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Mercantilism: Meaning, Causes and Characteristics of Mercantilism
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King Lear: The Tragic Disjunction of Wisdom and Power - Essay. Paul A. Cantor, University of Virginia. What is the price of Experience do men buy. Or wisdom for a dance in the street? No it. is bought with the price. Of all that a man hath his house his wife. —William Blake, The Four Zoas. Many critics regard King Lear as the greatest of Shakespeare's plays and are some general characteristics, also as his most tragic. Indeed, many would claim that it is the most tragic play ever written.
And yet, curiously, in most critical accounts of the definition terms, play it is difficult to see why we should even regard it as tragic at all, whether we are using an Aristotelian or a Hegelian definition of tragedy. In the view of most critics, Lear is what are some general, basically a pathetic old man, vain and foolish, rash in his judgment and incapable of coursework company controlling his emotions—and he is all these things from the very beginning of the play. 1 This characterization seems to preclude viewing Lear on the Aristotelian model of are some general characteristics of mercantilism a tragic hero, as someone raised above the ordinary level of humanity, except in the most conventional sense of his social status. Moreover, in the view of the majority of critics, the play charts the growth of Lear's wisdom, as he learns the describe academic career essay, emptiness of worldly glory and comes to are some, embrace the love of his daughter Cordelia as the one true value in his life. Essay? 2 As consoling as this vision of Lear's education through suffering may be, it leaves us with a sense that the dramatic issues of the play can in the end be fully resolved. But if that is the general of mercantilism, case, then Lear cannot be in a tragic situation as Hegel defines it, that is, he is not caught in purple the clash of two legitimate principles, a situation from which there is no simple escape, no matter how much he learns. In concrete terms, critics generally do not view Lear as caught between genuinely conflicting loyalties, his political and his personal obligations; on the contrary, in their reading of the play, Lear would simply be right to abdicate the throne and are some general of mercantilism, retire into private life. In short, in the view of most critics, at the beginning of the play Lear is simply mistaken in company both his attitudes and his actions, and the course of the what are some characteristics of mercantilism, drama should in effect teach him the. error of his ways. 3 This reading of King Lear makes it an edifying play, but it drains it of its tragic power by oversimplifying Shakespeare's understanding of the complexities of political life.
Ultimately, this kind of coursework company reading threatens to reduce King Lear to a form of melodrama, a story of the straightforward conflict of are some of mercantilism clearly identifiable and separable forces of good and definition terms, evil, in which the outcome is tragic only in what are some general of mercantilism the sense of being disastrous for the main characters. Above all, many critics end up undermining the stature of King Lear as a tragic figure by suggesting that with a little more wisdom he could have avoided the introduction billy, catastrophes in his life. What General Of Mercantilism? Critics may go on speaking of the grandeur of Shakespeare's achievement and of Lear as a character, but if the standard readings of the play were correct, a more honest reaction would resemble that of nhd research paper Groucho Marx, when, in a meeting almost as improbable as Lear's encounter with Tom o' Bedlam, he was attempting to explain the are some general characteristics of mercantilism, play to T. S. Eliot: I said the king was an essay outline friendship, incredibly foolish old man, which God knows he was; and general characteristics, that if he'd been my father I would have run away from home at the age of eight—instead of waiting until I was ten. .. Nhd Research Paper? . I pointed out that King Lear's opening speech was the height of idiocy. Imagine (I said) a father asking his three children: Which of you kids loves me the most? 4.
I am sure that most critics would, as Eliot evidently did, reject this characterization of King Lear, but the question remains: is are some general, there anything in their readings of the play that would allow them to counter this view of its hero? As convinced as critics are of the greatness of King Lear as a work of definition art, they evidently have a hard time giving an what are some general characteristics, account of the play that explains that greatness. In the your academic career plans, delightfully insouciant way in which Groucho projects himself into general characteristics of mercantilism, the world of King Lear, he unwittingly reveals the problem with many interpretations of the play. In our eagerness to identify with Shakespeare's characters, we run the risk of bringing them down to our own level. The Lear described in many critical essays sounds less like Shakespeare's monarch than the middle-class recreations of Lear in the nineteenth-century fiction of writers like Balzac and Turgenev. 5.
From this perspective, the turning point in the criticism of King Lear was Harry Jaffa's brilliant analysis of the opening scene of the play, in which he shows that Lear has a sophisticated scheme in mind for dividing up his kingdom, one in which he hopes to secure the bulk of his land for about friendship Cordelia, together with an alliance with the House of Burgundy. What Are Some? 6 As Jaffa shows, Lear's plan, far from being the in mathematical, product of senility, is, if anything, too clever for his own good. I will not go over the details of Jaffa's subtle analysis; suffice it to say here that he points the way to understanding Lear as a tragic figure. The king is what are some general characteristics, not behaving like a doddering old fool in the opening scene, but attempting a remarkable political feat: to pass on his royal inheritance in a way that will avoid the defects of following the conventional rules of primogeniture. Lear fails in essay his plan, but in Jaffa's view, he fails nobly and hence tragically.
Jaffa's reading is true to the text of the play and also to the impression Lear in fact makes on stage in the opening scene. What Characteristics? Far from coming across as a pathetic old man, Lear projects a commanding presence in of point in mathematical terms his first appearance, dominating the action and, for all his errors, towering over what are some general of mercantilism the other figures on the stage. In another essay on coursework, King Lear, I have tried to extend Jaffa's analysis, analyzing the process of education the king undergoes when he loses power. 7 Like Jaffa, I try to show that Lear's errors are not, so to speak, vulgar errors; they do not simply proceed from stupidity or lack of what characteristics of mercantilism thought. I argue that, in tragic fashion, Lear's failings are bound up inextricably with his greatness. Precisely what makes him powerful as a king incapacitates him for seeing the truth about himself and his kingdom. In part this outcome results from his being surrounded by hypocrites and flatterers, who reinforce his self-image and his confidence in the justice of his rule. But as Shakespeare presents it, the academic plans essay, problem runs deeper. Lear's errors are a kind of occupational hazard of his kingship. In order to exercise command, he must project an aura of authority, and what characteristics of mercantilism, this need in turn dictates that he have a high opinion of himself, thus fatally tempting him to definition of point terms, overestimate his capabilities in such tasks as disposing of his kingdom.
The powerfully tragic vision of King Lear is rooted in what are some general characteristics Shakespeare's understanding of political life, its limitations and its demands. The play turns on what I will call the disjunction of wisdom and academic, power. When Lear is in command as king, he is what are some general of mercantilism, tragically cut off from the wisdom he needs to rule justly. He gains access to this wisdom only when he loses power, but that process in turn incapacitates him for outline about further rule. In this essay, I will examine largely the second half of King Lear, and trace what happens to Lear when he learns the truths to are some characteristics of mercantilism, which his position as king initially blinded him. Acts 4 and 5 are crucial to a full understanding of Lear as a tragic figure, but most critics fail to follow the subtle turns Shakespeare portrays in the king's attitudes, because they do not think through the implications of Lear's radically changed view of the world. In many accounts of the play, Lear's education is presented as an unequivocal good, as if there were nothing problematic about his experience. These accounts in effect present private life as simply superior to public life, suggesting that Lear has everything to gain and your academic career, nothing to lose when he is thrust out of are some of mercantilism power. Without questioning Lear's legitimate gains in wisdom in the course of the play—indeed I have discussed them at definition of point terms length elsewhere—I want to explore here the are some characteristics of mercantilism, possibility that King Lear is tragic precisely because of the nhd research paper, complexity of the process Shakespeare is what general of mercantilism, portraying in purple movie essay the king's development. Lear's gains in wisdom come at general characteristics the expense of his initial grandeur and hence his ability to rule. In the unsettling logic of the world of Lear, the characters pay a terrible price for the wisdom they gain, and outline friendship, none more so than Lear himself.
Lear's process of are some characteristics of mercantilism education reaches its crisis in act 3, especially with his encounter with Edgar disguised as Tom o' Bedlam, and introduction billy collins, the insights he gains and even articulates as a result are indeed remarkable. It is general of mercantilism, tempting but far too simplistic to treat Lear's shattering experience in act 3 as a kind of civics lesson or a seminar at a school of public administration. However much Lear grows in wisdom in act 3, he could not simply translate that wisdom back into a form of rule. Nhd Research Paper? For one thing, the wisdom Lear gains in act 3 has a questionable character. In trying to are some general characteristics of mercantilism, articulate what Lear learns, it is easy to distort the nature of his experience, presenting in an organized and coherent form insights that in describe academic career essay fact come to Lear in fits and starts. What Are Some Of Mercantilism? Lear gains many insights in act 3, but we cannot grasp what he is going through if we do not see how deeply unsettling and disorienting these truths are for him, shattering his self-image and his whole view of humanity.
However disturbing it may be to admit, the Lear of definition of point act 3 is in what of mercantilism no condition to walk back into the court and resume command of his kingdom. What is precisely characteristic of Lear in act 3 is that he cannot hold together the two images of human nature he observes in Edgar as first Tom o' Bedlam and then as the collins essay, noble philosopher (3.4.172), and that is the deepest reason why his experience on the heath at least momentarily unfits him for rule. Lear is are some characteristics of mercantilism, agonizingly wrenched back and forth between images of the lowest degradation of the human body and describe academic career essay, images of the what are some general characteristics, highest development of the human soul. Obsessed with his insights into the extremes of humanity, Lear understandably loses sight of the middle range, but that is precisely the realm where politics ordinarily takes place. Definition In Mathematical? 8. Shakespeare repeats this pattern in Lear's appearances in act 4. The juxtaposition of scenes 6 and 7 shows Lear recapitulating his encounter with the what are some of mercantilism, lower and higher sides of human nature, and once again he is unable to integrate his widely diverging images of humanity. Nhd Research? Encountering the blind Gloucester in act 4, scene 6, Lear dwells obsessively on what general of mercantilism, the animal side of man and above all woman: Behold yond simp'ring dame, Whose face between her forks presages snow; That minces virtue, and does shake the head.
To hear of pleasure's name— The fitchew nor the soiled horse goes to't. With a more riotous appetite. Down from the waist they are Centaurs, Though women all above; But to the girdle do the introduction to poetry billy collins essay, gods inherit, Beneath is are some characteristics, all the nhd research paper, fiends'.
This vision is the equivalent of Lear's earlier view of the bare, fork'd animal in Tom o' Bedlam (3.4.107-8), as he effaces the distinction between human being and beast. Because Lear is what, convinced that all human beings are consumed by sexual appetites, he refuses to see anyone punished anymore for violating the conventional rules of sexual conduct: I pardon that man's life. Describe Your Career Plans? What was thy cause? Thou shalt not die. Die for adultery? No, The wren goes to't, and the small gilded fly. Does lecher in my sight.
In Lear's refusal to support conventional marriage contracts, we see what the political consequences would be of the new doctrine of natural justice he learns during the storm on the heath. As ruler he would no longer have any legitimate basis for are some general of mercantilism punishing any of his subjects or enforcing any law. Introduction To Poetry Collins Essay? Once Lear views all human beings as alike in their animal urges, for him the difference between legally constituted authorities and criminals dissolves: see how yond justice rails upon yond simple thief. Hark in thine ear: change places, and handy-dandy, which is the justice, which is the what are some characteristics of mercantilism, thief? (4.6.151-54). Describe Your Plans? Though Lear once embodied the majesty of the law in his own person, he loses faith in all authority once he concludes that conventional appearances hide an inner corruption: Thorough tatter'd clothes small vices do appear; Robes and furr'd gowns hide all.
Plate sin with gold, And the strong lance of justice hurtless breaks; Arm it in rags, a pigmy's straw does pierce it. None does offend, none, I say none. Speeches such as this continue Lear's impulse in act 3 to what general, reject a conventional view of political reality in the name of what is natural to the color movie essay, human beings. In particular he displays the same hostility to clothing because it hides the truth about humanity. 10. Lear's speeches in act 4, scene 6 are very powerful and express some fundamental truths about politics; Edgar is moved to what general, comment on essay friendship, the king's words: O, matter and impertinency mix'd, / Reason in madness (4.6.174-75). General Characteristics? But before we are tempted simply to equate Lear's viewpoint here with Shakespeare's, we need to look more critically at what the essay about, king says. Shakespeare deliberately builds an what are some, error into Lear's reflections in this scene: Let copulation thrive; for Gloucester's bastard son / Was kinder to his father than my daughters / Got 'tween the lawful sheets (4.6.114-16). These lines should give us pause; Lear's preference for the natural over the conventional child is clearly as mistaken as his earlier tendency to paper, accept conventional professions of love over what characteristics his true daughter's natural feelings.
Like Lear's two auditors at this moment, Edgar and Gloucester, we know how misguided the king's praise of Edmund is. Modern interpreters seem disposed to follow Lear in his thoroughgoing disillusionment with politics and company, human nature in this scene, 12 but Shakespeare took pains to prevent us from wholly identifying with Lear's one-sided view of man as beast. Are Some Characteristics? Even Lear momentarily recognizes the diseased character of his imagination in this scene (4.6.130-31). Indeed, Lear's jaundiced view of women as all centaurs is immediately contradicted by Cordelia's appearance in the next scene. Describe Academic Career Plans? Lear's reunion and reconciliation with his true daughter is one of the most beautiful and are some general of mercantilism, moving scenes Shakespeare ever wrote. Nhd Research? Act 4, scene 7 provides the are some general of mercantilism, dreamlike answer to Lear's nightmare vision of humanity in act 4, scene 6. From his obsession with human carnality in act 4, scene 6, Lear moves to a vision of human spirituality. In Mathematical? He is barely aware of his own body in this scene (I will not swear these are my hands, [4.7.54]) and in his eyes Cordelia has transcended the physical level: You are a spirit, I know (4.7.48). By trying to what are some general of mercantilism, kneel to Cordelia, Lear is finally willing to reverse their relative positions of power. In act 1, scene 1, Cordelia could not express her true love for her father because his power over her stood in the way, threatening to obliterate the distinction between a sincere profession of devotion and the hypocritical and self-serving flattery of her two sisters. Now that Lear has lost his power and describe academic career plans essay, admits to being nothing but a very foolish fond old man (4.7.59), Cordelia can no longer be accused of any base motives in her love for general her father.
In rallying to his cause, she, like Kent and the Fool, has nothing to gain and everything to lose. Free of the conventional political roles that complicated and distorted their relationship earlier, Lear and Cordelia are finally able to be simply father and daughter. Indeed in view of the reversal of their customary positions in this scene—the fact that Lear is willing to kneel to Cordelia—it is arguable that they are liberated even from the conventional roles of parent and child, and paper, face each other as human being to human being in a condition of equality. 13 Lear and general of mercantilism, Cordelia move beyond any kind of conventional moral accounting, as she rejects his seemingly justified assumption of guilt for nhd research their breach: Lear: I know you do not love me, for your sisters. Have (as I do remember) done me wrong: You have some cause, they have not. Cordelia: No cause, no cause. In act 4, scene 6, Lear rejected conventional morality out of characteristics of mercantilism contempt for human nature and on the basis of the lowest possible view of human beings as indistinguishable from beasts. In act 4, scene 7, Lear and your academic plans essay, Cordelia rise above conventional moral considerations just as they appear to rise above the level of what general their bodies. Shakespeare's juxtaposition of the color act 4, scene 6 and act 4, scene 7 conveys a deeper wisdom than Lear is able to encompass in either scene alone: the two scenes embody alternative and what are some general characteristics of mercantilism, complementary visions of what is natural to humanity.
It is a sad commentary on definition in mathematical terms, our times that we are all too eager to acknowledge that Lear is talking about what is natural to the human condition in act 4, scene 6. General? But on reflection, we can appreciate that in some sense of the term the behavior of the color purple essay Lear and Cordelia in act 4, scene 7 is also a paradigm of nature, now thought of in terms of characteristics human perfection, rather than some kind of the color purple essay lowest common denominator of humanity. What Are Some Of Mercantilism? The simplicity of their dialogue in this scene, the fact that they speak in brief, declarative sentences, above all, the fact that they are finally speaking to each other, no longer at each other, lends what can be called a natural quality to their interaction here. Neither act 4, scene 6 nor act 4, scene 7 tells the whole truth about the human condition, and to accept one at your plans essay the expense of the what general of mercantilism, other is to risk falling prey to an overly cynical or an overly idealistic understanding of human nature. Introduction Billy? Shakespeare was guilty of neither. However contradictory the images of humanity presented in act 4, scene 6 and act 4, scene 7 may be, the two scenes have one thing in common: in both Lear effectively rejects political life. In act 4, scene 6 his cynical view of humanity undermines all claims to legitimate authority by political figures.
In act 4, scene 7 his idealistic view of the human condition leaves all ordinary political considerations far below. The juxtaposition of what general of mercantilism these two scenes thus points to an important truth about politics. In act 4, scene 6 Lear talks about human beings as if they were all body and no spirit; the result of this view of human nature as purely animal is to eliminate every possible justification for political action. In act 4, scene 7 Lear talks about himself and Cordelia as if they were all spirit and no body; the result of this contrary view of movie human nature as purely spiritual is to eliminate every need for political action; Lear and Cordelia pass beyond the world of good and general characteristics of mercantilism, evil. The conjunction of these two scenes suggests that either of these views is outline, one-sided and what general, hence incomplete. As the bifurcation of vision throughout acts 3 and 4 of King Lear suggests, man is a composite being, a perplexing mixture of the color purple essay body and spirit. It is precisely for this reason that human beings require political life: to deal with the problems created by the tension between body and spirit.
Neither animals nor angels require politics. We can now see more fully why Lear's gains in wisdom in acts 4 and 5 come at general the expense of his ability to rule. At the beginning of the movie essay, play Lear is the captive of many illusions about himself and his world, but his very overestimation of are some general characteristics of mercantilism his own powers is what gives him the aura of authority he needs to command his subjects. The Lear of act 4, scene 6 has learned a great deal about his own limitations, but the the color purple essay, result is that he has developed a universal contempt for political authority. He has lost all faith in the ability of political action to what are some general characteristics, improve the human condition, or even to to poetry collins, control its worst excesses of passion. The Lear of act 4, scene 7 is simply indifferent to politics; having achieved a spiritual communion with Cordelia in an intensely private moment, he no longer has any interest in public life. Failing to what are some general characteristics of mercantilism, integrate his antithetical visions of humanity in act 4, scene 6 and act 4, scene 7, Lear is unable to grasp the fundamental truth that the political authority he despises and rejects in act 4, scene 6 would be necessary to protect the fragile spirituality he comes to cherish in act 4, scene 7.
Lear's loss of his ability to rule is not simply to be traced to the change in his opinions about politics in acts 3 and 4. Shakespeare also focuses on the matter of Lear's temperament. The Lear of act 1, scene 1 is headstrong and the color, rash; those are not the virtues of a philosopher, but they are the qualities of the what characteristics, kind of man who often succeeds in getting other men to obey his will. When we say that Lear has a kingly temperament, we mean in part that he is a spirited man, capable of what he himself calls noble anger (2.4.276). His capacity for indignation is one of the forces that attaches him to political life and fuels his ability to get things done. Lear's tendency to identify his personal cause with justice pure and simple is unphilosophic and leads to many of his errors in your academic career plans essay judgment. What Are Some General Characteristics Of Mercantilism? Nevertheless, his pride and titanic overestimation of himself are also what makes an admirable man like Kent say that he can see authority written on Lear's face (1.4.26-30).
Thus the more Lear comes to think of himself as an ordinary man, sharing the weaknesses of his fellows, the less capable he becomes of inspiring their awe and hence their obedience. To be sure, Kent, the Fool, and Cordelia come to love Lear more in his defeat and humiliation, but that is precisely a private reaction on their parts and not the coursework, same as political loyalty. The Lear we see in the second half of the play has become temperamentally unfit to rule England. We must realize that Lear's learning in the play is not a purely intellectual process; it is not a matter of Lear picking up a textbook in political science and calmly reading about what went wrong with his administration. Lear's education in self-knowledge is a soul-wrenching experience. It rips asunder the deepest fibers of his being. For Lear's titanic ego to what are some characteristics, be shaken, he must be painfully humiliated, and that is the terrifying process we witness in coursework acts 1 and 2, as his wolfish daughters strip away every shred of dignity he has left.
With all his pride, Lear resists this process: You see me here, you gods, a poor old man, As full of grief as age, wretched in both. If it be you that stirs these daughters' hearts. Against their father, fool me not so much. To bear it tamely; touch me with noble anger, And let not women's weapons, water-drops,
Stain my man's cheeks! Lear realizes that nothing less than his manhood is at stake in this scene, and he futilely wishes that he had the power to act like a manly king and take vengeance on all those who have slighted his dignity. When Lear is confronted by characteristics the cruelty of his daughters, he is torn between the contradictory emotions of anger and grief. His anger is rooted in his pride as a king, and makes him ashamed of the grief he feels as an ordinary human being. As Lear himself recognizes, the tension he experiences between wanting to express his grief as a wronged father and the need he feels as a king to suppress any such public display of weakness eventually causes his mind to snap: O Fool, I shall go mad (2.4.286).
As much as we are moved by seeing what Lear gains in the process of nhd research paper his education, we should not blind ourselves to what he loses. The Lear of act 4, scene 7 is a broken man, his pride in himself and in his regime shattered. What Are Some? He is a wiser man in this scene, more capable of love, and in many important respects this Lear is preferable to the one we saw in definition of point in mathematical the opening scene of the play. But not in are some characteristics of mercantilism all respects. Unlike the outline about, Lear we saw in act 1, scene 1, the Lear of act 4, scene 7 could not walk into any room and just by his regal bearing command the instant respect of any human being in range of his voice.
A king who expects to characteristics of mercantilism, be obeyed cannot go around proclaiming: I am old and foolish (4.7.84). We may admire Lear for movie this frank admission of his weakness, but we must also recognize its consequences for his ability to what general characteristics, rule in the future as anything other than a figurehead. Describe Your Academic Career? The Lear of act 4, scene 7 is completely without anger; as the Doctor says: the great rage, / You see, is kill'd in him (4.7.77-78). It may be a relief for us as audience to see this calm descend upon Lear, but we must recognize that with his rage, something else is for the moment killed in Lear: his pride. And, bound up as it is with his spiritedness, Lear's pride was the source of his greatness as well as of his failures as a king. What Characteristics Of Mercantilism? Up to this point in the play, even in his madness, Lear has displayed an acute awareness of introduction billy collins everything going on around him. What Are Some General Characteristics Of Mercantilism? If anything, he has been too ready to see affronts to his dignity in his subjects' actions, but that hypersensitivity has been profoundly linked to Lear's concern for justice. In act 4, scene 7, he ceases to be aware of his surroundings; he even has to be reminded that he is in Britain (4.7.75). With Lear's great rage goes his noble anger, and with that, his ability and even his desire to govern his kingdom. In short, we must realize that Lear cannot absorb the nhd research, kind of unnerving truths he learns about himself and general characteristics, remain the same man.
The Lear we see in definition in mathematical act 4, scene 7 is profoundly changed from are some general characteristics, what he was in act 1, scene 1. His newfound wisdom and self-awareness are purchased at the price of his original grandeur. 14 We may ultimately judge the result worth the exchange, but we should not deny that Shakespeare is confronting us with a kind of choice. Shakespeare's tragic world is profoundly disturbing to us. We do not like to think about the tragic disjunctions he presents. In Mathematical Terms? We would like to are some characteristics of mercantilism, think that it is possible to be a powerful ruler and a wise man at the same time.
Perhaps it is possible, and in the case of Henry V Shakespeare offers an example of purple a man who seems to unite wisdom and power (Prospero is of mercantilism, another such case). 15 But even if it is possible, the conjunction of wisdom and power is purple movie, surely not easy to achieve, and in King Lear Shakespeare most fully explores the general of mercantilism, problems of bringing the two together. When Lear is in power, he is the color purple movie essay, blind to his own limitations, not just out of stupidity, senility, or simple error, but because, as Shakespeare shows, there is something in the very nature of kingship that blinds even and perhaps especially a successful ruler to what are some general, fundamental truths about his situation. When Lear finally gains access to those truths, it is only through a process that disillusions him about politics in general and shatters the very spirit that made him a commanding figure. That is why King Lear is such a tragic play, perhaps the most profound of all tragedies.
It offers no easy way out of Lear's dilemma. Shakespeare uncovers a deep and abiding tension between the preconditions of definition of point in mathematical power and what general characteristics, the preconditions of wisdom. The Lear we see in paper act 5 has recovered his sanity, but he is still a far cry from the general, regal figure we first saw in act 1. Academic Career Plans? He has become totally absorbed in his private bond with Cordelia: Come, let's away to prison: We two alone will sing like birds i' th' cage; When thou dost ask me blessing, I'll kneel down. And ask of thee forgiveness. So we'll live, And pray, and sing, and tell old tales, and laugh.
At gilded butterflies, and hear poor rogues. Talk of court news; and we'll talk with them too— Who loses and who wins; who's in, who's out— And take upon's the mystery of things. As if we were God's spies; and are some characteristics of mercantilism, we'll wear out.
In a wall'd prison, packs and sects of great ones, That ebb and flow by th' moon. This is a beautiful speech, and we want to rejoice in Lear's newfound happiness with his daughter. But Lear here betrays his complete indifference to conventional politics; what once was his greatest concern has been reduced to the level of gossip, a mere matter of who loses and who wins; who's in, who's out. Introduction Billy Collins Essay? Lear now looks down upon politics as a realm of merely transitory triumphs. What Are Some General? He seems to have achieved a kind of philosophic detachment from life, which allows him to see human affairs as if from a contemplative height. Describe Academic Plans? But Lear's indifference to politics extends even to an indifference to his own freedom, and hence he seems happy to endure what formerly would have struck him as the ultimate humiliation: to be imprisoned by his enemies. Lear is now content to live like a bird in what characteristics a cage; as attractive as this image may seem, there is something demeaning about the color purple movie essay it as well: the majestic lion of a king has been reduced to a tame house pet. Characteristics Of Mercantilism? 16 As if to remind us that Lear may be indifferent to politics but cannot escape its power, Shakespeare punctuates the king's lyrical fantasy with Edmund's curt and peremptory order: Take them away (5.3.19).
We may applaud Lear's rising above his earlier conventional devotion to political life, but the fact is that his indifference to power in this scene is the color movie, about to what are some, lead directly to the death of Cordelia. If basically decent men like Lear renounce political life, however justified they may be in describe your essay their contempt for corruption in high places, no one will be left to defend the Cordelias of this world. Thus if Lear comes to what general, understand the supreme worth of Cordelia, he cannot simply abandon political life to men like Edmund, who will ruthlessly stamp out all that Lear legitimately has come to value in the realms that transcend politics. It is thus characteristic of the complexity of the movement of King Lear that Shakespeare has Lear at least partially rediscover the introduction to poetry billy collins essay, value of political life just before his death. Lear does not go to the grave still believing that there is no difference between a human being and general characteristics, an animal; on the contrary, he powerfully asserts the superiority of outline Cordelia to other forms of what life: Why should a dog, a horse, a rat, have life, / And thou no breath at all? (5.3.307-8). 17 Recapturing his sense of human excellence, the of point, man who in act 4 could see no reason to punish any malefactor, returns in act 5 to his role as judge and executes the subordinate sent by are some general Edmund to eliminate Cordelia: I kill'd the definition in mathematical terms, slave that was a-hanging thee (5.3.275). With his unique grasp of are some general characteristics of mercantilism psychology, Shakespeare chooses just this moment for Lear to recapture a bit of his old pride and anger, and at the same time to recall his youth, as he responds to the confirmation of his surprisingly valiant deed: I have seen the day, with my good biting falchion / I would have made them skip (5.3.277-78). This is introduction to poetry, a fascinating moment, as we finally get the briefest glimpse of the young King Lear. Nearing the end of what general characteristics his life, Lear thinks back presumably to the earliest days of his political career, remembering what he forgot in his plan for essay outline about dividing the kingdom, that the ability to do justice must ultimately be backed up by the sword. Lear's execution of the man who killed Cordelia tells us as much about the nature of justice as his speeches about the hollowness of authority back in act 4, scene 6. It is not that his final act cancels out the truths he articulated earlier; it is only that his deeds bring out the partiality of his speeches.
To get at are some general characteristics of mercantilism Shakespeare's understanding of describe academic career justice, we cannot identify it with any single statement by his characters, but must take into account the pattern of the whole play, both deeds and speeches. The fact that Lear thinks back to his youth at the conclusion of the play provides a clue to what, its structure; as Edmund's line The wheel is come full circle (5.3.175) suggests, the end of King Lear harks back to the beginning. At the outline about, start of the play the are some general of mercantilism, British regime, like Lear himself, has grown old. At the end of the play, the regime renews itself. Like Lear recalling the powerful sword strokes of essay outline about his youthful arm, the what are some general characteristics of mercantilism, regime must get back in touch with its foundation in the ultimate guarantor of political right: military force. At the beginning of the play, as a result of Lear's peaceful reign and to poetry collins, his unquestioned authority, his regime has lost touch with political reality and he himself thinks that he can maintain control even while turning military power over to his children. Act 5 takes us back to general characteristics, the brute facts of political life and reminds us that in the end the deepest political divisions can be settled if not healed only by war. This consideration explains why the trial by combat of Edmund and Edgar figures so prominently in act 5. Edgar has an to poetry essay, airtight legal case against Edmund and what are some characteristics, one might imagine that their conflict would be settled in a court of law, where a juridical process could establish Edmund's guilt unequivocally. But Shakespeare shows a more primitive form of justice, trial by combat, because the thrust of act 5 is to coursework company, keep reminding us that angels may dispense with violence in settling their disputes, but human beings cannot. What General Characteristics? The point is not that might makes right; we have seen the limitations of that savage principle in the destruction of Cornwall, Regan, Goneril, and introduction to poetry billy essay, now finally Edmund, whose careers in evil all go to prove the general characteristics, self-defeating and self-destroying character of a purely low-minded conception of justice. 18 But what Edgar's resort to in mathematical terms, the sword shows is that right cannot be entirely divorced from might.
It is not that the good cause always triumphs in battle, only that if the good cause is to triumph, it ultimately must be in battle (recall that Lear must resort to force in this scene as well). Edgar has had to learn how to turn some of the weapons of evil men and general characteristics of mercantilism, women against them in order to protect what he values in life. 19 Starting the play as a naive young man, untutored in the deceptive ways of the world, Edgar has had to don one disguise after another in the course of the play to come to terms with the evil in the world. Paper? Though he remains almost comically scrupulous in dealing with his enemies, 20 the Edgar at what general the end of the play can at least no longer be called naive. When Edgar kills Edmund in combat he establishes his right to rule in collins essay the realm, and seems to have absorbed whatever was best in his enemy, much as Prince Hal does when he defeats Hotspur. The fact that Edgar can stake out a claim to rule only with a sword reminds us of the what are some general of mercantilism, violence at the basis of company politics, and we have more confidence in the capacity of this temperamentally mild man to are some general characteristics of mercantilism, maintain political order once we have seen that he can answer the savagery of evil antagonists with some brute force of his own. Essay Outline? But it would be a mistake to fall into a totally cynical reading of the end of King Lear, arguing that the good party has had to become as savage as the evil in order to overcome it.
The Edgar at the end of the play is characteristics of mercantilism, not the same Edgar we saw at the beginning, but he has not become an Edmund. In general, in the end the good characters maintain their distinction from the evil, in part because they have been spared the necessity of descending to the barbaric level of their antagonists by the fact that the evil characters have largely destroyed each other. Edgar and coursework, Albany never display the lust for power that is the hallmark of characteristics their counterparts Edmund and Cornwall. At most they have learned the about friendship, need for political action to counter the machinations of what general characteristics of mercantilism their enemies, but that means that they resort to morally dubious actions with a marked reluctance. Unlike Edmund, Edgar never takes pleasure in deceiving others, and he never glories in evil deeds. Hence the end of the play forms a sharp contrast to the beginning: Albany: Friends of my soul, you twain. Rule in describe academic plans this realm, and what are some general characteristics, the gor'd state sustain.
Kent: I have a journey, sir, shortly to go: My master calls me, I must not say no. Edgar: The weight of this sad time we must obey, Speak what we feel, not what we ought to say: The oldest hath bourne most; we that are young. Shall never see so much, nor live so long. At the beginning of King Lear we are in a world where many of the characters, though not all, are hungry for power; at the end we see characters who apparently cannot wait to hand over power to collins, others. The course of the what are some general of mercantilism, action has evidently been a sobering experience for nhd research paper decent men like Albany, Kent, and Edgar. No one of them is Plato's philosopher-king—Edgar perhaps comes closest—but they have developed some of his reluctance to rule.
As Edgar acknowledges in the final lines, even his experience cannot match the what of mercantilism, journey Lear went through in nhd research the course of the what of mercantilism, play, 21 but the way in which he accepts rule as a duty imposed on him and not something he eagerly sought shows that he has come to share some of Lear's doubts about the color purple movie political life. Because of his consciousness of the limits of power, Edgar will presumably rule more moderately. After a period of political chaos, we see a regime refounded at the end of what King Lear. Like all regimes, its foundation may ultimately be traced back to an act of violence, but given the character of its founders, we may reasonably expect that it will not be a violent regime. All signs in fact point to the inevitability of essay about entering a diminished and tamer world. The precondition for refounding the regime has been the elimination of the evil extremes of humanity who threatened all conventional order. But the extremes of good in Britain have been destroyed as well; Lear, Cordelia, and the Fool are dead, and Kent apparently does not have long to live.
A political regime tends to compress the range of humanity, trying to what are some general of mercantilism, force people into conventional molds, to terms, moderate their passions, to move them toward a comfortable center. The world Edgar will rule will be a safer world, but it will be a world without Lear's grandeur or Cordelia's beauty. That is another way of saying that it will no longer be a heroic or a tragic world. The moderation—one might even say the general characteristics, mediocrity—of the characters left standing at the end of the play is the truest measure of the greatness of King Lear and the tragic nature of the color essay his story. No ending of a Shakespeare play captures more perfectly the what are some general characteristics, fundamental contrast at work in tragedy between the ordinary human beings who are content to stay within the limits of the conventional world and the heroic souls who try to go beyond them. 1 In his Shakespeare Our Contemporary, trans. Boleslaw Taborski (Garden City, N.Y.: Anchor Books, 1966), 130, Jan Kott makes explicit what many critics assume about Lear: He does not see or understand anything. . . . Lear is ridiculous, naive and stupid. 2 The classic statement of in mathematical this view is to be found in A. C. Bradley, Shakespearean Tragedy (1904; rept. New York: Meridian Books, 1955), 258-60. See especially Bradley's attempt to state the moral of the play on p. 260: The good are seen growing better through suffering. . . . The judgment of this world is a lie; its goods, which we covet, corrupt us. . . What Are Some General Characteristics? . Let us renounce the world, hate it, and lose it gladly.
The only real thing in coursework it is the soul, with its courage, patience, devotion. And nothing outward can touch that. For a similar view of King Lear, see G. Wilson Knight, The Wheel of Fire (1930; rept. New York: Meridian Books, 1957), 195-201, and what are some general of mercantilism, Reuben A. Brower, Hero and essay outline about friendship, Saint: Shakespeare and the Graeco-Roman Heroic Tradition (New York: Oxford University Press, 1971), 415. For a more recent statement of this position, see Barbara Everett's essay, King Lear: Loving, in are some of mercantilism her Young Hamlet: Essays on Shakespeare's Tragedies (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1989), 59-82. 3 See, for coursework example, Knight, who speaks of the absurdity of the old King's anger in the first scene, describes him as cutting a cruelly ridiculous figure and general, as selfish, self-centered, and your essay, characterizes him as a tremendous soul . . . What? incongruously geared to a puerile intellect (Wheel of Fire, 161-62). 4 Letter to Gummo Marx, June 1964, in Groucho Marx, The Groucho Letters (New York: Simon Schuster, 1967). 5 Knight says that King Lear resembles a Hardy novel ( Wheel of Fire, 202). Shades of collins essay Groucho, Knight remarks: It is, indeed, curious that so stormfurious a play as King Lear should have so trivial a domestic basis (161). So curious that one might question whether the basis is really trivial or domestic.
6 Harry V. Jaffa, The Limits of Politics: King Lear, Act 1, Scene 1, in Allan Bloom, Shakespeare's Politics (New York: Basic Books, 1964), 113-45. This essay was originally published in The American Political Science Review 51 (1957): 405-27. Briefly stated, Jaffa's thesis is that the intent of Lear's original plan was to are some general, give Cordelia the bulk of his kingdom (the middle portion), while giving Goneril the extreme northern and Regan the extreme southern portion, regions their husbands already controlled as feudal lords. Lear intends to marry Cordelia to the Duke of describe your career essay Burgundy, a foreign power strong enough to give her support but not strong enough to conquer and are some general characteristics, absorb Britain (as the King of France might). Introduction To Poetry Essay? Jaffa is the only critic of the play to have articulated the what characteristics of mercantilism, strategy of Lear's original plan, but he was not the first to note that Lear enters act 1, scene 1 with a division of the kingdom already worked out (after all, maps have been drawn up and Lear's counselors Gloucester and paper, Kent are evidently already aware of the details when the what general characteristics of mercantilism, play opens). See Samuel Taylor Coleridge, Shakespearean Criticism, ed, Thomas Middleton Raysor (London: J. Coursework Company? M. Dent, 1960), 49-50, Bradley, Shakespearean Tragedy, 202-3, and Kenneth Muir, Shakespeare: King Lear (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1986), 32, 55. For a further elaboration of Jaffa's analysis of Lear's plan, see David Lowenthal, King Lear, Interpretation 21 (1994): 393-96. 7 Nature and Convention in King Lear, to be published in general of mercantilism Joseph Knippenberg and Peter Lawler, eds., Poets, Princes, and Private Citizens: Literary Alternatives to Postmodern Politics (Lanham, Md.: Rowman Littlefield, 1996). 8 Compare Apemantus's criticism of Timon of Athens: The middle of humanity thou never knewest, but the extremity of both ends (4.3.300-1).
9 All quotations from Shakespeare are taken from introduction to poetry, G. Blakemore Evans, ed., The Riverside Shakespeare (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1974). 10 On the what general of mercantilism, significance of clothing in nhd research act 3, see Lowenthal, King Lear, 403. 11 For a similar analysis of Lear's speeches in act 4, scene 6, see Lowenthal, King Lear, 407-9. 12 See, for what general characteristics example, Knight, who speaks of Lear penetrating below the surface shows to the heart of human reality here ( Wheel of Fire, 192), or Derek Traversi, An Approach to Shakespeare (Garden City, N.Y.: Anchor Books, 1969), vol. 2, 164, who sees Lear revealing the true state of man in this scene. 13 The idea of breaking with the conventional parentchild relationship and academic plans essay, replacing it with something more natural is presented earlier in the play in demonic form when Cornwall tells Edmund after he betrays Gloucester: thou shalt find a dearer father in my love (3.5.24-25). Here the conventional bond between father and are some general characteristics, son is replaced by a bond of pure self-interest between villains; in the case of Lear and Cordelia, the conventional bond is replaced by a higher bond of spiritual love. 14 One must be very careful in describe your academic essay formulating one's estimation of King Lear. Even as perceptive a critic as Bradley, who has a better feel for are some general characteristics what is the color essay, tragic in King Lear than almost anyone else who has written on the play, gets carried away with his own rhetoric: there is no figure, surely, in the world of poetry at once so grand, so pathetic, and so beautiful as [King Lear] ( Shakespearean Tragedy, 228). It is very difficult to general, be grand and about, pathetic at once. What is precisely characteristic of Shakespeare's portrayal of King Lear is of mercantilism, that he shows a grand political man at the beginning of the play, who becomes a figure of great pathos in his reunion with Cordelia.
The dramatic movement of King Lear is so extraordinary, the contrast between Lear at the beginning and at the end of the play is so great, that we must be wary of making statements that conflate what I might refer to as the public and the private Lears. 15 See my essays Shakespeare's The Tempest: The Wise Man As Hero, Shakespeare Quarterly 31 (1980): 64-75 and Prospero's Republic: The Politics of Shakespeare's The Tempest, in John Alvis and Thomas West, eds., Shakespeare as Political Thinker (Durham, N.C.: Carolina Academic Press, 1981), 239-55. The Color Purple Movie? For a brief but insightful comparison of King Lear and what characteristics of mercantilism, The Tempest, see Lowenthal, King Lear, 416. 16 Bradley is nhd research paper, aware that a change has occurred in the Lear of characteristics of mercantilism act 5; of nhd research paper his utterances toward the end of the play, Bradley writes: We feel in them the loss of power to sustain his royal dignity ( Shakespearean Tragedy, 234). But Bradley blurs the issue by trying to redefine magnanimity in are some general Christian terms: what remains is 'the thing itself,' the company, soul in its bare greatness (234).
17 On this point, see Lowenthal, King Lear, 413. 18 This outcome fulfills Albany's ominous prediction at 4.2.49-50. For the what are some of mercantilism, self-destructive character of evil, see Lowenthal, King Lear, 409. 19 For a different view of what Edgar learns in the course of the play, see Joseph Alulis, The Education of the Prince in Shakespeare's King Lear, Interpretation 21 (1994): 373-90. 20 Consider, for example, Edgar's hesitation in opening the letter from Goneril to Edmund when it falls into his hands (4.6.259-61). 21 I take the oldest in collins essay Edgar's speech to refer to Lear; some critics feel the what are some characteristics, words refer to paper, Kent. This suggestion seems unlikely; usually at the end of a Shakespearean tragedy, the highest-ranking character surviving speaks of the tragic hero of the play. In any event, the are some of mercantilism, closing lines round out the collins essay, play effectively. The play opens with a discussion of how the characteristics, difference between two men has been obscured in a political settlement. It closes with lines stressing the way in which one man is distinguished from his fellows; moreover the criterion by which he is distinguished is the depth of his experience, more specifically how much he has been able to see. Edgar's respect for wisdom is reflected in the fact that he values age (with its greater experience) over youth; at the beginning of the play, Edmund spoke out for youth over age. (On the issue of youth vs. age in the play, see Lowenthal, King Lear, 399.) Finally, in the first scene of definition King Lear hypocrisy governed the court; at the end Edgar is calling for a new honesty when he enjoins: Speak what we feel, not what we ought to what are some characteristics of mercantilism, say.
In sum, Edgar's final words manifest a new re gard for truth. Source: King Lear. The Tragic Disjunction of Wisdom and Power, in Shakespeare's Political Pageant: Essays in Literature and purple movie, Politics, edited by Joseph Alulis and Vickie Sullivan, Rowman Littlefield Publishers, Inc., 1996, pp. 189-207. Access our King Lear Study Guide for Free. King Lear Homework Help Questions.
Edgar adopts what critics call a southern stage dialect in his confrontation with Oswald: Edg. What Are Some General? Chill not let go, zir, without vurther [cagion]. Osw. Let go, slave, or thou di'st! Edg. Good. In King Lear, this quote is a warning to be sneaky, not showy, to get what you want.
It is not coincidence that the Fool conveys this warning to King Lear in Act I, scene 4. Fool is a bit of an. Shakespeare, speaking through King Lear, is using poetic license here. It is common knowledge that every baby cries as soon as it emerges from its mother's womb. If it doesn't cry of its own. A tragic hero is a protagonist that has a fatal (tragic) flaw; usually, the audience finds sympathy with the hero. At the nhd research paper, beginning of the are some general, play, Lear seems like a fine ruler and in his.
The word gilded can mean 'deceptively pleasing' or 'covered with blood'. When both of these definitions are applied to of point in mathematical terms, the two other daughters, it shows that Lear is what are some general of mercantilism, 'laughing' at them because.
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Increased conference room scheduling efficiency by 25% by what of mercantilism implementing new company-wide online booking system. Provided travel arrangement support for 25+ employees per the color essay, month for what of mercantilism offsite meetings and essay outline, national conferences. Managed operations and logistics for annual onsite company conference for 150 employees and what general of mercantilism, 200+ guest attendees. Parkview Elementary School, Summerfields, PA. Nhd Research Paper! September 2014 – May 2016. Assisted in a classroom of 25 elementary school children, ages 5-6, for two consecutive school years. Are Some Characteristics! Engaged children with diverse and enjoyable activities involving theatrical play, musical instruments and hands-on learning. Offered detailed weekly reports that outlined each child’s activities and implemented new email letter system to offer reports online, saving the faculty 4 hours per your plans, week.
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Here are some tips to help make your education section work for you: List the highest level of education first. This will help catch the hiring manager’s eye and what are some of mercantilism, ensure that he or she is definition able to determine your education level quickly. If you are recent graduate without a ton of work experience, then you can place your education section at the top of what your resume for the color purple emphasis. Include your educational information in what are some, this order: Degree or diploma name is listed first. Major(s) follow the definition of point terms, degree. If you have minors, these are optional to list but it’s recommended to what general of mercantilism, list them if they are relevant to the job you are applying for. Coursework! List the date you received the degree or diploma by what are some characteristics year (for example, 2003). If you are soon-to-be grad, you can list your expected graduation date. Employment periods for each job, written as Month/Date – Month/Date Do not include your GPA on your resume unless you are a recent graduate.
If you don’t have a degree, never fear! If you have an associate’s degree, you can list it in the same way as above. It is also perfectly acceptable to list any college experience you do have, even if you didn’t graduate. In the nhd research paper, absence of a college degree, it’s extremely important to what are some, list any professional training or certificates you have received especially if they are relevant to the job you are applying for. Then, make sure to coursework, emphasize your work experience section as much as possible to show employers that you are qualified for the position, whether or not you have a degree. Need help writing an education section that shows your value? Our Resume Builder can help you quickly and effectively outline your classroom achievements. What Of Mercantilism! More Articles about definition of point in mathematical How to Write Your First Resume.
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component essay The Tragedy of the Commons. Science #13, December 1968: Vol. 162 no. 3859 pp. 1243-1248. This has been translated into Polish here: The Tragedy of the Commons, Garrett Hardin, Science, 162(1968):1243-1248. At the end of a thoughtful article on the future of nuclear war, J.B.
Wiesner and H.F. York concluded that: Both sides in the arms race are#133;confronted by the dilemma of steadily increasing military power and steadily decreasing national security. It is what are some general characteristics of mercantilism our considered professional judgment that this dilemma has no technical solution. If the great powers continue to look for solutions in the area of science and technology only, the result will be to worsen the situation.''  I would like to purple essay, focus your attention not on the subject of the what are some characteristics of mercantilism article (national security in a nuclear world) but on the kind of conclusion they reached, namely that there is paper no technical solution to the problem. An implicit and almost universal assumption of discussions published in professional and semipopular scientific journals is that the problem under discussion has a technical solution. Are Some Of Mercantilism? A technical solution may be defined as one that requires a change only in the techniques of the natural sciences, demanding little or nothing in the way of change in human values or ideas of morality.
In our day (though not in earlier times) technical solutions are always welcome. Describe Academic Career Plans Essay? Because of previous failures in what general of mercantilism prophecy, it takes courage to assert that a desired technical solution is not possible. Wiesner and York exhibited this courage; publishing in a science journal, they insisted that the introduction billy solution to are some general of mercantilism, the problem was not to be found in the natural sciences. Coursework Company? They cautiously qualified their statement with the phrase, It is our considered professional judgment. Whether they were right or not is not the of mercantilism concern of the present article. Rather, the concern here is with the important concept of a class of essay friendship, human problems which can be called no technical solution problems, and more specifically, with the identification and discussion of one of these. It is easy to show that the class is not a null class. Recall the game of tick-tack-toe. Consider the what are some general of mercantilism problem, How can I win the game of tick-tack-toe? It is well known that I cannot, if I assume (in keeping with the conventions of game theory) that my opponent understands the game perfectly. Put another way, there is no technical solution to the problem.
I can win only by giving a radical meaning to the word win. I can hit my opponent over the head; or I can falsify the records. Every way in which I win involves, in some sense, an abandonment of the company game, as we intuitively understand it. (I can also, of course, openly abandon the game -- refuse to play it. This is what most adults do.) The class of no technical solution problems has members. My thesis is that the population problem, as conventionally conceived, is a member of this class. How it is conventionally conceived needs some comment. It is fair to say that most people who anguish over the population problem are trying to find a way to avoid the evils of overpopulation without relinquishing any of the privileges they now enjoy. They think that farming the seas or developing new strains of of mercantilism, wheat will solve the essay problem -- technologically. I try to show here that the what of mercantilism solution they seek cannot be found. Nhd Research Paper? The population problem cannot be solved in general of mercantilism a technical way, any more than can the problem of winning the definition game of tick-tack-toe.
What Shall We Maximize? Population, as Malthus said, naturally tends to grow geometrically, or, as we would now say, exponentially. In a finite world this means that the per-capita share of the world's goods must decrease. Is ours a finite world? A fair defense can be put forward for the view that the world is infinite or that we do not know that it is not. But, in terms of the characteristics of mercantilism practical problems that we must face in the next few generations with the foreseeable technology, it is clear that we will greatly increase human misery if we do not, during the about immediate future, assume that the world available to the terrestrial human population is finite. Are Some? Space is the color purple movie no escape.  A finite world can support only a finite population; therefore, population growth must eventually equal zero. (The case of general, perpetual wide fluctuations above and below zero is a trivial variant that need not be discussed.) When this condition is company met, what will be the situation of mankind? Specifically, can Bentham's goal of the greatest good for the greatest number be realized? No -- for two reasons, each sufficient by itself. The first is a theoretical one.
It is not mathematically possible to what of mercantilism, maximize for two (or more) variables at the same time. This was clearly stated by von Neumann and Morgenstern,  but the principle is implicit in the theory of partial differential equations, dating back at least to D'Alembert (1717-1783). The second reason springs directly from biological facts. To live, any organism must have a source of energy (for example, food). This energy is utilized for two purposes: mere maintenance and work. For man maintenance of life requires about 1600 kilocalories a day (maintenance calories). Anything that he does over and above merely staying alive will be defined as work, and is supported by work calories which he takes in. Work calories are used not only for what we call work in common speech; they are also required for all forms of enjoyment, from swimming and automobile racing to playing music and writing poetry. Essay About? If our goal is to maximize population it is are some characteristics obvious what we must do: We must make the coursework company work calories per person approach as close to zero as possible.
No gourmet meals, no vacations, no sports, no music, no literature, no art#133;I think that everyone will grant, without argument or proof, that maximizing population does not maximize goods. Bentham's goal is what are some characteristics impossible. In reaching this conclusion I have made the usual assumption that it is the acquisition of the color essay, energy that is the problem. The appearance of atomic energy has led some to question this assumption. However, given an infinite source of energy, population growth still produces an inescapable problem. The problem of the acquisition of energy is replaced by the problem of its dissipation, as J. H. Fremlin has so wittily shown.  The arithmetic signs in the analysis are, as it were, reversed; but Bentham's goal is unobtainable. The optimum population is, then, less than the maximum. The difficulty of defining the optimum is enormous; so far as I know, no one has seriously tackled this problem.
Reaching an general of mercantilism acceptable and stable solution will surely require more than one generation of hard analytical work -- and much persuasion. We want the maximum good per person; but what is good? To one person it is outline wilderness, to another it is ski lodges for thousands. To one it is estuaries to nourish ducks for hunters to shoot; to another it is what are some of mercantilism factory land. Comparing one good with another is, we usually say, impossible because goods are incommensurable.
Incommensurables cannot be compared. Theoretically this may be true; but in describe your essay real life incommensurables are commensurable. Only a criterion of judgment and a system of general characteristics of mercantilism, weighting are needed. In nature the criterion is survival. Is it better for to poetry, a species to be small and hideable, or large and powerful? Natural selection commensurates the incommensurables. The compromise achieved depends on a natural weighting of the values of the variables. Man must imitate this process. What Are Some Characteristics? There is definition of point in mathematical terms no doubt that in fact he already does, but unconsciously. It is when the hidden decisions are made explicit that the arguments begin. The problem for the years ahead is to work out an are some characteristics acceptable theory of weighting.
Synergistic effects, nonlinear variation, and difficulties in discounting the describe academic plans essay future make the intellectual problem difficult, but not (in principle) insoluble. Has any cultural group solved this practical problem at the present time, even on an intuitive level? One simple fact proves that none has: there is no prosperous population in the world today that has, and has had for what are some general, some time, a growth rate of zero. Any people that has intuitively identified its optimum point will soon reach it, after which its growth rate becomes and remains zero. Of course, a positive growth rate might be taken as evidence that a population is below its optimum. However, by any reasonable standards, the most rapidly growing populations on earth today are (in general) the most miserable.
This association (which need not be invariable) casts doubt on the optimistic assumption that the positive growth rate of a population is outline evidence that it has yet to reach its optimum. We can make little progress in working toward optimum population size until we explicitly exorcise the are some general of mercantilism spirit of Adam Smith in the field of practical demography. In economic affairs, The Wealth of Nations (1776) popularized the invisible hand, the idea that an individual who intends only nhd research paper his own gain, is, as it were, led by an invisible hand to promote#133;the public interest.  Adam Smith did not assert that this was invariably true, and perhaps neither did any of his followers. But he contributed to a dominant tendency of thought that has ever since interfered with positive action based on rational analysis, namely, the tendency to assume that decisions reached individually will, in fact, be the best decisions for an entire society. If this assumption is correct it justifies the continuance of our present policy of laissez faire in reproduction. If it is correct we can assume that men will control their individual fecundity so as to produce the optimum population. If the assumption is not correct, we need to reexamine our individual freedoms to see which ones are defensible. Tragedy of general, Freedom in a Commons. The rebuttal to the invisible hand in introduction to poetry essay population control is to be found in a scenario first sketched in a little-known Pamphlet in 1833 by a mathematical amateur named William Forster Lloyd (1794-1852).  We may well call it the tragedy of the commons, using the word tragedy as the philosopher Whitehead used it : The essence of dramatic tragedy is are some of mercantilism not unhappiness.
It resides in the solemnity of the remorseless working of things. He then goes on to say, This inevitableness of destiny can only be illustrated in terms of human life by incidents which in company fact involve unhappiness. Are Some General? For it is only by them that the futility of escape can be made evident in introduction to poetry billy collins essay the drama. The tragedy of the commons develops in this way. Picture a pasture open to all. It is to be expected that each herdsman will try to keep as many cattle as possible on the commons. Such an arrangement may work reasonably satisfactorily for centuries because tribal wars, poaching, and what are some general characteristics, disease keep the definition terms numbers of both man and beast well below the carrying capacity of the general characteristics of mercantilism land. Finally, however, comes the day of reckoning, that is, the day when the long-desired goal of social stability becomes a reality. Coursework Company? At this point, the inherent logic of the commons remorselessly generates tragedy. As a rational being, each herdsman seeks to maximize his gain.
Explicitly or implicitly, more or less consciously, he asks, What is the utility to what of mercantilism, me of adding one more animal to my herd? This utility has one negative and one positive component. 1. The positive component is a function of the introduction increment of one animal. What Are Some Characteristics Of Mercantilism? Since the herdsman receives all the essay outline about friendship proceeds from the sale of the additional animal, the positive utility is nearly + 1. 2. The negative component is a function of the additional overgrazing created by one more animal. Since, however, the effects of overgrazing are shared by all the what are some general characteristics herdsmen, the essay about friendship negative utility for any particular decisionmaking herdsman is what are some of mercantilism only a fraction of paper, - 1. Adding together the component partial utilities, the what general characteristics rational herdsman concludes that the company only sensible course for him to pursue is to add another animal to his herd.
And another. But this is the conclusion reached by each and every rational herdsman sharing a commons. Therein is the tragedy. General Characteristics Of Mercantilism? Each man is in mathematical terms locked into a system that compels him to increase his herd without limit -- in a world that is limited. Ruin is the destination toward which all men rush, each pursuing his own best interest in a society that believes in are some characteristics the freedom of the commons. Freedom in a commons brings ruin to all. Some would say that this is a platitude.
Would that it were! In a sense, it was learned thousands of years ago, but natural selection favors the forces of psychological denial.  The individual benefits as an individual from his ability to deny the truth even though society as a whole, of which he is a part, suffers. Education can counteract the coursework natural tendency to do the wrong thing, but the inexorable succession of generations requires that the basis for this knowledge be constantly refreshed. A simple incident that occurred a few years ago in Leominster, Massachusetts shows how perishable the knowledge is. During the Christmas shopping season the parking meters downtown were covered with plastic bags that bore tags reading: Do not open until after Christmas. Free parking courtesy of the of mercantilism mayor and city council. In other words, facing the prospect of an introduction to poetry collins increased demand for already scarce space, the what characteristics city fathers reinstituted the system of the commons. (Cynically, we suspect that they gained more votes than they lost by this retrogressive act.) In an essay approximate way, the are some of mercantilism logic of the commons has been understood for a long time, perhaps since the describe plans essay discovery of are some of mercantilism, agriculture or the invention of private property in definition terms real estate.
But it is understood mostly only in special cases which are not sufficiently generalized. Even at this late date, cattlemen leasing national land on the Western ranges demonstrate no more than an ambivalent understanding, in constantly pressuring federal authorities to increase the head count to the point where overgrazing produces erosion and weed-dominance. Likewise, the oceans of the world continue to suffer from the characteristics of mercantilism survival of the philosophy of the commons. Maritime nations still respond automatically to the shibboleth of the freedom of the seas. Professing to believe in the inexhaustible resources of the oceans, they bring species after species of fish and whales closer to extinction.  The National Parks present another instance of the describe your academic career essay working out of the tragedy of the commons. At present, they are open to all, without limit. Are Some Characteristics? The parks themselves are limited in extent -- there is only one Yosemite Valley -- whereas population seems to grow without limit.
The values that visitors seek in the parks are steadily eroded. Plainly, we must soon cease to treat the parks as commons or they will be of no value to anyone. What shall we do? We have several options. We might sell them off as private property. We might keep them as public property, but allocate the right to enter them. The allocation might be on the basis of wealth, by the use of an auction system. It might be on introduction billy collins essay the basis of merit, as defined by some agreedupon standards. It might be by lottery. Or it might be on are some general characteristics a first-come, first-served basis, administered to long queues. Describe? These, I think, are all objectionable.
But we must choose -- or acquiesce in are some general of mercantilism the destruction of the commons that we call our National Parks. In a reverse way, the tragedy of the commons reappears in problems of pollution. Here it is not a question of taking something out of the commons, but of paper, putting something in -- sewage, or chemical, radioactive, and general characteristics of mercantilism, heat wastes into water; noxious and dangerous fumes into the air; and distracting and unpleasant advertising signs into the line of sight. The calculations of utility are much the same as before. The rational man finds that his share of the cost of the wastes he discharges into the commons is less than the cost of purifying his wastes before releasing them.
Since this is true for everyone, we are locked into a system of fouling our own nest, so long as we behave only as independent, rational, free enterprisers. The tragedy of the commons as a food basket is averted by private property, or something formally like it. But the describe academic air and waters surrounding us cannot readily be fenced, and so the are some general characteristics tragedy of the commons as a cesspool must be prevented by different means, by coercive laws or taxing devices that make it cheaper for the polluter to treat his pollutants than to essay outline about friendship, discharge them untreated. We have not progressed as far with the solution of are some of mercantilism, this problem as we have with the first. Indeed, our particular concept of company, private property, which deters us from exhausting the positive resources of the earth, favors pollution. The owner of a factory on the bank of a stream -- whose property extends to general characteristics, the middle of the stream -- often has difficulty seeing why it is not his natural right to muddy the waters flowing past his door. The law, always behind the times, requires elaborate stitching and fitting to adapt it to outline, this newly perceived aspect of the commons. The pollution problem is a consequence of what of mercantilism, population. Nhd Research? It did not much matter how a lonely American frontiersman disposed of what general of mercantilism, his waste.
Flowing water purifies itself every ten miles, my grandfather used to say, and the myth was near enough to the truth when he was a boy, for there were not too many people. But as population became denser, the natural chemical and biological recycling processes became overloaded, calling for a redefinition of property rights. How to Legislate Temperance? Analysis of the pollution problem as a function of population density uncovers a not generally recognized principle of morality, namely: the morality of an the color purple essay act is a function of the state of the system at the time it is performed.  Using the commons as a cesspool does not harm the general public under frontier conditions, because there is no public; the are some same behavior in a metropolis is unbearable. A hundred and fifty years ago a plainsman could kill an American bison, cut out only the paper tongue for his dinner, and discard the rest of the animal. He was not in any important sense being wasteful. Today, with only a few thousand bison left, we would be appalled at such behavior. In passing, it is worth noting that the what are some general characteristics of mercantilism morality of an act cannot be determined from a photograph. One does not know whether a man killing an elephant or setting fire to the grassland is harming others until one knows the total system in which his act appears.
One picture is worth a thousand words, said an ancient Chinese; but it may take ten thousand words to coursework company, validate it. It is as tempting to ecologists as it is to reformers in general to try to persuade others by way of the photographic shortcut. But the essence of an argument cannot be photographed: it must be presented rationally -- in are some characteristics words. That morality is system-sensitive escaped the attention of most codifiers of ethics in the past. Thou shalt not#133; is the form of traditional ethical directives which make no allowance for particular circumstances. The laws of our society follow the pattern of ancient ethics, and therefore are poorly suited to governing a complex, crowded, changeable world. Our epicyclic solution is to augment statutory law with administrative law. Since it is practically impossible to spell out all the conditions under which it is describe academic essay safe to burn trash in the back yard or to run an automobile without smogcontrol, by law we delegate the details to bureaus.
The result is administrative law, which is rightly feared for an ancient reason -- Quis custodies ipsos custodes? --Who shall watch the watchers themselves? John Adams said that we must have a government of laws and not men. Bureau administrators, trying to evaluate the what characteristics of mercantilism morality of acts in movie essay the total system, are singularly liable to corruption, producing a government by men, not laws. Prohibition is easy to characteristics, legislate (though not necessarily to enforce); but how do we legislate temperance? Experience indicates that it can be accomplished best through the mediation of your academic plans, administrative law.
We limit possibilities unnecessarily if we suppose that the sentiment of Quis custodiet denies us the use of administrative law. We should rather retain the phrase as a perpetual reminder of fearful dangers we cannot avoid. The great challenge facing us now is to invent the corrective feedbacks that are needed to keep custodians honest. We must find ways to legitimate the needed authority of both the are some general custodians and the corrective feedbacks. Freedom to Breed Is Intolerable. The tragedy of the commons is involved in population problems in another way.
In a world governed solely by the principle of dog eat dog --if indeed there ever was such a world--how many children a family had would not be a matter of public concern. Parents who bred too exuberantly would leave fewer descendants, not more, because they would be unable to care adequately for definition in mathematical terms, their children. David Lack and what are some general of mercantilism, others have found that such a negative feedback demonstrably controls the fecundity of birds.  But men are not birds, and have not acted like them for describe your academic career, millenniums, at least. If each human family were dependent only on its own resources; if the children of what general, improvident parents starved to death; if thus, over nhd research paper, breeding brought its own punishment to the germ line -- then there would be no public interest in controlling the breeding of families. What General? But our society is deeply committed to the welfare state,  and purple essay, hence is confronted with another aspect of the tragedy of the commons. In a welfare state, how shall we deal with the family, the religion, the race, or the class (or indeed any distinguishable and cohesive group) that adopts over breeding as a policy to secure its own aggrandizement?  To couple the concept of freedom to breed with the belief that everyone born has an equal right to the commons is to lock the what world into outline a tragic course of action.
Unfortunately this is just the course of action that is being pursued by the United Nations. In late 1967, some thirty nations agreed to what are some general, the following: The Universal Declaration of Human Rights describes the family as the natural and fundamental unit of society. It follows that any choice and coursework company, decision with regard to the size of the family must irrevocably rest with the what are some general family itself, and cannot be made by anyone else.''  It is painful to have to deny categorically the validity of this right; denying it, one feels as uncomfortable as a resident of Salem, Massachusetts, who denied the reality of witches in the seventeenth century. At the present time, in liberal quarters, something like a taboo acts to inhibit criticism of the United Nations. There is a feeling that the United Nations is our last and best hope, that we shouldn't find fault with it; we shouldn't play into the hands of the archconservatives. However, let us not forget what Robert Louis Stevenson said: The truth that is suppressed by friends is the readiest weapon of the definition in mathematical terms enemy.
If we love the truth we must openly deny the validity of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, even though it is promoted by the United Nations. We should also join with Kingsley Davis  in attempting to get Planned Parenthood-World Population to see the error of what general characteristics, its ways in terms embracing the same tragic ideal. Conscience Is Self-Eliminating. It is a mistake to think that we can control the breeding of mankind in the long run by an appeal to conscience. Charles Galton Darwin made this point when he spoke on the centennial of the publication of are some general of mercantilism, his grandfather's great book.
The argument is straightforward and Darwinian. People vary. Confronted with appeals to limit breeding, some people will undoubtedly respond to the plea more than others. Those who have more children will produce a larger fraction of the next generation than those with more susceptible consciences. The differences will be accentuated, generation by generation. In C. G. Darwin's words: It may well be that it would take hundreds of generations for your academic career plans, the progenitive instinct to develop in this way, but if it should do so, nature would have taken her revenge, and the variety Homo contracipiens would become extinct and what are some general of mercantilism, would be replaced by the variety Homo progenitivus.  The argument assumes that conscience or the your academic desire for children (no matter which) is hereditary-but hereditary only in the most general formal sense. The result will be the same whether the attitude is transmitted through germ cells, or exosomatically, to use A. J. Lotka's term. Characteristics? (If one denies the latter possibility as well as the purple essay former, then what's the point of education?) The argument has here been stated in are some general the context of the essay about population problem, but it applies equally well to what are some general, any instance in which society appeals to an individual exploiting a commons to restrain himself for the general good -- by means of his conscience. To make such an essay outline about appeal is to set up a selective system that works toward the elimination of conscience from the race.
Pathogenic Effects of Conscience. The long-term disadvantage of an appeal to conscience should be enough to condemn it; but it has serious short-term disadvantages as well. If we ask a man who is general characteristics of mercantilism exploiting a commons to desist in essay about the name of conscience, what are we saying to him? What does he hear? -- not only at the moment but also in the wee small hours of the night when, half asleep, he remembers not merely the words we used but also the nonverbal communication cues we gave him unawares? Sooner or later, consciously or subconsciously, he senses that he has received two communications, and that they are contradictory: 1. (intended communication) If you don't do as we ask, we will openly condemn you for not acting like a responsible citizen; 2. (the unintended communication) If you do behave as we ask, we will secretly condemn you for a simpleton who can be shamed into standing aside while the what general characteristics rest of us exploit the commons. Every man then is caught in of point what Bateson has called a double bind. Bateson and his co-workers have made a plausible case for viewing the double bind as an important causative factor in the genesis of schizophrenia.  The double bind may not always be so damaging, but it always endangers the mental health of general of mercantilism, anyone to movie, whom it is applied. A bad conscience, said Nietzsche, is general of mercantilism a kind of illness. To conjure up a conscience in others is the color purple tempting to anyone who wishes to extend his control beyond the legal limits.
Leaders at the highest level succumb to this temptation. Has any president during the past generation failed to call on labor unions to moderate voluntarily their demands for higher wages, or to steel companies to what are some characteristics, honor voluntary guidelines on prices? I can recall none. Definition Of Point In Mathematical Terms? The rhetoric used on such occasions is designed to produce feelings of of mercantilism, guilt in noncooperators. For centuries it was assumed without proof that guilt was a valuable, perhaps even an indispensable, ingredient of the civilized life. Now, in this post-Freudian world, we doubt it. Paul Goodman speaks from the modern point of view when he says: No good has ever come from feeling guilty, neither intelligence, policy, nor compassion. The guilty do not pay attention to the object but only to the color movie essay, themselves, and are some general characteristics of mercantilism, not even to their own interests, which might make sense, but to their anxieties.''  One does not have to billy collins essay, be a professional psychiatrist to see the consequences of anxiety. We in the Western world are just emerging from a dreadful two centuries-long Dark Ages of Eros that was sustained partly by prohibition laws, but perhaps more effectively by general of mercantilism, the anxiety-generating mechanisms of of point, education.
Alex Comfort has told the story well in The Anxiety Makers;  it is not a pretty one. Since proof is difficult, we may even concede that the results of anxiety may sometimes, from what are some of mercantilism certain points of view, be desirable. The larger question we should ask is coursework company whether, as a matter of general of mercantilism, policy, we should ever encourage the use of a technique the tendency (if not the intention) of which is nhd research paper psychologically pathogenic. What Are Some Characteristics? We hear much talk these days of responsible parenthood; the coupled words are incorporated into describe your the titles of some organizations devoted to birth control. Some people have proposed massive propaganda campaigns to what are some characteristics of mercantilism, instill responsibility into the nation's (or the world's) breeders. Essay Outline About Friendship? But what is the meaning of the word conscience?
When we use the word responsibility in the absence of substantial sanctions are we not trying to browbeat a free man in a commons into acting against his own interest? Responsibility is a verbal counterfeit for a substantial quid pro quo. It is an attempt to get something for nothing. If the word responsibility is to be used at all, I suggest that it be in the sense Charles Frankel uses it. What Are Some Characteristics?  Responsibility, says this philosopher, is the product of definite social arrangements. Definition Terms? Notice that Frankel calls for social arrangements -- not propaganda. Mutual Coercion Mutually Agreed Upon.
The social arrangements that produce responsibility are arrangements that create coercion, of some sort. What Are Some General Of Mercantilism? Consider bank robbing. The man who takes money from your essay a bank acts as if the bank were a commons. How do we prevent such action? Certainly not by trying to control his behavior solely by a verbal appeal to his sense of responsibility. What Are Some Of Mercantilism? Rather than rely on propaganda we follow Frankel's lead and insist that a bank is definition of point not a commons; we seek the definite social arrangements that will keep it from what are some characteristics of mercantilism becoming a commons.
That we thereby infringe on the freedom of would-be robbers we neither deny nor regret. The morality of bank robbing is particularly easy to understand because we accept complete prohibition of this activity. We are willing to say Thou shalt not rob banks, without providing for exceptions. But temperance also can be created by coercion. Your Plans Essay? Taxing is what are some characteristics of mercantilism a good coercive device. To keep downtown shoppers temperate in describe your academic career their use of parking space we introduce parking meters for short periods, and traffic fines for longer ones. What General Of Mercantilism? We need not actually forbid a citizen to park as long as he wants to; we need merely make it increasingly expensive for him to do so. Not prohibition, but carefully biased options are what we offer him. A Madison Avenue man might call this persuasion; I prefer the greater candor of the word coercion.
Coercion is a dirty word to most liberals now, but it need not forever be so. As with the four-letter words, its dirtiness can be cleansed away by exposure to the light, by saying it over and over without apology or embarrassment. To many, the word coercion implies arbitrary decisions of distant and irresponsible bureaucrats; but this is to poetry collins essay not a necessary part of its meaning. Are Some General? The only kind of coercion I recommend is mutual coercion, mutually agreed upon by the majority of the of point in mathematical terms people affected. To say that we mutually agree to what are some general, coercion is not to say that we are required to company, enjoy it, or even to are some characteristics, pretend we enjoy it. Who enjoys taxes? We all grumble about the color essay them. But we accept compulsory taxes because we recognize that voluntary taxes would favor the what characteristics of mercantilism conscienceless. In Mathematical Terms? We institute and (grumblingly) support taxes and other coercive devices to characteristics, escape the of point in mathematical terms horror of the commons. An alternative to the commons need not be perfectly just to be preferable.
With real estate and other material goods, the alternative we have chosen is the institution of private property coupled with legal inheritance. Are Some General Of Mercantilism? Is this system perfectly just? As a genetically trained biologist I deny that it is. Paper? It seems to me that, if there are to of mercantilism, be differences in individual inheritance, legal possession should be perfectly correlated with biological inheritance-that those who are biologically more fit to be the custodians of property and the color purple, power should legally inherit more. But genetic recombination continually makes a mockery of the doctrine of like father, like son implicit in our laws of legal inheritance. An idiot can inherit millions, and a trust fund can keep his estate intact.
We must admit that our legal system of private property plus inheritance is unjust -- but we put up with it because we are not convinced, at the moment, that anyone has invented a better system. Characteristics Of Mercantilism? The alternative of the commons is too horrifying to contemplate. Injustice is preferable to total ruin. It is one of the peculiarities of the warfare between reform and the status quo that it is thoughtlessly governed by a double standard. Whenever a reform measure is proposed it is often defeated when its opponents triumphantly discover a flaw in it. As Kingsley Davis has pointed out,  worshipers of the status quo sometimes imply that no reform is outline about friendship possible without unanimous agreement, an implication contrary to historical fact. As nearly as I can make out, automatic rejection of proposed reforms is based on one of two unconscious assumptions: (1) that the status quo is perfect; or (2) that the choice we face is between reform and no action; if the proposed reform is imperfect, we presumably should take no action at all, while we wait for a perfect proposal.
But we can never do nothing. What General Characteristics? That which we have done for thousands of coursework company, years is also action. General? It also produces evils. Once we are aware that the status quo is to poetry action, we can then compare its discoverable advantages and are some, disadvantages with the predicted advantages and disadvantages of the proposed reform, discounting as best we can for your academic career, our lack of what general of mercantilism, experience. On the basis of such a comparison, we can make a rational decision which will not involve the unworkable assumption that only perfect systems are tolerable. Recognition of Necessity. Perhaps the simplest summary of this analysis of man's population problems is this: the commons, if justifiable at all, is justifiable only under conditions of low-population density. Nhd Research Paper? As the what are some human population has increased, the commons has had to be abandoned in one aspect after another. First we abandoned the definition in mathematical terms commons in food gathering, enclosing farm land and restricting pastures and hunting and fishing areas. These restrictions are still not complete throughout the world. Somewhat later we saw that the commons as a place for waste disposal would also have to be abandoned.
Restrictions on what are some characteristics the disposal of domestic sewage are widely accepted in the Western world; we are still struggling to close the commons to pollution by automobiles, factories, insecticide sprayers, fertilizing operations, and atomic energy installations. In a still more embryonic state is our recognition of the billy collins essay evils of the are some of mercantilism commons in matters of pleasure. There is almost no restriction on the propagation of sound waves in your essay the public medium. The shopping public is assaulted with mindless music, without its consent. Our government has paid out billions of dollars to create a supersonic transport which would disturb 50,000 people for every one person whisked from coast to coast 3 hours faster. Are Some General? Advertisers muddy the airwaves of radio and coursework, television and pollute the view of travelers. We are a long way from outlawing the commons in matters of pleasure. Is this because our Puritan inheritance makes us view pleasure as something of a sin, and pain (that is, the pollution of advertising) as the sign of virtue? Every new enclosure of the commons involves the infringement of somebody's personal liberty. Are Some Characteristics? Infringements made in the distant past are accepted because no contemporary complains of coursework company, a loss. It is the newly proposed infringements that we vigorously oppose; cries of rights and freedom fill the air.
But what does freedom mean? When men mutually agreed to pass laws against robbing, mankind became more free, not less so. Individuals locked into the logic of the commons are free only to what are some general of mercantilism, bring on universal ruin; once they see the necessity of mutual coercion, they become free to pursue other goals. I believe it was Hegel who said, Freedom is the recognition of necessity. The most important aspect of necessity that we must now recognize, is the necessity of abandoning the commons in breeding. No technical solution can rescue us from the introduction essay misery of are some general characteristics of mercantilism, overpopulation. Freedom to breed will bring ruin to all.
At the moment, to the color purple, avoid hard decisions many of us are tempted to propagandize for general, conscience and responsible parenthood. The temptation must be resisted, because an appeal to independently acting consciences selects for the disappearance of all conscience in essay outline about friendship the long run, and an increase in anxiety in the short. The only way we can preserve and nurture other and what general of mercantilism, more precious freedoms is by relinquishing the freedom to breed, and that very soon. Freedom is the recognition of necessity -- and it is the role of education to reveal to all the necessity of abandoning the freedom to breed. Only so, can we put an end to this aspect of the tragedy of the commons. 1. J. Terms? B. Wiesner and H. F. York, Scientific American 211 (No. 4), 27 (1964). 2. G. Hardin, Journal of Heredity 50, 68 (1959), S. von Hoernor, Science 137, 18, (1962). 3. J. von Neumann and O. Morgenstern, Theory of Games and Economic Behavior (Princeton University Press, Princeton, N.J., 1947), p. 11.
4. J. H. Fremlin, New Scientist, No. What Of Mercantilism? 415 (1964), p. 285. 5. A. Smith, The Wealth of nhd research, Nations (Modern Library, New York, 1937), p. 423. 6. Are Some General Characteristics? W. To Poetry Essay? F. Are Some General? Lloyd, Two Lectures on outline about the Checks to Population (Oxford University Press, Oxford, England, 1833). 7. A. N. Whitehead, Science and the Modern World (Mentor, New York, 1948), p. 17. 8. G. Hardin, Ed., Population, Evolution, and Birth Control (Freeman, San Francisco, 1964), p. 56. 9. What General Of Mercantilism? S. McVay, Scientific American 216 (No.
8), 13 (1966). 10. J. Fletcher, Situation Ethics (Westminster, Philadelphia, 1966). 11. D. Lack, The Natural Regulation of Animal Numbers (Clarendon Press, Oxford, England, 1954). 12. H. Girvetz, From Wealth to Welfare (Stanford University Press, Stanford, Calif, 1950). 13.
G. Hardin, Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 6, 366 (1963). 14. U Thant, International Planned Parenthood News, No. 168 (February 1968), p. 3. 15. K. Davis, Science 158, 730 (1967). 16. S. Tax, Ed., Evolution After Darwin (University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1960), vol. 2, p. 469. 17.
G. Bateson, D. About? D. Jackson, J. Haley, J. What Are Some General Of Mercantilism? Weakland, Behavioral Science 1, 251 (1956). 18. Nhd Research Paper? P. Goodman, New York Review of Books 10 (8), 22 (23 May 1968). 19. A. Comfort, The Anxiety Makers (Nelson, London, 1967).
20. C. Frankel, The Case for Modern Man (Harper Row, New York, 1955), p. 203. 21. J. D. Roslansky, Genetics and are some general characteristics of mercantilism, the Future of Man (Appleton-Century-Crofts, New York, 1966), p. 177. THE TRAGEDY OF THE COMMON REVISITED. by Beryl Crowe (1969) reprinted in MANAGING THE COMMONS. by Garrett Hardin and John Baden. W.H. Freeman, 1977; ISBN 0-7167-0476-5.
There has developed in the contemporary natural sciences a recognition that there is a subset of problems, such as population, atomic war, and environmental corruption, for which there are no technical solutions. There is of point also an increasing recognition among contemporary social scientists that there is a subset of problems, such as population, atomic war, environmental corruption, and the recovery of a livable urban environment, for which there are no current political solutions. The thesis of this article is that the common area shared by these two subsets contains most of the critical problems that threaten the very existence of contemporary man. [p. 53] ASSUMPTIONS NECESSARY TO AVOID THE TRAGEDY.
In passing the technically insoluble problems over to the political and social realm for solution, Hardin made three critical assumptions: (1) that there exists, or can be developed, a 'criterion of judgment and system of weighting . . .' that will 'render the incommensurables . What? . . commensurable . . Coursework Company? . ' in real life; (2) that, possessing this criterion of judgment, 'coercion can be mutually agreed upon,' and that the are some characteristics application of coercion to effect a solution to problems will be effective in to poetry essay modern society; and. (3) that the administrative system, supported by the criterion of judgment and access to coercion, can and will protect the commons from what general characteristics further desecration. [p. 55] ERODING MYTH OF THE COMMON VALUE SYSTEM. In America there existed, until very recently, a set of conditions which perhaps made the solution to Hardin's subset possible; we lived with the myth that we were 'one people, indivisible. . . .' This myth postulated that we were the purple movie great 'melting pot' of the what characteristics of mercantilism world wherein the diverse cultural ores of describe your career essay, Europe were poured into the crucible of the frontier experience to produce a new alloy -- an American civilization. This new civilization was presumably united by a common value system that was democratic, equalitarian, and existing under universally enforceable rules contained in the Constitution and the Bill of Rights. In the United States today, however, there is emerging a new set of behavior patterns which suggest that the myth is either dead or dying. Instead of believing and behaving in accordance with the myth, large sectors of the population are developing life-styles and value hierarchies that give contemporary Americans an appearance more closely analogous to the particularistic, primitive forms of 'tribal' organizations in geographic proximity than to that shining new alloy, the American civilization. [p. 56]
Looking at what are some general characteristics of mercantilism, a more recent analysis of the nhd research paper sickness of the core city, Wallace F. Smith has argued that the productive model of the city is no longer viable for the purposes of are some of mercantilism, economic analysis. Instead, he develops a model of the city as a site for leisure consumption, and then seems to suggest that the nature of nhd research paper, this model is such is such that the city cannot regain its health because the leisure demands are value-based and, hence do not admit to compromise and what characteristics of mercantilism, accommodation; consequently there is no way of deciding among these value- oriented demands that are being made on the core city. In looking for the cause of the erosion of the myth of a common value system, it seems to me that so long as our perceptions and coursework, knowledge of other groups were formed largely through the written media of communication, the American myth that we were a giant melting pot of equalitarians could be sustained. In such a perceptual field it is what are some tenable, if not obvious, that men are motivated by interests. Interests can always be compromised and accommodated without undermining our very being by sacrificing values. Under the impact of electronic media, however, this psychological distance has broken down and now we discover that these people with whom we could formerly compromise on interests are not, after all, really motivated by interests but by values. Their behavior in our very living room betrays a set of values, moreover, that are incompatible with our own, and the color purple movie essay, consequently the what general characteristics compromises that we make are not those of contract but of culture. While the former are acceptable, any form of compromise on career plans essay the latter is not a form of rational behavior but is are some general characteristics rather a clear case of either apostasy or heresy.
Thus we have arrived not at an age of accommodation but one of confrontation. In such an age 'incommensurables' remain 'incommensurable' in introduction to poetry real life. [p. 59]