter accountant, every corner of the planet, each one exploiting an memory days walkthrough, as-yet-unknown vulnerability, periodically bringing down major corporations and entire governments, sometimes the a firm, Internet itself, not mention other universities. Evidently Spectator is also unaware that AIS and sim date, AcIS were a single organization until the University divided them. Cover Letter For Junior Cv. Putting them back together is pacthesis memory sim date walkthrough a simple matter of undoing an old mistake, although it's not clear that the decision was made by anybody who knows that. It should also be noted that AcIS and its predecessors have rarely, if ever, received sufficient funding to meet the needs of the a firm, user community (for details, read above starting about memory days walkthrough 1970). The irony is that now, when the complaints are loudest, those needs are vanishingly academic. In the same Spectator issue, the staff editorial states that, in light of write of transport recent crackdowns on illegal downloading of copyright material (MP3s and memory days sim date walkthrough, video), Columbia now has the responsibility to help students legally download movies and music.
Now we know what we are here for. 1 Jul 2005: Candace Fleming appointed Columbia Vice President of Information Technology, to preside over the once-and-future joint AcIS/AIS organization, yet to be (re)named. 2 Aug 2005: AIS + AcIS = CUIT (Columbia University Information Technology). 30 Aug 2005: 50th anniversary of uwe dissertation Columbia's first computer , an IBM 650 at Watson Lab: the pacthesis memory sim date, first stored-program computer at Columbia that was available for general use by Columbia researchers and courses. (The words of the previous sentence are chosen carefully: earlier computing devices had been available to Columbia researchers, but they were not stored-program computers. At least one stored-program computer, NORC, had been at Columbia before 1955 but it was not generally available to the academic community. Columbia researchers had also had some access before 1955 to stored-program computers offsite, e.g. at IBM headquarters downtown; these computers were not at Columbia.) For all but the handful of thesis in network security brave pioneers who used the earlier plugboard-programmed machines, the 650 was indeed the first computer. Within a couple years, it could be programmed in FORTRAN and other symbolic languages, and quickly became so popular that a second one was added. 1 Sep 2006: Columbia University is now receiving, detecting, and refusing over a million spam, virus, phishing, and other unwanted emails per day. Of course many still come through, but it is better to memory days sim date, allow some spam to thesis security, pass than to block legitimate mail. 28 Feb 2008: Alan Crosswell, who has been here almost as long as I have [I was laid off in memory sim date walkthrough, 2011 after 37 years at the Computer Center and 45 at Columbia], appointed Associate Vice President and Chief Technologist. 15 Jan 2009: The CUIT Helpdesk Support Center, formerly known as the Client Service Center (and before that as the SSIO [Self-Service Input/Output] Area, and letter for junior accountant cv, the CUCCA Business and Consulting Office), moves from 102 Philosophy Hall (see March 1987 entry) to 202 Philosophy.
21 Apr 2009: Reunion of some original Watson Lab people from the 1940s and 50s, at the original Watson Lab building at 612 W 116th Street. CLICK HERE for a gallery. 25 Jan 2010: Herb Grosch dies at 91 years of age. An authentic computer pioneer, he worked here from 1945 to pacthesis memory, 1950 and in recent years was an energetic and write an essay of transport, colorful contributor to this history. The photo is from memory days, 1951, showing how he looked when he was working in Watson Lab on 116th Street where he came up with Grosch's Law (in 1950, not 1965 as Wikipedia states; see see Chapter 13 of Grosch's autobiography). Herb created and taught one of the first Computer Science courses anywhere (Numerical Methods) at Columbia University in 1946. He went on to a long and tagalog, contentious career at MIT, GE, IBM, Datamation, the National Bureau of sim date walkthrough Standards, Computerworld, and the ACM, and served on paper reference the faculty of numerous universities.
10-12 Feb 2015: The last vestige of text-based email (inaugurated here in pacthesis memory sim date walkthrough, the mid-1970s), namely the secure POP3 server at mail.columbia.edu:995, was turned off. An Essay About. Meaning it's no longer possible to access email with a text-based email client in a shell session, or to use shell-based tools and filters and editors with email. Until now you could do all your work except web browsing and pacthesis days walkthrough, photo editing in a text-mode shell session. The “upgrade” to Google Gmail puts your email in “The Cloud” where it can hacked or can be “mined” by corporate interests or the DHS (I've been assured that these things will never happen but. Essay Tungkol. ) And where we pretty much have no control over pacthesis memory sim date walkthrough it. No straightforward way to archive it locally. No way to write programs to do any kind of custom searching, statisics, analysis on selected email archives chosen by various criteria, e.g. date range. When sending mail, there is no precise control over a firm the formatting, nor any way to choose an days sim date walkthrough, encoding other than UTF-8, nor any way to enter non-ASCII characters from a PC keyboard aside from Alt-key escapes (like Alt-0241 for ñ), or setting your keyboard up to have dead-key combinations, or clicking on a cartoon keyboard, none of which are exactly ideal for a touch typist who can type as fast in essay tungkol ko buhay, Spanish or German, or even Russian, as in English when using a good terminal emulator*. All in all, compared to MM used with a good terminal emulator, Gmail is pretty labor intensive and inflexible at best, and at worst it puts us in a situation where a profit-driven corporation owns our email, not we ourselves. We are forced to use a Web browser to access it, which opens us up to all manner of memory days cookies, spying, marketing, and analysis of our computers and files, not to mention hostile attacks not from Google, necessarily, but from the whole planet. None of that happens with text-based email. Cover Letter Cv. Even imputing the best of motives to pacthesis memory, the corporations, the volatility of the market could result in paper format, our cloud of email disappearing one day into a stock market vortex, or being bought up by some new company that could do anything at all with it hold it for ransom, sell it to days sim date, tabloids.
On this topic, an old friend at another university observed a couple years ago: I have 30+ years of e-mail archives, and it is absolutely mission-critical that I own all of tagalog essay my mail files. There is no guarantee that gmail (or hotmail, or msn mail, or yahoo mail, or any ISP mail) will be around tomorrow, next year, or a decade from now. e-mail is a critical record of institutional, governmental, and industrial work, and it needs to be owned by those who created it, not given away to an outside source who is busy mining it, and could lose or corrupt it. Furthermore the constantly evolving methods of memory days representing emails might render our Cloud-based “rich text”** email archives useless in a future that might not be as distant as you think. Vint Cerf, “Father of the research paper, Internet” and Google Vice President, said recently (see below for citations): Old formats of documents that we've created or presentations may not be readable by the latest version of the software because backwards compatibility is not always guaranteed. And so what can happen over time is that even if we accumulate vast archives of digital content, we may not actually know what it is. Plain text, on the other hand, is eternal. ASCII, which serves for English and a few other languages, was (and is) a well-defined and mature national and international standard, as are subsequent standards like ISO 8859 and ISO 10646 (Unicode) that increased the character repertoire to sim date walkthrough, accommodate other languages and writing systems. Whereas presentation methods are driven by in network security corporate interests and competition and they never stop changing***.
The medium swallows the message. 23 May 2015: Dr. Bruce Gilchrist , the second director of the Columbia Computer Center (and a major contributor to this history), dies in Richmond VA at the age of 84 [obituary] (the first director was Kenneth King from 1963 to 1971). Bruce, a genuine pioneer in computing from the 1950s and a prominent figure in the ACM and AFIPS (details here), exemplified the long-forgotten academic and scientific traditions of the computer center and its predecessor, the IBM Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University, serving on the Engineering School faculty and publishing papers in scientific journals as well as several books on days walkthrough computers and letter for junior accountant cv, society. Bruce led the Computer Center from days walkthrough, 1973 to 1984, staying on in an advisory capacity until 1988. As his first act, he opened up access to what in those days was “the computer” (a huge IBM mainframe) to essay tungkol ko buhay, the entire Columbia community, the first instance of open computing at Columbia, and memory days, he would continue his push for open computing throughout subsequent generations of machines, such as the DECSYSTEM-20s (1977-88), despite often severe budget pressures. Bruce was the first to put public “terminal rooms” in dormitories and other academic buildings.
Bruce hired mainly out of the Engineering School, launching the careers of numerous women and men in essay tungkol, computing. As a scientist with close connections to pacthesis walkthrough, the computer industry, he was able to combine technical leadership with good humor and cover for junior accountant, humane management. His office on the sixth floor of the Watson building was always open and he enjoyed spending time with both his technical staff and his administrative staff; he treated workers with respect and he was universally respected in return. After relinquishing day-to-day management of the Computer Center in 1984, he concentrated his efforts on the acquisition and installation of the $20-million-dollar IBM/Rolm Computerized Branch Exchange, not just a new telephone system for the University, but also a wiring plant that would eventually provide high-speed data access to every building and room on the Morningside campus. Open computing fully realized. CLICK HERE to pacthesis memory sim date walkthrough, see an hour-long 2007 Public Access TV interview with Bruce.
29 Dec 2015: Columbia's Cunix timesharing systems were switched from Solaris 9 on 32-bit Sun Sparc servers that had been running since somewhere between 2001 and 2003, to Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.6 on 64-bit x86_64 servers. In the intervening years, direct Unix shell use at Columbia has dwindled down to a handful of diehards, partly in the nature of the times moving on, but also because key services such as email had been removed from the shell hosts. Other once-common utilities like the FTP client and C-Kermit were not installed on the new Linux-based Cunix system, nor once-important math and statistical applications like Matlab and SAS, nor venerable programming languages like Fortran and Snobol. But at least the regular GCC development environment remains for the few who still write C code, and EMACS for those who still do their text processing the old-fashioned and efficient way rather than the new annoying and labor-intensive way. The choice of Linux is letter for junior accountant cv primarily market-based, not merely a matter of price or source-code availability, but of market dominance.
Unix (of which both Solaris and Linux are variants) was originally a 1960s Bell Labs research project. Over time it became a proliferation of commercial products “solutions” that ran on specific hardware Solaris for Sun, HP-UX for Hewlett-Packard, AIX for memory days walkthrough IBM, etc. but all these have practically vanished by now. Two free Unix implementations, Minix and Linux, were created about the same time, and Linux itself branched off into free (e.g. Debian, Slackware) and corporate (e.g. Cover For Junior. Red Hat Enterprise) versions. Another branch, descending from the Bell Labs original via Berkeley Unix and including FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD and friends, remains free community-sourced software. But big companies such as Columbia University prefer to have the corporate ties that Red Hat offers. 29 Feb 2016: The central Sun Solaris-based CUNIX timesharing systems turned off after about 15 years of memory service, replaced by Linux servers. 12 Sep 2016: Engineering professor Leon Lidofsky * dies in Vermont at the age of 94. He was one of Columbia's earliest hands-on users of digital computers, establishing a computer lab on the second floor of the Engineering Terrace in the mid-1960s that included a room-sized minicomputer (SEL 810B), a tabletop DEC PDP-8, and various specialized equipment for data collection and analysis, one of only a handful of Columbia's departmental computing facilities at accountant the time. I first met him in 1969 when I got a student job in his department.
I graduated from the school of General Studies in 1970 and left the department to memory days, find a real job, and thesis in network, wound up driving a taxi in Bronx. After a while Lee asked me to come back and work in pacthesis memory days walkthrough, the department full-time as the administrator for a new program he was in charge of, dealing with the social responsibilities of engineers and ways they could be of public service. Really my job was just paper shuffling, but Lee knew that I had had “computer” training in the Army and essay ko buhay, soon I was doing all the key punching for the department. After a while he asked me if I would like to write a program on pacthesis walkthrough his minicomputer. Uwe Dissertation. He gave me a Fortran book and a few lessons and before long I had pretty much automated myself out of a job. Pacthesis Days Sim Date. Lee suggested I take advantage of my full-time staff position to take computer science courses in the department of EECS (as it was known then). It was a good fit, I liked the idea of an essay a means of transport having problems to work on that could actually be solved.
As a sideline, Lee was a consultant in nuclear medicine at Mt. Sinai Hospital (click here for an example of his work there). Pacthesis Days Sim Date. When the Columbia project I was working on came to a close, he got me my first real programming job in Mt. Sinai's new Laboratory for Computer Science, and a firm, thus began my brilliant career as a software developer. Along the way I wrote some books and always featured him in the acknowledgments, as in my last book ( Using C-Kermit, 2nd Ed .): “. and to pacthesis memory days walkthrough, Lee Lidofsky, a Great Teacher, for a timely push in a firm, a good direction, a long time ago”. Incidentally, the computers at memory days walkthrough the Mt. Sinai lab were DEC PDP-11s, my first experience with a somewhat interactive (via Teletype) computer operating system, which led to the choice of a PDP-11 for research reference format Columbia's first timesharing system, which in turn led to the choice of big DECSYSTEM-20s as Columbia's primary academic computing platform, 1977-1988. Anyway, thanks to Lee I had a decent job with good salary and pacthesis days, benefits that allowed me to raise a family and put my kids through college.
If not for Lee, I'd probably still be driving a cab! Arranging for me (who was not even one of his students) to have a good life was definitely not in his job description, but that's how he was. I'm sure there are a thousand other stories just like this one. It's interesting to a firm, ponder the transformation of Columbia from pacthesis sim date walkthrough, a quill-pen operation in the 1700s to in network security, the wired (and, increasingly, wireless) one it is today. Computers, obtained originally for pacthesis memory sim date scientific work that could not be done any other way, were also turned to administrative tasks such as registration, student records, payroll, and uwe dissertation, so on. What was the cost in money, space, and personnel before and after? And then later when centralized computing (based on a single multimillion dollar computer system) became fully distributed, with a PC on every desk, how did that change the days sim date, overall expenditures, consumption of space and electrical power, personnel rosters, and the productivity of each person? Any clear answer would take a great deal more research than was done here, but the following table is suggestive: Sources: The 1925 figures come from uwe dissertation, Columbia's 1924-25 Catalog  and from the 1924-25 Annual Report ; the student count does not include another 12,916 summer session students; the officers of days walkthrough administration include 38 who are also on cover for junior the faculty. Memory Sim Date Walkthrough. The 2010 figures come from the Columbia University Statistical Abstract of the Office of Planning and Institutional Research (on the Web).
The growth in research, faculty is accounted for almost entirely by the Health Sciences campus, which did not exist in 1925. Although the role of computing in staff and pacthesis sim date, tuition increases is far from clear, it is uwe dissertation evident that Columbia University was able to offer a first-class education to about 20,000 students annually with a lot less overhead and at far less expense without computers than with them, even accounting for inflation (which averaged 3.1% per year from 1925 to 2000 or 987% over the period; thus if tuition had merely kept pace with inflation, it would have risen only to $79 per point rather than $834 in 2000). Of course, one can't necessarily blame computers alone for memory days sim date walkthrough a topheavy bureaucracy -- since the uwe dissertation, 1950s, huge amounts of additional work in the form of reports (compliance, demographic, financial, etc) mandated by government, suppliers, and contractors at pacthesis memory walkthrough every level. Anyway, as any student who registered in reference format, the old days (filling in countless forms by pacthesis days hand with the same information and standing in about 50 lines to turn in each form) can tell you, some of the new systems are an write an essay about a means, improvement. Pacthesis Memory Days Sim Date Walkthrough. Columbia is also a far bigger employer than it was in thesis security, 1925 and it's a good thing that more people have work, even if it's pointless. Or if you take a closer look, maybe it's not such a good thing. When the Computer Center opened in 1963, there was one big computer for everybody to use, cared for by a small professional staff, initially just 15 people. Today, the combined full-time staff of AcIS and AIS (now CUIT) numbers well into the hundreds, and this doesn't count an unknown number of full and part-time computer people in the administrative and academic departments, nor junior faculty and memory sim date walkthrough, graduate students shanghaied into system-administration roles, nor the fact that almost everybody at the University devotes copious time to managing and fighting with their own desktop computers into the bargain, not to mention dealing (or worse: not) with the constant onslaught of viruses, worms, and hacks from all corners of the world. Essay. One is tempted to memory days sim date walkthrough, wonder in exactly what way computers are labor-saving devices :-) But love 'em or hate 'em, computers and networks are with us to stay.
They first came to a firm, Columbia for scientific and days sim date walkthrough, statistical work; now they are used mainly for social and thesis security, entertainment purposes, plus taking notes in class, preparation of papers, a certain amount of course work, and for carrying on the business of the University, including a great deal of public relations. All students and pacthesis memory, faculty are presumed to in network security, have computer, network, and Web access; it is required in pacthesis sim date, many courses and for numerous tasks such as looking up class schedules, room assignments, and grades, and since Fall 2001, also for cv registration. The benefits of the Web are well known but its dangers little discussed, at pacthesis memory days least not beyond the well-known safety hazards (credit-card theft, pedophiles, viruses) and annoyances (bugs and essay tungkol, new features requiring constant software upgrades). Let's look at pacthesis memory days sim date some of the more fundamental pitfalls that tend to be ignored as we rush to replace all that is old by what is new: For good or ill, the Web has largely replaced the Library for undergraduate research. The benefits (again) are well-known, but increasingly, if it's not on the Web students don't see it. Furthermore, it's often difficult to assess the tagalog essay, information one finds on the Web. Published books and journal articles, at least, have some measure of quality control and some form of pacthesis memory sim date audit trail (you can check the primary sources yourself). At the very least, they are substantial and immutable objects that can be referenced -- when you look at a book or article that I have referenced, you see the same one I saw.
Web pages are ephemeral, likely to move, change, or disappear at essay ko buhay any moment, and in any case rarely have the authority of memory a refereed, printed publication. Since I wrote the previous item, the Web itself has been largely supplanted by Google and Wikipedia for thesis in network research. Wikipedia is days walkthrough handy, to uwe dissertation, be sure, but how do you verify the accuracy of anything in memory walkthrough, it? Google, on the other hand, is a firm a massive corporation whose only goal is making more and more money, and pacthesis memory sim date, as part of achieving that goal, it controls the content we see. Searches are still relatively fair and open, but Google News is pure corporate messaging. Nevertheless, Google can throw a switch at any moment to hide entire bodies of knowledge or opinion it deems prejudicial to its corporate health. In a new application of Gresham's Law, the Web tends to drive out reliable and write an essay of transport, detailed information, replacing it with unreliable and sketchy sound bites. Pacthesis Days Sim Date. Libraries full of books and journals are increasingly viewed as legacy brick and a firm, mortar operations that can no longer justify their existence in memory days sim date, the age of electronic information.
But those same libraries contain all that is known of an essay about of transport history, culture, and pacthesis days sim date, science. What will become of our printed record, as it takes up coveted space and decays? It can't all be digitized; that would be far too expensive and time-consuming. Therefore much -- probably most -- of it will be lost to posterity. And then whatever portion was digitized before the paper was discarded or crumbled will itself be subject to successive rounds of thesis security winnowing as the digital media, encoding, and formats become obsolete and pacthesis memory days walkthrough, require upgrading. Repeated application of this process will leave only a tiny fragment of what was available to us in, say, 1980, and research format, there will be no going back. New information is walkthrough lost too.
It was relatively easy to trace the history of computing at Columbia through 1994 by the paper trail of newsletters, books, paper correspondence files, and so on. After 1994, it's just a blur. If it was recorded at all, it was recorded on the Web or in e-mail, and there is write an essay of transport no systematic archive of old Web pages and e-mails. What is new today will be old tomorrow. The Web is not eternal. Something else is bound to pacthesis walkthrough, appear that turns the Web into a deprecated legacy concept and the vast corpus of a firm Web files will need conversion to the next thing, and the winnowing process will continue. I wrote the previous sentence about 15 years ago.
Today I see Vint Cerf, father of the Internet, saying the sim date walkthrough, same thing at the American Association for the Advancement of tagalog ko buhay Science conference in San Jos. To paraphrase. Pacthesis Memory Days. Everything that's on the Internet today will be unintelligable garbage in the future and the 21st Century will be another Dark Ages, leaving no records of itself. Here's a link: http://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-31450389. Here's another: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/science/science-news/11410506/Print-out-digital-photos-or-risk-losing-them-Google-boss-warns.html. But don't expect them to last. [Search] Meanwhile, as of 2014, cell phones have squeezed out desktop computers as the main Web access method, forcing website to adapt by showing less content. i.e. sound bites instead of detailed information.
Similarly, emails with paragraphs of text have given way to short instant messages and Tweets. Storage and preservation of information -- printed or electronic -- costs money. Money is a scarce resource, also needed for food, shelter, medical care, exhorbitant CEO compensation, senseless wars, and so on. The legacy of humanity belongs to those with the desire and the money to uwe dissertation, preserve it, and to keep preserving it, and they are ones who will decide what is worth preserving and what to discard. Columbia University 250th Anniversary (2004) CLICK HERE to visit Columbia's extensive website commemorating the university's 250th anniversary (and HERE and HERE and HERE for some computing history bits). Old means no error correction, compression, or hardware flow control.
New modems are connected to days sim date walkthrough, (or integrated with) TCP/IP terminal servers; old ones were connected to serial ports on the PACX or Rolm. Prior to 1985 it's hard to figure out -- specific phone numbers went to specific computers, etc; few comprehensive tables were published in uwe dissertation, the Newsletter or Guides to Facilities. The best I can say is that the number of dialin modems increased from 0 to 59 from the mid-1960s to 1985. Modem-pool expansion finally leveled off in 2002-2003, when DSL connections became possible from the home and AcIS began to bring neighborhood apartment buildings onto the high-speed campus network. The numbers reflect total accesses (hits) per year. The 1994 figures are extrapolated from the last six weeks of 1994, and therefore probably a bit high.
ADP Administrative Data Processing (of Columbia University) AIS Administrative Information Services (new name of ADP) ANSI American National Standards Institute. APL A Programming Language (With Its Own Character Set) ARPA (US Defense Department) Advanced Research Projects Agency. ASCC Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator (early IBM computer)
ASCII American Standard Code for Information Interchange. ASP Attached Support Processor. AUC Apple University Consortium. AUFS Appletalk UNIX File Server. BAL Basic (IBM 360 and 370) Assemly Language. BASIC Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code. BASR Bureau of Applied Social Research (of Columbia University) BCD Binary Coded Decimal. BCDIC Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code. BITNET Because-It's-There Network (It = RSCS)
BNF Backus-Naur Form. BPS Bits per Second. CAP Columbia Appletalk Package. CBX (IBM/Rolm/Siemens) Computerized Branch Exchange. CCNET Computer Center (or Columbia/Carnegie) Network (DECnet) CE (IBM) Customer Engineer. CLIO Columbia Libraries Information Online. CMU Carnegie-Mellon University. COBOL Common Business Oriented Language.
CPC Card Programmed Calculator. CP/M Control Program / Microcomputer. CPS Characters per Second. CRBE Conversational Remote Batch Entry. CREN Consortium for pacthesis days Research and Education Network.
CRLF ASCII characters Carriage Return and Line Feed - plaint-text line terminator. CRT Cathode-Ray Tube, e.g. a video terminal. CUCC Columbia University Computer Center. CUCCA Columbia University Center for Computing Activities, new name of CUCC. CUIT Columbia University Information Technology, new name of CUCCA. CUNY City University of New York. CWRU Case Western Reserve University. DACU Device Attachment Control Unit (early IBM Ethernet adapter)
DASD Direct Access Storage Device (IBM term for for junior cv disk, pronounced dazdee) DAT Digital Audio Tape. DCMUP Same as DCS (not sure what it stands for). DCS Directly Coupled System (Columbia's IBM 7040 and 7094) DEC Digital Equipment Corporation. DOS Disk Operating System. EAM Electric Accounting Machine (using punched cards)
EBCDIC Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code. EMACS Editing Macros (video editor by Richard Stallman) FORTRAN Formula Translator (first high-level programming language) FE Field Engineer (DEC) FS Field Service (DEC) FSF Free Software Foundation.
GNU GNU is Not UNIX (recursive acronym of the FSF) GUI Graphical User Interface. HASP Houston Automatic Spooling Program. HP Hewlett Packard Corporation. IBM International Business Machines Corporation. IETF Internet Engineering Task Force. JCL Job Control Language (OS/360, MVS, etc) JSYS Jump to System (DEC-20 monitor call)
JVNCNET John von Neumann Supercomputer Center Network. KGB (Soviet) Committee for State Security. LAN Local Area Network (Ethernet, Token Ring, etc) LCG (DEC) Large Computer Group. LISP List Processing (language)
LPM Lines per Minute (speed of line printer) MINCE MINCE Is Not Completely EMACS (EMACS semi-clone for CP/M) MOS Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (memory, as opposed to magnetic cores or vacuum tubes) MSS (IBM) Mass Storage System. MTBF Mean Time Between Failures.
MTTR Mean Time To Repair. NCR National Cash Register Corporation. NFS Network File System. NORC Naval Ordnance Reseach Calculator (early IBM computer built at Columbia U) NPG Network Planning Group (of Columbia U)
NSF National Science Foundation. NSFNET National Science Foundation Network. NYSERNET New York State Education and memory walkthrough, Research Network. OCS Office of Communications Services (of Columbia University) OS Operating System.
PACX Private Access Computer eXchange. PDP Programmed Data Processor. PDS Partitioned Data Set. PL/I Programming Language One. PPP Point-to-Point Protocol. RAID Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disk.
RHNO Residence Hall Networking Option (at Columbia U) RJE Remote Job Entry. RSCS Remote Spooling Communications Subsystem. RSTS/E Resource Sharing Time Sharing / Extended (DEC PDP-11 OS) SAIL Stanford Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (or Language) SE Software Engineer (DEC); Systems Engineer (IBM) Also see: FE, CE. SEL Systems Engineering Laboratories. SLIP Serial Line Internet Protocol. SNA (IBM) Systems Networking Architecture.
SNOBOL String Oriented Language (pun on a firm COBOL) SPITBOL (pun on SNOBOL) SSIO Self-Service Input/Output (area at Columbia U) SIC Scholarly Information Center (at Columbia University) SOS Share Operating System (IBM 709) SOS Son Of Stopgap (PDP-10, DEC-20 text editor) SPOOL simultaneous peripheral operations on-line or simultaneous peripheral output on line. TOPS The Operating System (for PDP-10s and DEC-20s)
UUCP UNIX-to-UNIX Copy Program. VT Video Terminal. Control panel (See plugboard) Core This word is still used synonymously with memory, but in fact refers to a specific memory technology used from about 1955 to 1975, in which each bit was a ferrite core, whose charge was controlled and sensed by currents in wires passing through the core's hole. MORE HERE. CRT Cathode Ray Tube. The display screen in a video terminal or a pre-flat panel television or personal computer.
More generally, any vacuum tube incorporating a mobile beam. 1950s-era computer memories were sometimes made of CRTs; for example, the IBM 700-series CRT memories packed 1024 bits into a single tube (contrary to the popular image of one bit per tube). Drum Similar to memory days sim date, a hard disk, except the recording surface is on the circumfrence, rather than on the flat end(s), and the read/write heads are fixed rather than moving. Thus it is a spinning cylinder with a stationary head array extending from cover for junior accountant cv, end to end, with one fixed head per track. Because the heads are fixed, there is no seek time so access is much faster than a moving-head disk. Drums were used as main memory in early computers like the IBM 650 and as swapping or paging devices in later computers such as the pacthesis memory sim date walkthrough, IBM 360/91 and uwe dissertation, the DEC PDP-11. An example is the IBM 2301 drum storage, about 1960. Also: (1) Any fixed-head disk or, by extension, any swapping device; (2) A Data Cell cylinder around which a tape strip is wrapped for memory sim date walkthrough reading and writing; (3) The print mechanism used in certain kinds of essay tungkol line printers, such as the DEC LP20: a constantly rotating metal cylinder with all the characters on it -- to print a specific character in a specific column, the corresponding hammer strikes the drum just when the pacthesis days sim date, desired character is behind the paper and tungkol, ink ribbon; (4) the electrostatic print-transfer mechanism in Xerographic or laser printers. Electric (or Electronic) Accounting Machine (EAM) EAMs were the workhorses of the 1930s-60s for accounting, payroll, and memory sim date, so on, before there were real stored-program computers.
They were mainly mechanical; accumulating sums in gear registers. Cover Letter For Junior Cv. In fact, they are just late-model tabulating machines with a bit more flexibility and usually a built-in line printer. CLICK HERE to see examples. Paper Tape A long strip of pacthesis days sim date heavy paper, usually an inch wide, in which holes could be punched, 5 to 9 per row. For computer use, usually 8 holes were used: 7 data bits and 1 parity bit.
Paper tape was also used in telecommunications (telex) and in the printing industry as the input medium for hot-metal typesetting machines and is still used for numerical control of milling and drilling machines. Computer applications of paper tape included automated data input and output, as on the ASR33 Teletype or the IBM 1620 computer, object-module output by compilers (on computers that did not have disks -- for example, the output of a Fortran compiler), and printer control loops (see story at the end of this page). Cover Letter Cv. For heavy-duty applications such as the latter, Mylar was used rather than paper. The typical recording density was 10 rows (bytes) per inch. Punching and reading speeds varied from 10 rows per pacthesis memory days second up to 2000. Paper tape originally came in rolls (as used in the IBM SSEC), but by the 1960s, fan-fold was more common, and in fact many computer companies distributed software in this form (e.g. for the DEC PDP-8). An incorrectly punched row could be deleted by punching all the holes; this is the origin of the ASCII RUB (Rubout, Delete) character, 0x7F (all 1's). Uwe Dissertation. Editing could also be accomplished by cutting and splicing.
More at the University of memory sim date walkthrough Amsterdam Computing History Museum. Plugboard, Patch Board, Patch Panel, Control Panel IBM EAM equipment (accounting machines, sorters, reproducing punches, interpreters, etc) as well as some of its early calculators (computers) were programmed through control panels rectangular boards with an array of essay holes, which are interconnected by wires to specify the desired functions, e.g. which card columns are to be sent to which accumulator, or printed to which printer columns, etc. Photos and more info: [HERE] [HERE] [HERE] [HERE] and memory days walkthrough, [HERE]. Punched Card A stiff cardboard rectangle in which holes can be punched and write an essay a means, then later read by various devices (see Unit Record Equipment). Memory Days. Punchcards date back to the 1700s, and can be found in many formats. IBM punchcards (after 1928) were 7 3/8 inches wide and 3 1/4 high, with three rounded corners and the upper left corner cut diagonally, and twelve 80-column rows for small rectangular holes.
Large sites like Columbia often had their cards preprinted with corporate logos. Write An Essay. Until the early 1970s, virtually all computing jobs at Columbia were submitted on decks of cards punched on key punch machines. Decks of cards could also be output from the computer using high-speed online punches such as the IBM 2540. Pacthesis Memory Days Walkthrough. Use of cards at Columbia declined until 1986, when the last card readers were removed. As late as 2010, however, voting machines in New York were still based on punched card technology. Relay An electromechanical device or switch that automatically controls the current in one circuit based on the current in another circuit, used in 1940s-era calculators and computers such as the Aberdeens, the SSEC, and the Bell relay calcalators. Remote Job Entry Or RJE. In the mainframe era, before interactive terminals, jobs were submitted on decks of cards and results obtained on a line printer or other local device. These devices were attached to the mainframe by cables that could not be very long, maybe 150 feet max. To access the mainframe from greater distances required a Remote Job Entry station: usually a card reader and line printer connected to a firm, some kind of controller, connected by memory days walkthrough (usually synchronous) modem to the central site.
Typically an RJE user would put a deck of cards in the hopper, push Start, and write an essay a means of transport, wait an unpredictable amount of pacthesis memory days walkthrough time for the results to a firm, come out days walkthrough, of the printer. One of cover letter for junior cv many examples of the widespread use of RJE was the New York City public school system in the 1970s, where each school had an memory sim date walkthrough, RJE station connected to the big mainframe(s) at Board of reference format Education. The IBM RJE interface was fairly well standardized, so it also came to double as a connection for other kinds of computers -- a kind of early networking, in which traffic in one direction was in 80-column card images, and traffic in the reverse direction was 132-column printer lines. Tabulating Machine A machine capable of reading punched cards and either sorting them into memory sim date walkthrough, selected bins or adding up the numbers punched into selected columns. Tabulating machines were used from 1890 through the a firm, 1950s or 60s for statistical, financial, and pacthesis days sim date, even scientific applications. CLICK HERE for examples. Terminal A typewriter-like device by uwe dissertation which a person interacts with a computer. Sim Date Walkthrough. It has a keyboard and either paper to print on or else a video screen (certain special kinds of terminals might also have Braille pads or text-to-voice interpreters).
The keystrokes are sent to a firm, the computer and (in some cases) also echoed locally on the display device (paper or screen). Characters arriving from the memory sim date walkthrough, computer are sent to the display device. Video terminals sometimes have an attached printer. Early hardcopy terminals included Teletypes and electric typewriters wired for communication, such as the IBM 2741; later ones include dot-matrix models such as the DECwriter. The best-known video terminal is the DEC VT100; video terminals were popular from the mid-1970s until about 1990 (and are still used today in in network, certain specialized applications like data entry and transaction processing; until not so long ago, every winter TV news reporters visit the NYC Heat Complaint Bureau, and every year they were still using IBM 3270 green tubes). The best-known graphics terminal is the Tektronix 4010. Although few real terminals are still in operation, terminals are widely emulated by the PC, Macintosh, and other workstation software that allows us to access our shell accounts.
TTY Teletype (see Terminal) . Unit Record Equipment Usually used to refer to any equipment that reads or punches cards, such as a key punch, card reader, sorter, collator, reproducer, or interpreter. Days Sim Date Walkthrough. Strictly speaking, any device for which a record (rather than a character) is the uwe dissertation, physical unit of input or output, therefore also including line printers. My recollections and notes, 1965-present. The Columbia University Computer Center Newsletter, 1966-1994 (when it ceased publication). Gilchrist, Bruce, Forty Years of Computing , CUCCA Newlsetter V13#16 (4 Nov 1981). Days. Bashe, Charles J.; Lyle R. Johnson; John H. Uwe Dissertation. Palmer; Emerson W. Pugh, IBM's Early Computers , MIT Press (1985).
Columbia University Catalogue , 1924-1925. Columbia University Computer Center General Information Manual , Volume I (June 1965). Columbia University Bulletin: Computing Activities (1976). Rogers, William, Think; a biography of the Watsons and IBM , Stein and Day, NY (1969). Brennan, Jean Ford, The IBM Watson Laboratory at days walkthrough Columbia University: A History , IBM, Armonk NY (1971) (Columbiana CZI B75; Prentis Q183.5 .W3 B7). A Firm. Columbia Computer Center , 2 Jan 1963 (summary of facilities and procedures). Admini-Bits (the Columbia University Administrative Data Processing Newsletter), V2#6 (Sep 1988). Dolkart, Andrew S., Morningside Heights: A History of its Architecture and Development , Columbia University Press, 1998, and memory days sim date, correspondence with Prof. Dolkart (Jan 2001). McCullers, Carson, and Dews C.L. Barney, Illumination and tagalog tungkol, Night Glare: The Unfinished Autobiography of Carson McCullers , University of Wisconsin Press (1999).
Asteroff, Janet, CUCCA Terminal and Plotter User Manual (Nov 1982). Pacthesis Memory Days Walkthrough. Bell System Technical Journal , Special issue devoted UNIX 7th Edition, Volume 57, Number 6, Part 2 (August 1978). Brader, Mark, A Chronology of Digital Computing, to 1952 (online). Koenig, Seymour H., Interview (22 Jan 2001). AIS Supervisor Joe Sulsona Retires After 42 Years , Columbia University Record Vol. 26, No 11 (19 Jan 2001). Gilchrist, Bruce, Report to uwe dissertation, the Committee on Instructional Computing (the Collery Committee), Columbia University (21 April 1980).
Hallinan, Nuala, A History of Administrative Data Processing , Columbia University, September 1988 (produced for the Computer Center's 25th Anniversary commemoration), with 1991 update. Announcement of the memory days, Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory and tagalog, a Program of Graduate Studies in Applied Mathematics , Columbia University Bulletin, Fifty-eighth Series, No.39, September 27, 1948. Pacthesis Days Sim Date. Arctander, Eric, Trig Homework? Consult Watson Labs , Columbia Daily Spectator, 18 October 1948. IBM Establishes Computing Laboratory at research Columbia University , News Release, Columbia University Department of Public Information, 6 February 1945. King, Kenneth M., Columbia University Computer Center Report , August 1967 to December 1968. Guide to pacthesis days, Facilities , Columbia Computer Center, September 1972. Sills, David L., Paul F. Uwe Dissertation. Lazarsfeld, 1901-1976, A Biographical Memoir , National Academy of the Sciences, Washington DC, 1987.
Barton, Judith S., ed., Guide to the Bureau of Applied Social Research , Clearwater Publishing Co., Inc, New York City, 1984. The Columbia University Archives and Columbiana Library: Central Files, Indexed in The Administrative Records of Columbia University, 1890-1971 . Memory Walkthrough. Halford, Ralph S., Proposal to the National Science Foundation for Support of a Computing Center to be Established at Columbia University , May 1961. News Release #10,099, Columbia University News Office, 18 Jul 1963. In Network Security. Mace, David, and Joyce Alsop, A Simplified System for the Use of an Automatic Calculator , Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, Columbia University / IBM, 1957 (COVER). Proposal for days sim date IBM 360 Model 92 [sic], to cover for junior cv, Dr. Kenneth M. King, Columbia Computer Center, IBM, 21 May 1965.
University Center for Computing Activities: EDP Review for Columbia University , IBM, May 1974. Strauss, Robert, When Computers Were Born , The Times Mirror Company, 1996. Annual Report of the President and Treasurer to the Trustees with Accompanying Documents for the Year Ending June 30, 1925 , Columbia University, New York, 1926. Letter of Dean Ralph S. Halford to Prof. Maurice Ewing, 19 Aug 1963 (9 pages), Columbiana Archives. Pure Scientists of Morningside, Business Machines , General Section, IBM, September 1, 1954. Memory Walkthrough. Aspray, William, Was Early Entry a Competitive Advantage? US Universities That Entered Computing in the 1940s, IEEE Annals of the History of cover accountant Computing , Volume 22, Number 3, July-September 2000. Lippsett, Laurence, Maurice Ewing and memory days sim date, the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia Magazine , Winter 2001. Thesis In Network. Pugh, Emerson W., Building IBM: Shaping an Industry and its Technology , The MIT Press (1995).
Sachnoff, Neil, Secrets of Installing a Telephone System , Telecomm Library Inc, New York (1989). There's a Computer on pacthesis memory days sim date walkthrough the Columbia Campus, Columbia Reports , March 1971. Wilson, Gregory V., The History of the about a means of transport, Development of Parallel Computing , University of Toronto. Austrian, Geoffrey, Herman Hollerith: Forgotten Giant of Information Processing , Columbia University Press (1982). Grier, David Alan, When Computers Were Human, Princeton University Press (2005). AND. Grier, David Alan, The First Breach of memory days sim date walkthrough Computer Security?, IEEE Annals of the thesis in network, History of Computing , Volume 23, Number 2, April-June 2001. NOTE: These should be two separate references but evidently the second one was inserted here by days walkthrough mistake when it should have gone at the end, thus throwing off all the subsequent reference numbers. Sorry! Stoll, Clifford, The Cuckoo's Egg: Tracking a Spy through the Maze of thesis Computer Espionage , Doubleday, New York (1989). Black, Edwin, IBM and the Holocaust , Crown Publishers, New York (2001).
Also search for holocaust at pacthesis memory sim date the IBM website. Columbia University Alumni Register 1754-1931 , Columbia University Committee on General Catalogue, Frank D. Uwe Dissertation. Fackenthal (Chairman), Columbia University Press, New York (1932). Fajman, Roger, and John Borgelt, Stanford University Computation Center, WYLBUR: An Interactive Text Editing and Remote Job Entry System, CACM, V15 #5 (May 1973). Eckert, W.J., Punched Card Methods in Scientific Computation , The Thomas J. Watson Astronomical Computing Bureau, Columbia University, Lancaster Press, Inc., Lancaster PA (January 1940). Reprinted in 1984 by the Charles Babbage Institute, MIT, and memory days, Tomash Publishers with a new introduction by J.C. McPherson. IBM Oral History Project on Computer Technology, Interview TC-1, with W.J.
Eckert (11 July 1964). Mackenzie, Charles E., Coded Character Sets, History and uwe dissertation, Development , Addison-Wesley (1980). Trimble, George R., A Brief History of memory days sim date Computing, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing , Volume 23, Number 3 (July-September 2001). Applelbaum, Lauren, Student on Quest for Sundial's Lost Ball, Columbia Daily Spectator , Vol.CXXV No.139 (5 Dec 2001). Tungkol Ko Buhay. Quarterman, John S., The Matrix: Computer Networks and Conferencing Systems Worldwide Digital Press (1990).
Tsividis, Yannis, Edwin Armstrong, Pioneer of the Airwaves, Columbia Magazine (Spring 2002). Grosch, Herbert R.J., Computer: Bit Slices from a Life , Third Millenium Books, Novato CA (1991), ISBN 0-88733-085 [3rd ed mss)]. Pacthesis Memory Days Sim Date. They All Came to tungkol ko buhay, See the pacthesis days, NORC, Business Machines , General Section, IBM (23 December 1954), pp.8-9. Grosch, Herb, private correspondence (May 2003 - 2010). Uwe Dissertation. A Conversation with Herb Grosch , ACM Ubiquity , Volume 2, Issue 39 (4-10 December 2001). Schreiner, Ken, private correspondence (May 2003). Berkeley, Edmund, Giant Brains: or, Machines that Think , John Wiley Sons, NY (1949). The first book about computers for a general nontechnical audience. Fact Sheet on Simon , Columbia University Public Information Office (18 May 1950). Eckert, Wallace J, and Rebecca Jones, Faster, Faster: a simple description of a giant electronic calculator and the problems it solves , McGraw-Hill, New York (1955).
King, Kenneth, private correspondence (July-August 2003). Hankam, Eric, interviews (11 July and 4 November 2003). Pacthesis Memory Sim Date Walkthrough. Eckert, Wallace J., Watson Laboratory Summary of Activities -- Quarterly Report: July-September 1955 , Memorandum to IBM's J.C. McPherson (17 November 1955). W.J.E. Thesis Security. (Wallace J. Pacthesis Memory Walkthrough. Eckert), The I.B.M. Pluggable Sequence Relay Calculator , Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation, Volume III, Number 23 (June 1948), pp. 149-161. Aspray, William (Ed.), Computing Before Computers , Iowa State University Press, ISBN 0-8138-0047-1 (1990). Ceruzzi, Paul E. Reckoners: The Prehistory of the Digital Computer, from Relays to research reference, the Stored Program Concept, 1935-1945 (Contributions to the Study of days sim date walkthrough Computer Science, No.1) , Greenwood Press (1983). A Firm. Bergin, Thomas J. Pacthesis Walkthrough. (Ed.), 50 Years of Army Computing: From ENIAC to MSRC , A Record of a Symposium and accountant, Celebration November 13 and 14 (1996), Aberdeen Proving Ground.
Ceruzzi, Paul E. Crossing the days sim date, Divide: Architectural Issues and the Emergence of the Stored Program Computer, 1935-1955, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing , Vol. 19 No. 1 (1997). Winegrad, Dilys, and Atsushi Akera, A Short History of the Second American Revolution, University of uwe dissertation Pennsylvania Almanac , Vol.42 No.18 (30 Jan 1996). On the Web HERE. John McPherson, Computer Engineer , an oral history conducted in memory days sim date walkthrough, 1992 by William Aspray, IEEE History Center, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ, USA.
Grosch, Herbert R.J, Editor, Proceedings, IBM Scientific Computation Forum , IBM: Endicott NY (1948). W.J.E. (Wallace J. Eckert), The IBM Pluggable Sequence Relay Calculator, Mathematical Tables and an essay about, Other Aids to Computation , Vol.3, No.23 (Jul 1948), pp.149-161. W.J.E. (Wallace J. Eckert) and Ralph F. Haupt, The Printing of Mathematical Tables, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation , Vol.2, No.17 (Jan 1947), pp.197-202. McPherson, John C., Introduction and Biographical Note on Wallace Eckert in the 1984 reprint of sim date . Write About A Means. Stibitz, G.R., A Note on 'Is' and 'Might Be' in Computers, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to sim date, Computation , Vol.4, No.31 (Jul 1950), pp.168-169. W.J.E. (Wallace J. Eckert), Mathematical Tables on Punched Cards, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation , Vol.1, No.12 (Oct 1945), pp.433-436.
Eckert, Wallace J., Calculating Machines, Encyclopedia Americana (1958). Eckert, Wallace J., Letter to Mr. G.W. Essay Tungkol Ko Buhay. Baehne, IBM, 270 Broadway, NYC (9 Jan 1934). Eckert, W.J., Electrons and pacthesis memory sim date, Computation, The Scientific Monthly , Vol. LXVII, No. 5 (Nov 1948). Eckert, Wallace J., Transcript, Systems Service Class No.
591 (Aerial Navigation) for the US Army Air Corps; Department of Education, International Business Machines, Endicott NY (8 Sep 1944). Jones, Walter D., Watson and Me: A Life at IBM, edited by Don Black, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing , Vol. 25 No. 3 (Jul-Sep 2003), p.15. Eckert, W.J., The Astronomical Hollerith-Computing Bureau, Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific , Vol.49, No.291 (Oct 1937), pp.249-253. Smith, Harry F., interview, 8 Sep 2003. About A Means. Eckert, Wallace, Correspondence and pacthesis walkthrough, papers, 1935-1971, archived at the Charles Babbage Institute, University of about of transport Minnesota.
Eckert, W.J., Facilities of the sim date, Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, Proceedings of the Research Forum , IBM, Endicott NY (Aug 1946), pp.75-84. Gutzwiller, M.C., Wallace Eckert, Computers, and the Nautical Almanac Office in Fiala, Alan D., and Steven J. Tagalog Ko Buhay. Dick (editors), Proceedings, Nautical Almanac Office Sesquicentennial Symposium , U.S. Naval Observatory, Washington DC, March 3-4, 1999, pp.147-163. Baehne, George W. (IBM), Practical Applications of the Punched Card Method in Colleges and memory days, Universities , Columbia University Press (1935); hardbound, 442 pages, 257 figures. Cover Letter For Junior Accountant Cv. Seidelmann, P. Kenneth, Research Professor, University of memory days walkthrough Virginia Astronomy Department, private correspondence, Sept-Oct 2003 and April 2004. Prof. Seidelmann was at tagalog essay tungkol ko buhay the US Naval Observatory from 1965 to 2000 and is a historian of the Naval Observatory. Interrogation NAV No. 75, USSBS No. 378, Tokyo, 13-14 Nov 1945: Admiral Soemu Toyoda (Chief of Naval General Staff from pacthesis memory days walkthrough, May 1945), United States Strategic Bombing Survey [Pacific], Naval Analysis Division: Interrogations of Japanese Officials , Volume II, OPNAV-P-03-100 (1946), p.319.
The United States Strategic Bombing Survey: Japan's Struggle to write an essay of transport, End the War . Chairman's Office, 1 July 1946, p.13. Stimson, Henry L., and McGeorge Bundy, On Active Service in memory days sim date, Peace and thesis security, War , Harper, NY (1948), p.618. Krawitz, Eleanor, The Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory: A Center for pacthesis memory walkthrough Scientific Research Using Calculating Machines, Columbia Engineering Quarterly (Nov 1949). IBM Technical Newsletter , No.3, Applied Science Department, International Business Machines Corporation, 590 Madison Avenue, New York 22, N.Y., 22-8823-0-3M-LB-P (Dec 1951). IBM Watson Lab Three-Week Course on a firm Computing, Class Lists (1947-56). Buderi, Robert, The Invention That Changed the World (How a small group of Radar pioneers won the Second World War and walkthrough, launched a technological revolution), Simon Schuster, New York (1996). A Firm. Grosch, Herbert R.J., Early Women in Computing, Communications of the ACM , Vol.38 No.4 (April 1995) (1996). Dick, Steven J., Sky and Ocean Joined: The U.S. Naval Observatory 1830-2000 , Cambridge University Press (2002), ISBN 0-521-81599-1, 609pp.
Backus, John, private correspondence, July 2004. Eames, Charles and Ray, A Computer Perspective: Background to the Computer Age , Harvard University Press. First Edition 1973; Second Edition 1990. Catalog of a unique computer history exhibit at IBM headquarters in 1971. Knuth, Donald, The Art of Computer Programming , Vol.3 Sorting and Searching, Addison-Wesley (1973); Section 5.5, pp.382-384 [the link is to the 1998 revised edition]. Pacthesis Memory Sim Date. Eckert, W.J., The IBM Department of Pure Science and the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, Educational Research Forum Proceedings , IBM, Endicott NY (Aug 1947), pp.31-36. A Firm. Bellovin, Steve, personal correspondence, January 2006. Now a member of Columbia's Computer Science faculty after many years at Bell Labs / ATT Labs, Steve, as a Columbia student in 1968-69, worked at the IBM Watson Lab building on 115th Street doing system administration tasks on an IBM 1130. Pugh, Emerson W.; Johnson, Lyle R., Palmer, John H., IBM's 360 and Early 370 Systems , MIT Press (1991). Jeenel, Joachim, Programming For Digital Computers , McGraw-Hill (1959), 517 pages [IBM 650].
Andree, Richard V., Programming the pacthesis memory days sim date, IBM 650 Magnetic Drum Computer and Data-Processing Machine , Henry Holt and Co., New York (1958). Security. Andree, Richard V., Computer programming and memory days sim date, related mathematics for the IBM 1620 computer . Reference Format. Heide, Lars, Punched-Card Systems and the Early Information Explosion, 1880--1945 (Studies in Industry and Society), Johns Hopkins University Press (2009). Grier, David Alan, Too Soon To Tell: Essays for the End of The Computer Revolution (Perspectives), Wiley-IEEE Computer Society (2009) B. Memory Days Sim Date Walkthrough. Gilchrist, J. Pomerence and S.Y. Wong, Fast carry logic for digital computers, IRE Transactions on Electronic Computers , EC-4 (Dec.1955), 133-136. Digital Computer Newsletter, Office of Naval Research, Mathematical Sciences Division, Vol.10, No.4, October 1958 [PDF]. Digital Computer Newsletter, Office of Naval Research, Mathematical Sciences Division, Vol.12, No.3, July 1960 [PDF]. Cover For Junior. Reid-Green, Keith S., The History of days walkthrough Census Tabulation, Scientific American , February 1989, pp.98-103. Columbia University Computer Center Project Abstracts, July 1971 to June 1972. Reference. Paperbound, about 250 pages (COVER). Columbia University Computer Center Project Abstracts, July 1972 to pacthesis memory walkthrough, June 1973.
Paperbound, about 250 pages (COVER). Geschichte der IBM in Deutschland (IBM). National Science Foundation, Twelfth Annual Report for for junior accountant the Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 1962: Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Science Facilities: Establishment of a Computing Center , $100,00 [for the first year]. Pacthesis Memory Days Sim Date. Tanenbaum, Andrew S., Lessons Learned from 30 Years of essay tungkol MINIX , CACM, Vol.59 No.3, March 2016, pp.70-78. Jones, Steven E, Roberto Busa, S.J., and pacthesis memory days walkthrough, the Emergence of Humanities Computing: The Priest and the Punched Card , Routledge (2016). Includes chapter on the SSEC. Sources are listed in the order they were encountered.
V nn # n refers to the Columbia University Computer Center Newsletter Volume/Number except where noted.
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Analyse et critique du film Cendrillon Je tiens a m’excuser pour la redaction tardive de cet article par rapport a la sortie en salle du film, dut a la creation et mise en ligne de mon nouveau site qui m’a pris beaucoup de temps. Memory Walkthrough! Cette article ne contient aucun spoiler promis, mais est relativement dense en photos. A Firm! Si vous souhaitez (comme je l’ai fait moi-meme) conserver la surprise de la decouverte : aller voir le film d’abord puis revenez vers moi pour les explications detaillees ;) Film fantastique et familial, Cendrillon (Cinderella en version originale) s’inscrit en direct lignee de Alice au pays des merveilles, en 2010, ou Malefique en 2014 (relecture de La Belle au bois dormant ) et en cours de production : Mulan et L a Belle et la Bete avec Emma Watson dans le role-titre. Memory Days Sim Date! Disney poursuit l’adaptation de ses classiques en prises de vues reelles. A Means! Est-ce pour fideliser un public adulte ou le signe que les productions tournent en rond et sont a cours de nouveaux scenarios ? Il est tres interessant du point de vue marketing d’exploiter les gouts deja bien ancres dans l’enfance pour ensuite s’adresser aux adultes qui ont grandis avec les dessins animes Walt Disney.( Nous incluant moi et mes amies qui nous sommes programmee cette seance ensembles) La prise de risque est proche de zero et le succes assure…Je ne pouvais me defaire de cette pensee au moment de me decider a commander ma place de cinema, ayant peu d’interet dans la « consommation de masse ». Pacthesis Memory Days Sim Date Walkthrough! Cependant l’aspect visuel tres heteroclite a eveille ma curiosite. Uwe Dissertation! Toujours est-il que revisiter les classiques reste interessant, qu’ils soient reussis ou non. A titre personnel, Alice aux Pays des Merveilles ne m’avait pas emballee -couple a une qualite tres mediocre de 3D toute nouvelle technologie a cette epoque- ou Malefique Personnages tres creux voir simplets- . Walkthrough! Je suis cependant restee bluffee par le jeu d’Angelina Jolie qui a veritablement cree un personnage tres dense et tres appreciable. In Network Security! Esthetiquement parlant le film etait seduisant avec des contraste de matieres sur les costumes et decors qu’ j’ai beaucoup apprecie). Sim Date! Revenons a notre Cendrillon de 2015. Tagalog! Le film est une adaptation fidele du dessin anime Disney du meme nom sorti en 1950 et n’a pas cherche a s’en eloigner. Sim Date! On suit donc sans surprise le scenario couler comme il se doit.
Fort heureusement, de nombreuses « catch phrases » ou si vous preferez : la replique cinglante humoristique, permettent d’agrementer le solide fil d’Ariane de l’histoire. A Firm! Petite note personnelle : Je remercie a genoux la production d’avoir utilise l’anglais britannique pour faire parler ses acteurs ( NB : En majorite britanniques), si melodieux et si rare face au raz de maree americain que j’ai du mal a apprecier ( effort egalement soutenu et remarquablement par Angelina Jolie en Malefique) . Pacthesis Walkthrough! L’histoire d’Ella- renommee plus tard Cinder-ella par ses affreuses belles s?urs- fait echo aux codes du conte classique et du patrimoine culturel de Disney. About! Bien presentes et facilement reperables, ils sont mis en avant sous forme de clins d’?il et rehausses par cette touche d’humour. Nous avons : le pere bon et attentionnee de la jeune Ella, contrastant avec cette Lady Tremaine, maratre cynique s’acharnant sur la pauvre douce et innocente Cendrillon, tout en reprimant et surveillant ses deux filles ne cessant de se chamailler- s?urs ayant leurs couleurs codes couleurs caracteristiques propres comme dans le dessin anime ; les rires du public a l’apparition de Lucifer, matou terrible dont le derriere remuant dans la version anime n’avait pas laisse de marbre les jeunes enfants que nous etions, la Marraine Bonne fee tres enjouee et dynamique ,l’aide des animaux et des souris afin que Cendrillon puisse aller au bal et-cetera, et-cetera. Pacthesis Sim Date! Bref tous les codes etaient presents, bien a leurs places, donc par de surprise, nous etions bien guides. A Firm! ( Allocine ) : Le pere d’Ella, un marchand, s’est remarie apres la mort tragique de la mere de la jeune fille. Pacthesis! Pour l’amour de son pere, Ella accueille a bras ouverts sa nouvelle belle-mere et les filles de celle-ci, Anastasie et Javotte.
Mais lorsque le pere d’Ella meurt a son tour, la jeune fille se retrouve a la merci de sa nouvelle famille, jalouse et cruelle. Write An Essay! Les trois mechantes femmes font d’elle leur servante, et la surnomment avec mepris Cendrillon parce qu’elle est toujours couverte de cendres. Pacthesis Memory Walkthrough! Pourtant, malgre la cruaute dont elle est victime, Ella est determinee a respecter la promesse faite a sa mere avant de mourir : elle sera courageuse et bonne. Uwe Dissertation! Elle ne se laissera aller ni au desespoir, ni au mepris envers ceux qui la maltraitent. Pacthesis Memory Days Sim Date Walkthrough! Un jour, Ella rencontre un beau jeune homme dans la foret. Ignorant qu’il s’agit d’un prince, elle le croit employe au palais. Cover Cv! Ella a le sentiment d’avoir trouve l’ame s?ur. Pacthesis Walkthrough! Une lueur d’espoir brule dans son c?ur, car toutes les jeunes filles du pays ont ete invitees a assister a un bal au palais. A Firm! Esperant y rencontrer a nouveau le charmant Kit, Ella attend avec impatience de se rendre a la fete. Days Sim Date! Helas, sa belle-mere lui defend d’y assister et reduit sa robe en pieces… Pendant ce temps, le Grand Duc complote avec la mechante belle-mere pour empecher le Prince de retrouver celle qu’il aime#8230; Heureusement, comme dans tout bon conte de fees, la chance finira par sourire a Ella : une vieille mendiante fait son apparition, et a l’aide d’une citrouille et de quelques souris, elle va changer le destin de la jeune fille… Lily James : Cendrillon. Security! Cate Blanchett Lady Tremaine, la mechante belle-mere de Cendrillon.
Richard Madden : Kit le Prince charmant. Pacthesis Days Sim Date! Holliday Grainger :Anastasie Tremaine. Tungkol! Sophie McShera : Javotte Tremaine. Pacthesis Sim Date! Derek Jacobi : le roi. Cover Letter Cv! Hayley Atwell: la mere de Cendrillon.
Ben Chaplin :: le pere de Cendrillon. Walkthrough! Helena Bonham Carter (V. Accountant Cv! F. Pacthesis Memory Days Walkthrough! : Laurence Breheret ; V. A Firm! Q. Pacthesis Days Sim Date! : Pascale Montreuil) : la marraine-fee de Cendrillon. Uwe Dissertation! Titre original : Cinderella. Memory! Titre francais : Cendrillon. A Firm! Realisation : Kenneth Branagh. Scenario : Chris Weitz. Pacthesis Sim Date Walkthrough! Production : David Barron, Simon Kinberg et Allison Shearmur. An Essay A Means! Photographie : Haris Zambarloukos.
Musique : Patrick Doyle. Pacthesis Memory Sim Date! Decors : Casey Banwell et Francesca Lo Schiavo. A Firm! Costumes : Sandy Powell. Pacthesis Walkthrough! Dessin anime original de 1955. Uwe Dissertation! Un petit mot supplementaire sur Sandy Powell, creatrice costume que j’apprecie beaucoup : Creatrice costume entre autre de Entretien avec un vampire ( 1994), Shakespeare in sim date walkthrough, Love ( 1998), Aviator ( 2004)…pour ne citer qu’eux. Elle ete nominee et a recu maintes recompenses. Uwe Dissertation! Dotee d’une connaissance accrue du costume historique, Sandy sait d’autant mieux franchir ces barrieres. Days Sim Date! J’ai admiree, que dis-je j’ai Adore son travail de creatrice costume en particulier sur Les Jeunes Annees d’une Reine, pour avoir eu lors d’un stage a Londres certaines de ces tenues entre les mains et avoir vu pu consulter ses classeurs de recherches premaquettes. Thesis Security! Ce film m’a d’ailleurs donne l’envie d’explorer le costumes pour la periode 1830 qui m’etais alors totalement inconnu ( CF article : Un week-end a la Campagne par un automne de 1830 ) Sandy Powell a la premiere du film. Memory Days Sim Date! (Photo: Alex J. A Firm! Berliner/ ABImages) Sandy a propos de Cendrillon : « J’etais tres excitee a l’idee de creer les costumes de Cinderella car etant aux antipodes de tout ce que j’ai pu concevoir ces derniers mois.
C’est un film tres feminin, destinees aux princesses qui revent et tres eloigne du Loup de Wall Street plutot a dominante masculine. Pacthesis Memory Sim Date! Je n’avais pas fait de films « girly « depuis fort longtemps ! J’ai egalement beaucoup apprecie la possibilite de s’eloigner de l’historicisme dans les costumes et pouvoir transcender les costumes, comme sortis d’un monde irreel, comme emergents d’un livre de contes de fees. Uwe Dissertation! Les presentations faites, je vais vous parler maintenant plus amplement de l’univers esthetique du film et mon ressenti personnel par rapport aux prises de positions. Pacthesis Walkthrough! Le film a ete tourne dans le but principal de divertir, pas ou peu de prises de position, d’exploration des sentiments humains ( ou tres superficiellement) , tout n’est que respect et fidelite au dessin animes de 1950. Write About A Means Of Transport! L’ensemble est demultiplie grace aux effets speciaux ( trop peut etre ?) A mon sens le palais du roi apparaissait plutot comme un aeroport avec ses ailes rectiligne qu’un palais elance et fleche de contes de fee).
La maison immense de Cendrillon, la foret verte et giboyeuse, la prairie immense #8230; Des decors varies. Pacthesis Sim Date Walkthrough! Les univers sont bigarres et melangent absolument tout ! J’ai moi-meme eut du mal a trouver un univers coherent, j’y ai meme renonce …Couleurs, matieres, motifs, epoques historiques dans un mouvement presque ininterrompu se croisent, se fusionnent.. Paper Reference Format! Cela m’a deroute quelque peu au debut .La gamme de couleurs tres etendue, est tres vive et tres contrastee : on pacthesis sim date, obtient un rouge carmin a cote d’un vert pomme acidule fluo, lui-meme a cote d’un beau marron passe de vieux meuble d’antant. Uwe Dissertation! Si le conte originel est ancree dans une periode precise , le dessin anime se fait plus large dans ses references : cree en 1950, la mode a cette epoque est a la renaissance des crinolines. Enfin, le film qui nous occupe aujourd’hui paracheve cette dynamique avec un eclatement spatio-temporel.
Je vous invite a consulter d’ailleurs l’excellent article de Frock Flicks sur les influences du costume historique dans le dessin anime de 1950 : http://www.frockflicks.com/disney-princess-historical-influences-cinderella-1950/ Le decor est plante, parlons a present des costumes ! La encore, Heteroclisme est le maitre mot Ce film est une vision poetique, fantastique du conte de Cendrillon. Pacthesis! Les costumes par consequents suivent cette ligne directrice et jouent un role fondamental, voir meme detronent leur proprietaire. Tagalog Tungkol! Quelle petite fille ou jeune femme n’a pas ete motivee pour aller voir ce film dans la seule perspective de voir cette fameuse robe de bal prenant vie dans notre humble monde terrestre ? Voila donc un costume iconique, pour ne pas dire legendaire que tout le monde attend au tournant et volant presque la vedette a l’actrice principale. Memory Days Walkthrough! Oui Mesdames et Messieurs, l’affiche aurait pu mentionner dans le role-titre a la place de Lily James : Le Robe de Bal. A Firm! On peut imaginer aisement a quel point Sandy Powell a medite sur le design. Commencons donc par la vedette et voyons un petit peu comment cette robe est nee : Il a ete dit que de tous les temps, la scene prefere des animations Walt Disney , etait lorsque Cendrillon se transforme en sa robe de bal dans le film d’animation original.
Pour cette version cinematographique, Sandy Powell souhaitait que la robe de Cendrillon ait autant d’impact que la robe emblematique originale :laissons a la veritable Marraine la Bonne Fee nous presenter son oeuvre: Scene de bal dans le dessin anime. Sim Date! C’est le costume que les gens attendaient le plus , a explique Powell. Paper Reference! Il devait etre a couper le souffle et se demarquer de toutes les autres tenues des invites du bal. La coupe devait rester elegante dans une certaine sobriete, parce que c’est Cendrillon, et je ne voulais pas avoir a la surcharger de garnitures, de bijoux et d’autres choses comme ca. Pacthesis Memory Days Sim Date! Ma principale preoccupation avec la robe de bal etait son mouvement, ainsi que pouvoir obtenir la bonne couleur. An Essay About! Mais ce que je voulais par-dessus le reste, etait de rendre vivante cette robe car les deux seules choses que Cendrillon a faites avec etait : danser et courir de facon la plus elegante et fantastique possible. Pacthesis Days Sim Date! J’imaginais la robe de nuit, flottante derriere elle en me disant qu’elle avait besoin d’etre bien visible.
Je ne peux qu’approuver Sandy sur ce point, a mon sens, l’effet recherche est on tungkol ko buhay, ne peut plus present, et cette robe a litteralement fait fremir le public de la salle ou nous etions. Memory Walkthrough! La robe a crinoline semblait etre le choix le plus evidement car les robes de princesses dans notre societe sont intiment liees a ce types de formes. An Essay A Means! Cette couleur bleu si irreelle (ajoutons pour appuyer le propos que le bleu est ma couleur favorite !) apparait cependant plus marquee et plus intense dans le filme acheve qu’en realite. Pacthesis Sim Date! Je pense que cette augmentation de l’intensite des couleurs a ete poussee numeriquement pour tous les elements visuels, afin d’accentuer le contexte « irreel ». Sandy : « Je ne choisis pas les couleurs forcement pour des raisons symboliques mais plutot parcequ’elles se justifient d’elles meme. Thesis Security! Et parce que je les adore, j’ai beaucoup plus de feeling , de reaction intuitive aux couleurs a assembler ou opposer entres elles. Walkthrough! Par exemple, Lady Tremaine arbore des couleurs vives mais froides. About! Ce ne sont pas des couleurs rassurantes mais attractives car intrigantes » Cette fameuse robe de bal a necessite a l’equipe de Sandy composee de 20 personnes ( 400 au total pour l’ensemble du departement costume) , plus de 500 heures de travail, et vous allez voir que cette robe n’etait pas l’unique exemplaire. Memory Days! Essayages en studio. Letter Accountant Cv! La silhouette est construite de facon a obtenir une belle illusion d’optique : On s’imagine les tres nombreuses couches successives de tissus, chose cependant irrealisable au vu du poids resultant de l’ensemble, qui aurait ete bien trop important . Pacthesis! Une crinoline projetee est en premier lieu confectionnee. Par-dessus viennent plusieurs jupons agrementes de beaucoup de tissus fronces et bouillonnees, visibles lorsque Lily dance . Uwe Dissertation! Les couches par-dessus encore au nombre de cinq ou six sont faites de matiere ultra fines et legeres (probablement mousseline, tulle ou organza de soie) , un tissu lame polyester qui permet ces reflets bleus et argent, enfin tout au sommet de cet incroyable amoncellement de soie, une « crepine », tissu de soie un peu plus epais la mousseline.
Le but recherche etait de creer un effet le plus vaporeux et aerien possible. Pacthesis Walkthrough! Les couleurs virent du vert au bleu, en passant par un lila , ainsi que ces couleurs lamees bleutees. Research Paper Reference Format! A titre personnel, la robe m’a evoque de suite la notion d’eau, de milieu aquatique. Pacthesis Days Walkthrough! Cendrillon danse dans un tourbillon melant air et eau avec legerete ( du moins apparente). Tungkol! Crinoline projete sous la robe. Memory Sim Date! Equipe de Sandy a l’oeuvre sur les bouillonnes de jupons. Uwe Dissertation! Corsage garni de ses papillons.
Le corsage quant a lui semble etre d’inspiration milieu XIXeme. On reconnait les fameuses berthes ( appliquees sur les corsage a pointe frontale de l’epoque des crinolines) La berthe concue comme un nuage impalpable, est sublimee par des elements contrastants par leur precision , en opposition a l’ensemble aerien de la robe. Pacthesis Walkthrough! On peut admirer une douzaine de papillons peints a la main par l’artiste Haruka Miyamoto. Tagalog Essay Ko Buhay! « Quand je dessinais la maquette, explique Sandy, je voulais avoir quand meme une decoration, mais sans etre classique. Memory Sim Date! J’ai reflechi a Cendrillon et son rapport etroit avec la nature et les animaux… Je me suis donc dit qu’il serait bien que des papillons se poseraient directement sur elle et qu’ils soient l’embellissement de son corsage. Paper! » . Days Walkthrough! Enfin, pour achever le cote feerique de cette robes: 10 000 cristaux Swarovski ont ete appliques a la main sur les deux dernieres couches superieures de la jupe. A Firm! Maquette par Sandy Powell et costume final. Memory Days Sim Date Walkthrough! Inutile de preciser qu’il a fallu a l’actrice Lily James de s’habituer a cette masse de tissu, s’entrainer a se mouvoir, a tourner et a courir ! Huit exemplaires de cette robe ( Oui oui, vous avez bien lu ! ) ont ete realises pour un total de 4000 heures de travail. Thesis Security! Chacune de ces huit versions etant legerement differentes. L’une dont l’ourlet etait plus court de 4cm, permettait a Lily de courir dans les jardins sans risquer de tomber. Memory Days! D’autres plus courtes cette fois de 8cm, toujours dans le meme but ont ete faconnees. Security! D’autres enfin possedaient des ouvertures sur les cotes pour permettre le port de harnais. Pacthesis Walkthrough! Je n’ai pas reussi a savoir dans quel but.
Si vous en connaissez la raison, eclairez-moi dans vos commentaires ! Les ourlets comme on thesis, peut aisement l’imaginer, se sont salit tres rapidement .La chose la plus difficile a filmer pour Cendrillon et Kit le prince – joue par Richard Madden- fut la scene de bal. Pacthesis Memory Sim Date Walkthrough! Les acteurs ont longtemps repetes, mais le pauvre Richard ne cessait de se prendre les pieds dans les ourlets de sa princesse. Thesis! Je vais laisser parler la danseuse de quadrille valse, et polka qui est en moi : je dois dire que la dance de Cendrillon et le prince ne m’a pas du tout convaincue. Il etait on pacthesis sim date, ne plus notoire que cette scene avait pour but je dirais unique de presenter la robe dans toute sa splendeur : plans serres de cameras sur les jupons, plans virevoltants en echo a cette robe qui ne finit plus de tourner. Reference Format! ..Le prince faisait sauter et retomber Cendrillon dans un bouillonnement de mousseline pour que l’on puisse profiter de l’apparition de ces jupons. Pacthesis Memory Sim Date! A noter que lors dans cette scene, les figurantes,- elles aussi en crinoline d’une ampleur et de vivacite de couleurs bien entendu differente de celle de Cendrillon- portent des robes inspirees plutot des annees 1950 : donc plus tardivement que celle de Cendrillon que l’on peut vaguement ancree dans la periode 1855-1865. Thesis In Network! Extrait de la scene du bal, la robe en action dans toute sa splendeur ! Quelques chiffres notables : 5 kilometres de fils rien que pour les ourlets, 250 metres de tissus pour chaque version de la robe, 4000 heures de travail au total, 5 kilos pour le poids total du corset, jupons, jupes et corsage, 10 000 cristaux Swarovski appliques a la main, 20 minutes pour enfiler la robe complete, 1 kg : le poids d’une des deux chaussures de bal cree par Swarovski.
Le budget de ces robes a ete tenu secret, je vous laisse imaginer le montant total… Le vetement a ete une torture a porter , revelait Lily James, l’interprete de la princesse aux pantoufles de verre. Memory! La robe etait tres lourde et si serree qu’elle a du se contenter de soupes pendant tout le tournage.…Robe de princesse certes, mais selon la phrase consacree « il est necessaire de souffrir pour etre belle ». Uwe Dissertation! En tant qu’admiratrices et porteuses de ce type de robes, mes amies et moi meme ne nous sommes pas empechees de l’attendre au tournant et d’anticiper par empathie les deplacements de Lily .Notamment l’entree dans le carrosse etroit et cette idee saugrenue de vouloir faire de la balancoire avec une telle robe, nulle doute que cette prise a du etre refaite plusieurs fois ! Tete a tete sur une balancoire. Voila ce que nous pouvions dire sur cette fameuse robe ;) Personnage emblematique incarnee par la petulante Helena Bonham Carter, son costume lui , m’a laisse un peu perplexe… comme une impression d’un travail bacle… Loin de moi l’idee de critiquer la quantite de travail qui a ete necessaire pour fabriquer cette robe, mais l’impression premiere que ce costume m’a suggere, ne m’a pas quitte un instant. Memory Walkthrough! . Tagalog Essay Tungkol! Impression confirmee par les mots de Sandy Powell en interview : Maquette de Sandy Powell et costume final. Pacthesis Memory Days Sim Date Walkthrough! “ C’etait une idee que j’avais eu, plutot ambitieuse et pour etre honnete: nous n’avions pas le temps de la concretiser comme je souhaitais. Letter For Junior! La creation aurait pu etre bien plus poussee et plus efficace. Pacthesis Days Sim Date Walkthrough! Je ne dis pas que le costume n’est pas reussi, mais cependant j’ai eu cette idee un peu folle de vouloir qu’il soit compose presque uniquement de « lumieres », d’avoir l’effet scintillant le plus pousse possible. Research Reference! La robe est composee d’une centaine de LED.
Nous avons fait appel a une entreprise d’eclairage pour creer tous les circuits caches sous la robe. Days Sim Date! Le probleme est qu’il a fallu attendre que la structure porteuse de lumiere soit prete pour construire le costume cote textile. Uwe Dissertation! Nous attendions et attendions encore que les lumieres soient pretes… Ce costume s’est finalement monte presque a la va vite en derniere minute…Je dois dire que je ne l’aime pas. Pacthesis Days Sim Date Walkthrough! En un sens : ce fut tres drole car on cover letter for junior, peut deceler le fait que ce costume est un survivant de derniere minute. Cela peut faire penser que la Fee a confectionne son vetement elle-meme. Days Walkthrough! Helena a dut pendant tout le tournage se deplacer avec une lourde batterie attachee a ses dessous. Cover Letter Accountant! Chaque circuit devait etre enclenche manuellement par un technicien poste a cote d’elle avec un ordinateur pour allumer l’ensemble des LED. Days Sim Date! En ce qui concerne la robe elle-meme : toujours dans cette idee de juxtaposition d’elements historiques : nous avons une collerette Renaissance portee avec une robe d’inspiration plutot XVIIIeme : avec la piece d’estomac brodee et la jupe portee sur de larges paniers , mais bouillonnee de facon tres moderne, trop sans doute a mon gout…Dernier contraste avec une coiffure et un maquillage furieusement annees 1930 qui denote et qui m’a bien plu. Thesis In Network! Le personnage de la fee neanmoins reste tres attachant, tres proche du personnage desinvolte du premier dessin anime : beaucoup de reactions droles, elle qui semble de pas controler sa magie etc..
Maquillage annees 1930 pour une fee bien dynamique ! Quittons cet univers de grand bal pour se retrouver dans la vie quotidienne des protagonistes : Nous retrouvons la jeune et innocente Ella, vetue encore ici de bleu dans un robe en apparence sobre. Pacthesis! Les formes sont beaucoup plus simples et marquent la modestie de la jeune fille : le corsage rappelle fortement les decoupes datant des annees 1840, epoque romantique a laquelle elles font echo. Les jeunes filles avait a l’esprit de paraitre douces, sorties de quelques contes ou legendes, aimant la poesie, pratiquant les arts et comme leurs homologues masculins : trouvant refuge dans la nature ( par extension : avec les animaux) . A Firm! Cendrillon incarne ce personnage a merveille et permet a mon sens d’envisager ce rapprochement. Pacthesis Memory Days Walkthrough! Cendrillon 2015 et 1955. Write Of Transport! On remarquera la gamme de couleur respectee. Pacthesis Memory Sim Date! Le tissu : une mousseline de soie legere bleu tendre releve de motifs floraux, renforce encore cet aspect de fraicheur. Cover! Le motif floral est tres present autour d’Ella : qu’il soit sur ses vetements, aux murs, sur les robes de sa mere disparue bien aimee… Le theme est marqueur d’innocence et de douceur. Pacthesis Days Walkthrough! Cendrillon et sa belle mere Lady Tremaine.
Robes d’epoque Romantique: 1847 USA, 1842 USA, robe de mariee 1841. Uwe Dissertation! Robe de Cendrillon exposee aux Etats Unis a l’occasion de l’avant premiere. Cendrillon revet egalement sa premiere robe de bal rose heritee de sa mere: Toujours cet aspect aerien, innocent. Days! Robe qui comme tout le monde le sait , va se faire dechiqueter par sa belle famille. Cover! Robe rose dans le dessin anime de 1955 et dans le film de 2015. Days! A l’inverse de Cendrillon: ses demi s?urs – elles aussi en ourlet court pour marquer leur jeune age- possedent une garde-robe etendue et tres heteroclite en couleurs et formes : On peut y croiser des silhouettes inspirees des annees 1830, mais contrebalancees par un motif a pois tres annees 1970 ; des robes coupees annees 1950, contrebalancees avec des rayures rappellant les robes a l’anglaise des annees 1780 etc… J’ai beaucoup aime ce que j’ai appele cette « experience de pin-pong temporel » tres comique ou tout se mele, s’entrecroise, se recree, se transgresse a l’infini ! La gamme de couleur reste vive pour les s?urs Tremaines mais assez violente et bariolee . Tagalog Essay! Ce sont principalement des rouges et jaune, signe de dangers et de passions decuplees : trahison, jalousie, envie …. Pacthesis Memory! Ce jeu va se repeter pour tous les personnages feminins, je ne vais pas tout vous detailler et vous laisser le plaisir de savourer ce « ping-pong temporel historique » comme il se doit ;) Maquettes de Sandy Powell et costume finaux. Uwe Dissertation! Je pense detecter une influence croisee des robes de fillettes a manches gonflees des annees 1950s, avec des coloris, on sim date, ne peut plus fous ! Silhouettes tres annees 1830s#8230; mais a pois fluos ! Javotte et Anastasie en robes de bal que je qualifie d’araignees pour citer le premier mot qui me viens. Research Paper Reference! Est ce intentionnel dans l’idee de vouloir agripper des maris ? Inspiration qui me semble etre du tout debut des annees 1850. Pacthesis Memory Sim Date! On remarque le saisissant contraste colore entrez l’arriere plan, Cendrillon et ses demis s?urs. Voila sans doute d’ou me vient aussi cette sensation d’araignee: regardez ces cages incroyables ! Sans parler des corsets aux couleurs..interessantes ;) Lady Tremaine, la terrible belle-mere fait exception dans ce schema de juxtaposition : Cate Blanchet revet des tenues la mettant terriblement bien en valeur : que ce soit les formes ou les couleurs : une gamme etendue de verts colores et de jaunes s’associant divinement avec sa chevelure rousse. Essay Tungkol Ko Buhay! Cate a activement participe avec Sandy Powell a l’elaboration du personnage et se sa mise.
Elle a convaincue Sandy qu’une femme tres elegante , trop elegante peut etre cachait quelque chose de mauvais. Pacthesis Walkthrough! Les formes ici sont fortement inspirees des annees 1940-, 1950 qui, pour une actrice de la stature et du maintien de Cate, lui conferent une superbe presence ! Chapeau voilette aux formes improbables, rouge a levre carmin et chevelure relevee en chignon des annees 1940, robe sophistiquement drapee des annees 1950 et la traine evoquant la celebre « robe papillon » de Charles James etcetera, etcetera. Accountant Cv! Bref, cherchez les elements dissemines partout, c’est un jeu qui pour ma part m’a beaucoup amuse ! Belle unite de vert dans la garde robe de Lady Tremaine. Maquette de Sandy Powell et costume final au bal. Memory Days Walkthrough! Comme un air de famille ? Lady Tremaine et Lauren Bacall( 1944) The Butterfly dress par Charles James americain vers 1955 et sa reinterpretation sur Lady Tremaine.
En ce qui concerne les personnages masculins : On ne change pas les bonnes habitudes : toujours cette juxtaposition d’elements pour creer une silhouette intemporelle, bien qu’une ligne directrice se ressente : le militaire a largement la faveur et a mon avis fait echo aux tenues chamarrees des militaires faisant danser les dames en crinoline au XIXeme siecle. Thesis In Network Security! La encore : les couleurs et motifs font transgresse les formes. Memory Days! A savoir aussi que le prince du Cendrillon de 1950 et le roi son pere sont en tenue d’apparat militaire. A Firm! Couleurs treees vives qui font echos a l’environnement ? En ce qui concerne les tenues civiles peu presentes : on memory days sim date, remarquera quand meme la superbe redingote du Prince ( je n’ai pas trouve de photos pour illustrer desole) et la redingote du meme type portee par le pere d’Ella au debut du film. Redingote et pantalon a carreaux du pere d’Ella. Tagalog Ko Buhay! Remarquez ici le theme fleuri tres present sur la robe de la jeune fille. Memory Sim Date Walkthrough! Dignitaire et Grand Duc: la encore: influence des costumes militaires d’apparats. Paper Reference Format! Je laisse la parole a Sandy : Nous avons travaille comme reference sur une periode allant du XVeme au XIXeme siecle. Pacthesis Memory Days Sim Date Walkthrough! Nous avons opte pour les femmes en robe de bal plutot sur le XIXeme, . Write An Essay About A Means! Les hommes ne sont pas en restent, la plupart porte des costume dont l’inspiration etait directement liees aux redingotes, frac et autres tenues civiles, aussi bien que les uniformes de parade. Memory Days Sim Date! J’aime que ce film, a destination d’un public feminin represente bien la gente masculine autant que les belles robes de bal. Uwe Dissertation! » Le roi et le Prince: Notez ici la presence des fameuses epaulettes or bien presentes aussi dans le dessin anime originel.
Magnifique habit a la hussarde porte par le prince, chemise et bretelles mi XIXeme pour le roi. A noter egalement : l’apparition d’un costume brode d’apparat type ambassadeur pour le personnage du Grand-Duc. Pacthesis Memory Sim Date! Les differents types d’uniformes et tenues d’apparats sont donc presentes. Uwe Dissertation! Meme veste de bal portee fermee par le Grand Duc. Days Sim Date! Tout est dit ! Les tenues sont grandioses, parfaitement ajustees et l’on retrouve aussi bien une chemise a petit col renaissance porte par le pere qu’une magnifique redingote bleu d’inspiration 1830-1840 porte par son fils lui adressant ses v?ux. Cover For Junior! Je vous invite aussi a regarder attentivement les personnages d’arriere-plan et en particulier les garcons de pieds de Cendrillon : A l’ origine deux lezards changes en humains par la marraine, ils conservent leurs caracteristiques animales etant humains et cela se concentre sur le costume ! Ils apparaissent en livree classique d’inspiration XVIIIeme siecle avec quelques petits changements : Sandy: J’ai utilise un tissu a texture reptilienne que nous avons peint et teint dans les tons jaunes a vert et lime pour creer de la brillance rappelant les ecailles. Sim Date! L’Habit possede une queue immensement longue, censee rappeler la queue du lezard Valets de pieds reptiliens pour accompagner Cendrillon au bal. An Essay A Means Of Transport! Finissons cette histoire de conte de fee comme il se doit par un mariage heureux pour toujours. De tous les costumes presents dans ce film, la robe de mariee de Cendrillon est sans doute celle que je prefere le plus, avant meme sa robe de bal : Corsage parfaitement coupe dans un cote facette qui me rappelle la robe de la Belle au bois dormant du dessin anime Disney.
Grandiose robe de mariage entierement peinte a la main. Days Sim Date Walkthrough! Faite d’une mousseline blanc-creme immaculee, relevee par des motifs floraux remontant sur la silhouette et peint entierement a la main, ce costume est le summum d’elegance, de delicatesse et de maturite innocente mais affirmee.La jupe me rappelle vaguement les fameuses jupes trompettes ou jupes sirenes des annees 1900. A Means! Robe de bal espagnol vers 1902 .Motif floral et jupe sirene. Pacthesis Sim Date Walkthrough! La robe a bien manquee d’etre brulee avec sa porteuse lors d’un accident ! Pendant une seance photo du couple en costumes, l’actrice s’est approche d’un peu trop pres d’un petit rechaud electrique et la robe a aussitot pris feu. An Essay About A Means Of Transport! « C’etait un desastre ! confie Sandy, la couche superieur de mousseline peinte a la main devait etre totalement refaite. Memory Days Sim Date! !A ce moment, tout le monde a d’abord pris peur pour la robe afin de s’interroger enfin si Lily ne s’etait pas blessee. Il faut dire que nous n’avions ni le budget, ne le temps de refaire une autre robe” Plus de peur que de mal et le resultat est superbe ! Meme si comme bien souvent, la robe n’ apparait que quelques secondes dans le film. A Firm! Le prince Kit porte quant a lui un costume d’apparat influence encore ici militaire dont les teintes bleus pastels font echos au couleurs tendres de la robe de sa nouvelle compagne. Memory Days Walkthrough! « La silhouette et la forme des epaules rappelle la tenue du Prince de l’animation originale dit Sandy. Accountant! Mais nous avons cree une tenue plus construite et concue comme un tailleur des annees 1950 en modifiant toutefois les couleurs pour les rendre moins masculine telles que le bleu , le vert et blanc. Pacthesis Memory Days Walkthrough! La veste militaire est en laine , qui a ete teints dans bleu pale pour accentuer les yeux de Madden.
Une broderie d’or agremente le rendu final » . About Of Transport! Notre tour dans le monde feerique s’acheve sur cette fin, que l’on attendait tous ( conte de fee oblige) mais qui reste neanmoins une scene touchante et tres agreable a regarder. Pacthesis Days Walkthrough! Je dois admettre avoir ressenti la presence de trop d’elements heteroclites qui a chaque apparition m’ont fait lever un sourcil interrogateur. Write About Of Transport! C’est un peu dommage car on days sim date walkthrough, ressort de ce film avec une impression d’avalanche visuelle qui ne nous a pas laisse le temps d’en profiter. J’ai decouvert la beaute de tous ces elements en faisant ces recherches et redigeant l’article que vous venez d’achever de lire. A Firm! La scene du bal reflete a juste titre cette volonte de « rassembler un million de style differents (costume traditionnel espagnol, crinoline plus contemporaine des figurantes…) , creant un contraste enorme avec la robe de bal de Cendrillon) Le film reste donc avant tout un divertissement familial, a voir avec les enfants (meme si dans la salle dans laquelle nous avons vu ce film etait composee a majorite d’adultes.) ou entres amies , comme ce fut le cas pour nous, afin de se transporter quelques minutes dans un univers poetique loin du quotidien maussade.
Bien que le dessin anime soit l’un de mes preferes avec la Belle au Bois Dormant, je n’ai pas reussi a accrocher avec les personnages du film. Pacthesis Days Walkthrough! Celui se regarde a mon sens, un peu comme si nous embarquions dans une attraction de Disneyland pour la quitter sans etre profondement bouleverse mais heureux d’avoir passe un bon moment. Uwe Dissertation! N’hesitez pas a donner votre avis sur l’article ou le film dans les commentaires ! Sources citations Sandy Powell et presentations : Galleries en ligne du Metropolitan Museum. Memory Sim Date Walkthrough! Laisser un commentaire Annuler la reponse. Essay Tungkol! Merci pour cet article tres interressant ! Je pensais aller le voir et finalement je pense que je vais attendre qu’il passe a la TV. Je suis tres impressionnee egalement par la diversite de costume / de couleurs ! J’etais tres curieux de lire l’avis d’une specialiste du costume historique sur ce film que, pour ma part, j’ai adore. Pacthesis Memory Days Sim Date Walkthrough! Mes quelques connaissances en la matiere m’ont immanquablement procure le reflexe de chercher a dater la periode de l’histoire par les costumes. Tagalog Essay Tungkol Ko Buhay! Je me suis tres rapidement apercu que c’etait un melange#8230; et j’ai trouve cela tres bien pour un conte de fee.
Ce melange impose un monde imaginaire qui sied donc a l’histoire. Memory Walkthrough! Assez vite, je ne me suis plus pose de question sur la datation ou les styles des costumes, pour me laisser prendre par le tourbillon et la magie du conte. Uwe Dissertation! Je crois que c’est ce qui m’a permis de me concentrer davantage sur l’ensemble, et donc les personnages, que j’ai trouve consistant au contraire de vous. En effet, l’excellente idee des scenaristes sur l’aspect morale de Cendrillon qui applique dans sa vie les preceptes enseignes par sa mere (rester courageuse et bienveillante), procure a l’heroine une vraie valeur utile et propage ainsi au public une belle lecon sans en avoir l’air. Sim Date! Il est a craindre que la focalisation sur les costumes vous aie malheureusement empeche de gouter ces nuances. A Firm! Je vous remercie encore pour la magnifique presentation des vetements du film, accompagnee de vos riches et passionnants enseignements sur ceux-ci. Pacthesis Sim Date! Merci pour votre commentaire.
Je ne neglige pas bien sur la valeur morale de ce film et chacun l’aborde de la facon dont il lui est sensible ;) Encore un article genial. A Firm! Incroyablement complet et truffe d’anecdotes. Days! Chaque tenue est etudiee, detaillee, commentee. Paper! C’est un travail stupefiant et passionnant a lire. Memory Days Walkthrough! Bravo ! Merci encore Damien ! Je me suis passionnee a etudier la chose ( preuve de la longueur de l’article) ;) De fil en aiguille, je suis tombee sur votre article qui accroche et merci de tous ces details#8230;le film je l’ai vu a sa sortie en salle et egalement a la television#8230;pour ma part, j’ai ete subjuguee par les tenues de la belle-mere que Cate Blanchett portait avec grande classe. Bien sur, j’ai beaucoup aime la robe de bal de Cendrillon#8230;j’avoue que si je suis allee voir le film des sa sortie, c’est que j’avais entendu parler de la creation incroyable de cette robe de bal#8230;j’ai admire la qualite de tous ces costumes#8230;en revanche, concernant Lily James, j’ai ete derangee par l’epaisseur et la couleur trop foncee de ses sourcils#8230;qui ne collaient pas avec cette superbe robe#8230;(c’est juste mon avis) et diantre, je ne me rappelle pas de la robe de mariage qui est aussi magnifique. Cover Cv! Tres interessante analyse ! Je l’avoue, perso ce film m’a un peu tape sur le systeme.
Pourtant il y a des moyens et des tops acteurs#8230; J’ai ete decue par les costumes de Cendrillon: Overdose de paillettes, tissus sur-brillant qui font un peu plastoc, robe gigantesque#8230; Moi qui aime la demesure la ca faisait vraiment tres disney et pas dans le bon sens du terme.. Pacthesis Memory! Bon et puis je ne suis pas fan de l’actrice il faut dire. Cover Accountant! On nous la colle a toutes les sauces en ce moment. Pacthesis Days Walkthrough! Oui elle est fraiche et belle. Write About A Means! Non elle ne joue pas bien.
Et la nian nian attitude ne fait rien pour ameliorer l’image feminine vehiculee par l’entertainment#8230; La seule qui sauve le film c’est Cate Blanchett. Absolument geniale comme mechante. Pacthesis Memory! Et les tenues! My god on essay tungkol, dirait que Monsieur Dior s’est reincarne et a souffle les idees a la costumiere#8230;. Pacthesis Memory Days Sim Date Walkthrough! Merci Alicia pour votre retour ! Oui c’est vrai que nous sommes en plein dans l’enorme machine Disney donc l’overdose est totalement recherchee.
Ce qui m’a frappee c’est le talent de la costumiere pour avoir su manier avec beaucoup de finesse les differentes epoques historiques pour creer quelque chose de nouveau et c’est a mon sens ce qui fait le charme de ce film ;) Je ne suis pas du tout fan d’habitude de ce genre de film mais la c’etait un plaisir de m’amuser a fouiner les petits details.
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Memory Days Sim Date: How to end the game with the Prince Sakka
dungeon craft essays Confessions of a Dungeons Dragons™ Addict. Your contribution via Patreon or PayPal Me keeps this site and days its author alive. It is important that you accept the about of transport, fact that I am a Christian. To this end, and recognizing that I am saved by grace, not by works I have done, I would recount just a part of pacthesis sim date, my Christian experience so that you may know me by my works. I was as a youth raised in Baptist Sunday Schools until the age of twelve, when a business relocation landed me in a Presbyterian congregation. For Junior Accountant Cv. By then I had learned the scriptures well enough that the Presbyterians chose me as one of two youths to represent them on WNBC (New York) radio's Bible quiz. My partner and memory sim date I advanced to the finals. More importantly, in 1968, when I was thirteen, my cousin (now a Presbyterian minister) showed me that the truth I knew could become a personal truth. Using a Campus Crusade Four Spiritual Laws leaflet, he led me into a personal relationship with God through Jesus Christ. To trace in detail the fellowships and in network security ministries through which I grew would take too much space.
They include independent fellowships, Full Gospel Businessmen, Scott Ross, Baptist, Lutheran, Methodist, Presbyterian, and Assembly of God churches, and many others. Before I finished high school I took the pacthesis days sim date walkthrough, opportunity to carry Bibles into reference format, Romania with a high school choral group, and started an pacthesis sim date walkthrough evangelistic music ministry in New Jersey. Over the next decade, my music, evangelism, and teaching were heard from Maine to Maryland. Seeking to better serve God with my music, I went to cover letter for junior college to study the Bible. In five years of study I earned an Associate of Arts from Luther College of the Bible and Liberal Arts in Teaneck, New Jersey, and a Bachelor of Arts majoring in Biblical Studies from Gordon College. I took all this accrued study, and wound up on a small Christian radio station where for five years I struggled to fight management pressures to convert to a more financially profitable format while preaching and teaching the pacthesis memory sim date, gospel on the air and in uwe dissertation local churches. I also continued with my music; some of my songs are still sung as choruses in pacthesis sim date fellowships in the area.
During this time I taught New Testament at a small Bible College which unfortunately did not prosper; sometime after part-time faculty (including me) were released, the school closed. Cover Letter Accountant Cv. It was also during this time that my wife and I began to play Dungeons Dragons(tm). I should also make it clear that we are not idiots. Memory Days Walkthrough. On the contrary, my wife is a registered nurse who graduated from a firm, her program with a perfect 4.0 average. Sim Date Walkthrough. I eventually went on cover for junior accountant, to complete my Juris Doctore, receiving an American Jurisprudence Award in Jurisprudence, and being listed in Who's Who Among American Law Students 8th and pacthesis walkthrough 9th editions. I also became a member of American Mensa.
We were not fools. But we were game players. Tagalog. We played many kinds of games with many kinds of people. Sim Date Walkthrough. Apart from the fact that it was a relaxing and stimulating recreational activity, it enabled us to maintain relationships with people who were not Christians and, by sharing our lives with them, to move them slowly toward the gospel and into growth. We constantly kept our eyes open for new games, even subscribing to about a means of transport magazines which provided information about them. Then one day in about 1980, my wife brought home an article in Psychology Today(tm) praising the new game Dungeons Dragons(tm), which the author had used as a group therapy technique for teenagers. We were intrigued. From the sound of it, this was a game that would enable us to days walkthrough create adventures like those in some of our favorite Christian fiction--C.S. Lewis, J.R.R. Tolkein, George MacDonald. Ko Buhay. We immediately sought it out, and purchased a basic set.
We were not disappointed. The game lends itself extremely well to pacthesis sim date creating mortal battles with spiritual ramifications. We quickly expanded into the advanced rules. I became the referee--the dungeon master--and created worlds for my friends to explore. After a time, I mentioned the cover letter, game on the air as part of an walkthrough illustration in a teaching.
I was abruptly made aware of cover cv, something I could not then understand: that there were Christians who believed the game was itself evil, demonic, and dangerous. They showed their concern for pacthesis days walkthrough me (I was, fortunately, established and well loved by the Christians in the audience) by showering me with tracts by various and sometimes highly respected writers explaining why this game was so horrible. Perhaps the volume of material and the respectability of the authors should have caused me to abandon the game. The problem was, everything that was said about the game in these tracts was either completely wrong or completely meaningless. For example, it was pointed out that the Monster Manual--one of the rulebooks for the game--contained the words devil and letter for junior demon many times--the authors had counted how many--between certain page numbers. However, the pacthesis memory days walkthrough, book in question is a sourcebook, essentially an encyclopedia of good and evil creatures, some very weak, others very powerful, which may be used at the referee's discretion to uwe dissertation create encounters in his campaign. The words appear far more frequently in similar sections of the Encyclopedia Brittanica, which to my knowledge nobody advocates burning. Furthermore, if these monsters were exactly the pacthesis memory days walkthrough, same but for the names--if they were called orthnips and ognogs--no one would complain.
However, the swords and sorcery milieu (and the fictional and inspirational writings of many Christian authors) include many encounters with such creatures. They are recognized by those names, and any brave Christian knight who faces such a being knows what he faces. The game would be stripped of much of its Christian potential without them. It should also be noted that on tagalog ko buhay, the grand scale good is greater than evil. Solars, planetars, and devas--the ranks of angels--are greater in power than the demons, daemons, and devils who might be arrayed against them, even without recognizing (as the game does) that the evil creatures cannot cooperate in sim date mutual trust. Furthermore, many of the character types (called classes) which are the most powerful--paladin, ranger, cavalier--must be good without blemish or face severe consequences including the loss of all their spiritually-derived powers.
And a high-level paladin--a knight of uwe dissertation, holy orders trained for many years in defending his lawful good faith--although a mere mortal is more than the equal of a devil, as he can bring to bear not merely his physical prowess but also the powers of good. Another attack is pacthesis memory days sim date, made upon the book Deities Demigods(tm), replaced eventually by Legends Lore(tm). These books contain a great deal of uwe dissertation, information about false gods from many lands. However, this again is a sourcebook, permitting a referee a great deal of choice as to what kind of world he will create. The question of the religious background of the campaign is specifically left in the hands of the pacthesis memory, referee who creates the world. I--and most of the referees I have met--always maintained that there was one God of gods, but that there were many so-called gods vying for worship who were some more and some less aligned with the truth, all of tagalog essay, whom would eventually kneel to the God of pacthesis days sim date, gods.
Following C.S. A Firm. Lewis, I accepted the pacthesis memory sim date, possibility that many of the pagan gods may have been spiritual beings, and some in ancient times may actually have not yet been forced to uwe dissertation chose between God and Lucifer. In fact, the game gave us the opportunity to talk about moral, ethical, and spiritual questions with nonbelievers in a way we had never done before. Pacthesis Sim Date Walkthrough. It is a strong point of Dungeons Dragons(tm) that it contains alignment: every player must decide whether his character is good or evil, lawful or chaotic. The character must then abide by that decision, and face the consequences of his actions whether he chooses something required by his beliefs, or turns against those beliefs to act otherwise. The player is also bound by that decision, but in a different way. The player controls his character in exactly the same way as the author of a book.
Alignment is a major decision about accountant, a character, and the player must follow the alignment decision in other decisions he makes for the character in order to remain in sim date walkthrough character. However, it is unfair to suggest that the player who runs an evil character is himself doing evil in the same way that it is unfair to suggest that an author who creates well-developed evil characters in his stories must himself be evil. C.S. Lewis has given us many fictional examples of good characters--King Peter, Queen Lucy, Ransom, and Aslan himself--and also many powerful evil characters--the white queen, the green serpent, Weston, and Screwtape. The ability to understand evil does not make the cover letter for junior accountant, author or the player--or the game--evil. This aspect of the game creates the opportunity to discuss the nature of good and evil in a way that chess never did. In this regard, someone somewhere quoted a game player who alledgedly said that it was easier to memory days play an evil character than a good one. I do not know who said it--and any game is only as good as the referee and tungkol the players--but it was not so at my table nor at the table of memory sim date walkthrough, any referee I ever met. Evil characters rapidly face obvious consequences: they become distrusted, have no allies, and are soon eliminated either by those they trust or by those they misuse. It is as in real life: evil has consequences. Uwe Dissertation. Even more so, it is as we Christians perceive it: evil has eternal consequences.
There are many circumstances in which it is clear that the evil character who makes a fatal mistake is carried away by his own gods to eternal punishment. So many of these arguments proved to days walkthrough be without merit. Others merely misunderstood the game. It is pointed out that there are a large number of magic spells and cover letter cv magical devices described in pacthesis memory days walkthrough the various rule books. Critics claimed that players pretended to cast these spells by saying spell words and making motions. These critics do not understand that the write a means of transport, player is not the character. As it is, the books contain descriptions of what a spell or device does, and indeed says whether the pacthesis memory, character must speak, move his hands, and/or have materials available, but no words are given and rarely are motions described (and then only as a joke). While the character is perceived as doing these things, the player merely says that his character will cast the spell. He does not himself act out spell casting. The objection is still raised that the game suggests the ko buhay, involvement of magic.
Those of memory days sim date walkthrough, us who are fond of those Christian authors who write so much fantasy (and I would add Charles Williams and research paper reference John Milton to those already mentioned) do not have a problem with the fictitious use of pacthesis sim date, magic. Swords and sorcery books and movies are not a problem per se, and the idea of incorporating these into a game is not significantly different. But some still feel uncomfortable about the idea of magic. Magic is merely a device of the story. For example, a character in a game picks up a device and fires it. It sends out a blast of heat. If you are playing Gamma World(tm), it is an essay about of transport, a flame thrower; if you are playing Dungeons Dragons(tm), it is pacthesis memory, a wand of fireballs. A character is injured, and another character comes to his aid, attempting to heal his injuries. In Star Frontiers(tm), it is a medic administering biocort; in Dungeons Dragons(tm), it is a cleric prayerfully ministering with a cure light wounds spell.
A character assaulted by cover, missile fire creates an invisible barrier which blocks many of the attacks. If it is Metamorphosis Alpha(tm), the character is a mutant using mental force field generation; if it is Dungeons Dragons(tm), then the character is a magic user casting a shield spell. Magic is used because we are attempting to create the worlds of medieval fantasy. It is not different in play from a world which uses advanced technology or presumed mental and physical mutations or for that matter from pacthesis days walkthrough, those games which recreate the about of transport, wild west (Boot Hill(tm)), counter-espionage (Top Secret(tm)), or cops and robbers (Gangbusters(tm)): characters are assumed to perform the actions the memory sim date, player specifies; players no more cast spells in Dungeons Dragons(tm) than shoot each other with revolvers in Boot Hill(tm). But it was still argued by some that the background of write, magic was inherently dangerous in pacthesis memory days sim date walkthrough that it might spark interest in the supernatural, through such outlets as witchcraft. Cover For Junior Cv. There are at least four answers to this suggestion. First, Christian writers during the first half of this century (again Lewis, Tolkein, Williams) used magic, mysticism, and paganism in their own stories specifically because they wanted modern materialists to begin to consider whether the supernatural might exist. Here we have a game with enormous popular potential which might well get that idea to pacthesis days sim date walkthrough many more people, and we condemn it. Is it merely because it was not our idea? Second, even if we assume that those authors were wrong, that it is dangerous to attack materialism with generalized spiritualism, does it not make sense that we should put ourselves in a position which makes us available to answer the questions of a firm, those who do become so involved, rather than signaling them that we despise them and pacthesis memory days sim date condemn them for such curiosity? Third, it is not the mission of the church to create respectable sinners; it is the mission of the church to thesis in network hold out the hope of redemption.
Rebuking and condemning Dungeons Dragons(tm) players merely drives them away from pacthesis memory days sim date walkthrough, that hope. If Dungeons Dragons(tm) is wrong, if it leads to cover letter for junior a downward path (there is no evidence to support such a contention), then the task of Christians is to love the players regardless of where their lives lead. It is said that for some alcoholics and drug addicts there is no hope for them until they finally reach what for them is the bottom. Pacthesis Memory Days Walkthrough. Some people may need to research reference see the full face of evil before fleeing in terror to the only hope of safety--and, as Lewis often said, the devil's best defense in this age is convincing people that he does not exist. Fourth, this feared spiritism is pacthesis days sim date, not the most horrible thing which can affect a person. There are far more insidious evils which creep into our beliefs: even as Christians, we accept lies without realizing what we have done. The inherent greed of letter for junior cv, our society, the belief that success is measured by having the most toys, may be the most insidious lie in this century. This lie is promoted by many games, including Monopoly(tm) and Life(tm). No one recognizes how dangerous these games might be in the lessons they teach. Meanwhile, although Dungeons Dragons(tm) includes the pursuit of wealth, it is pacthesis memory sim date walkthrough, not the measure of success in the game, and many characters are expected to contribute large portions of uwe dissertation, their wealth to churches and charitable organizations. Memory Days Sim Date. Also, most games incorporate the in network security, competitive notion that only pacthesis memory days one player or team can win, encouraging the belief that winning requires defeating everyone else.
Some games, notably Risk(tm), Stragego(tm), and chess, have elevated this to the status of war. While conflict, even war, is integral to letter accountant the Dungeons Dragons(tm) world, it is generally the case that players quickly learn to join forces, cooperating against pacthesis days sim date walkthrough, a common non-player enemy, overcoming problems as a team. In a good campaign, all the letter accountant cv, players come away as winners. No, the real dangers of Dungeons Dragons(tm) lay elsewhere. The spiritism it alledgedly fosters is neither so strong nor so dangerous an idea as those insidious philosophies permeating other games which can so undermine our lives. Then there is the argument that Dungeons Dragons(tm) players commit suicide. Those authors who have said so should be embarrassed. The original case of this appears in the book Mazes and Monsters by Rona Jaffee, a work of fiction written in pacthesis memory days sim date the early 1980's when Dungeons Dragons(tm) was still a new game.
I know of no real case of a Dungeons Dragons(tm) related suicide or killing. It seems unlikely: the game teaches hope and an essay a means of transport resourcefulness. It encourages people to believe they can defeat the obstacles they face. Pacthesis Memory Days Sim Date. Even so, with the vast number of teenage suicides, it is likely that some were Dungeons Dragons(tm) players. An Essay About A Means Of Transport. Some were honor students, some sports heroes, some scouts and choir members and Sunday School members and leaders in their communities. I am certain that far more suicides can be clearly shown to be directly caused by the stock market than can be even remotely connected to memory walkthrough Dungeons Dragons(tm). That does not make the stock market the research reference, tool of Satan. These arguments were all clearly invalid; they did not touch the true dangers of Dungeons Dragons(tm). Days. Thus, we continued to play. We found that we had large numbers of Christians and non-Christians playing together, and sometimes discussing the morality and uwe dissertation spiritual realities behind the game. Through the relationships we built, we saw a number of them become Christians and grow in grace and understanding.
In fact, there is one story I must tell. It is the story of a friend who, long before I met him, had heard the gospel on television and given his life to Jesus. But before he had had the opportunity to pacthesis sim date walkthrough learn and grow in this new life, some well-meaning misguided local minister singled him out as an cover accountant cv example of sim date, someone who, because he played Dungeons Dragons(tm), was clearly of the devil. This condemnation rattled my friend, who decided that if that was what God thought of him, he would pursue evil. This he did with a vengeance for many years. He was introduced to me because we were both Dungeons Dragons(tm) players, and for that reason he did not immediately dismiss me as a Christian fool; because I did not condemn him for this (indeed, I was not interested in cover letter cv condemning but in reaching him), he was willing to discuss the sim date walkthrough, spiritual and moral ramifications of the game and the spiritual realities of his own life. Ultimately--after years wasted--he returned to the truth he had abandoned, and cover accountant cv began to grow in the grace and knowledge of Christ Jesus. So what are the problems of memory sim date walkthrough, Dungeons Dragons(tm) and other role playing games? There are several, and Christians should be aware of them and guard against them.
First, like most games--all those which use dice or cards--Dungeons Dragons(tm) assumes that dice and of transport cards fall in a random pattern along statistically predictable probabilities. It is extremely difficult for pacthesis memory sim date us to deal with this assumption. The question of tungkol ko buhay, whether dice and pacthesis memory days sim date walkthrough cards fall at random or are divinely controlled is far beyond the scope of this article, but the answer goes directly to the nature of the sovereignty of God. Thesis In Network. Christians who play such games should grapple with the issue and form an memory sim date walkthrough opinion about it. Note that it is possible to avoid all such games by thesis in network, only playing those games which pit skill against skill--athletic competition, chess, checkers, reversi, competitive puzzles such as tic-tac-toe and dots--but these are the games most susceptible to days sim date the problems of the competitive spirit, the idea that one wins and a firm therefore all others lose. That may be a far more dangerous challenge to the principles of the gospel than the more intellectual question of whether the assumption of statistical randomness is an affront to the sovereignty of God. The second problem with Dungeons Dragons(tm) is days sim date, that it, like nearly any hobby or recreational activity, takes time and money. The stewardship of our time and our money is a difficult personal issue, and each of us must determine the costs of our choices. Tagalog Essay Tungkol Ko Buhay. The time and memory sim date money I spent learning Dungeons Dragons(tm) and developing my game world and playing it (as well as additional time spent playing in write an essay about a means other less controversial game worlds such as Star Frontiers(tm) and Gamma World(tm)) might have been spent in other pursuits. Pacthesis Days. I might have memorized several more books of the Bible, or spent time and money passing out uwe dissertation, literature on street corners. I might have written more music and devoted time to the business problems of expanding a concert ministry.
I might have volunteered at any of memory walkthrough, several missions to help reach and teach people who had hit bottom. I cannot say what impact I would have had. But today I have about twenty young men from twelve to thirty years old who come to an essay about my house regularly to play a game which I referee, most of whom are either not Christian at all or very much unaware what their commitment to pacthesis days sim date walkthrough Christ means. As part of that game, they must each come to grips with how I understand good and evil, what moral standards I think are appropriate to characters professing faith in tagalog tungkol ko buhay a good god, and what consequences will fall upon those who do right and those who do wrong. I have had the sim date walkthrough, opportunity to give Bibles and instruction to teenagers whom I would not have met were it not for for junior accountant the game, and to sing songs of faith to some who would never have darkened the door of a Christian concert let alone an sim date walkthrough evangelical church. I have been able to demonstrate that Christians are permitted--no, required--to think, to understand life from the perspective of the truth revealed. I have changed lives which might not otherwise have changed. In assessing how well my time and money are spent--and I confess to a tendency at times to overspend even on unquestionably worthwhile pursuits--I must take into uwe dissertation, account what has happened in these lives. The third problem about Dungeons Dragons(tm) is that Christians have by and large abandoned it to the enemy. Pacthesis Memory Days. Those who complain and a firm condemn a game which they have never even watched let alone played have in attempting to revile the game merely blackened the days, eye of the church.
The game is replete with players who believe that all Christians are idiots because of what some Christians have said. Reference. The game itself is not a stumbling block to faith, but the attitudes of those who would rebuke a Dungeons Dragons(tm) player in the name of pacthesis days, Jesus and walk away rather than use the valuable lessons of the game as a building block for uwe dissertation a true faith are. What the game needs is great players and intelligent referees who can incorporate their Christian faith into walkthrough, the game, debate the issues it raises on its own terms, and in so doing can say to the other players, I am a Christian, and as a Christian I believe. . . . Most people are reached by essay ko buhay, someone they know. Most Dungeons Dragons(tm) players do not know any Christians who have not called them satanists. Pacthesis. Most ongoing Dungeons Dragons(tm) games do not have the insights to be gained from people of the Book sitting at the table bringing faith to write about of transport bear on the worlds of human fantasy.
I still play Dungeons Dragons(tm), Star Frontiers(tm), and memory sim date walkthrough Gamma World(tm), and see no reason to stop. I referee two games, and in network have characters in seven others. Memory Days Walkthrough. I think C.S. Lewis, J.R.R. Tolkein, and Charles Williams would approve--I know that many Dungeons Dragons(tm) players have the opportunity to read their books because of exposure through other players. I said at the beginning that I wanted you to uwe dissertation understand how a Christian could become a Dungeons Dragons(tm) player. By now I hope I have made it clear why many more should.
The fears and misgivings of many concerning the game are misguided and unfounded. It is a fabulous opportunity to explore and understand our own faith, and to memory share that faith with others. For more on uwe dissertation, Faith and Gaming, visit the Christian Gamers Guild, and read more articles about faith and gaming in the Chaplain's Corner. I've expressed a few thoughts on the integration of faith and gaming in response to a letter I received.