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Modernism vs Postmodernism Essay - 2441 Words | Bartleby
First-Line Supervisors of modernism essay Personal Service Worker Career. Making Decisions and thesis university, Solving Problems - Analyzing information and evaluating results to modernism vs postmodernism essay, choose the corporate social essay, best solution and solve problems. Vs Postmodernism. Getting Information - Observing, receiving, and responsibility, otherwise obtaining information from all relevant sources. Communicating with Supervisors, Peers, or Subordinates - Providing information to modernism, supervisors, co-workers, and subordinates by telephone, in written form, e-mail, or in person. Establishing and Maintaining Interpersonal Relationships - Developing constructive and cooperative working relationships with others, and maintaining them over time. Organizing, Planning, and Prioritizing Work - Developing specific goals and plans to prioritize, organize, and accomplish your work. Identifying Objects, Actions, and Events - Identifying information by categorizing, estimating, recognizing differences or similarities, and papad business, detecting changes in circumstances or events. Evaluating Information to Determine Compliance with Standards - Using relevant information and individual judgment to determine whether events or processes comply with laws, regulations, or standards.
Performing Administrative Activities - Performing day-to-day administrative tasks such as maintaining information files and processing paperwork. Resolving Conflicts and Negotiating with Others - Handling complaints, settling disputes, and modernism vs postmodernism essay, resolving grievances and conflicts, or otherwise negotiating with others. Judging the Qualities of Things, Services, or People - Assessing the value, importance, or quality of thesis things or people. Training and Teaching Others - Identifying the educational needs of others, developing formal educational or training programs or classes, and modernism, teaching or instructing others. Performing for or Working Directly with the Public - Performing for people or dealing directly with the public. This includes serving customers in restaurants and stores, and receiving clients or guests. Lab Report. Thinking Creatively - Developing, designing, or creating new applications, ideas, relationships, systems, or products, including artistic contributions. Processing Information - Compiling, coding, categorizing, calculating, tabulating, auditing, or verifying information or data.
Scheduling Work and Activities - Scheduling events, programs, and activities, as well as the work of others. Coaching and Developing Others - Identifying the developmental needs of others and coaching, mentoring, or otherwise helping others to improve their knowledge or skills. Interacting With Computers - Using computers and computer systems (including hardware and software) to program, write software, set up functions, enter data, or process information. Vs Postmodernism. Assisting and Caring for Others - Providing personal assistance, medical attention, emotional support, or other personal care to others such as coworkers, customers, or patients. Monitoring and Controlling Resources - Monitoring and controlling resources and overseeing the spending of money. Communicating with Persons Outside Organization - Communicating with people outside the organization, representing the organization to customers, the public, government, and other external sources. This information can be exchanged in person, in writing, or by telephone or e-mail. Selling or Influencing Others - Convincing others to buy merchandise/goods or to otherwise change their minds or actions. Documenting/Recording Information - Entering, transcribing, recording, storing, or maintaining information in written or electronic/magnetic form. Coordinating the Work and Activities of Others - Getting members of a group to work together to accomplish tasks.
Developing and research in molecular biology, Building Teams - Encouraging and building mutual trust, respect, and cooperation among team members. Staffing Organizational Units - Recruiting, interviewing, selecting, hiring, and promoting employees in an organization. Vs Postmodernism. Monitor Processes, Materials, or Surroundings - Monitoring and reviewing information from materials, events, or the environment, to detect or assess problems. Updating and Using Relevant Knowledge - Keeping up-to-date technically and applying new knowledge to your job. Guiding, Directing, and Motivating Subordinates - Providing guidance and direction to subordinates, including setting performance standards and writers, monitoring performance. Inspecting Equipment, Structures, or Material - Inspecting equipment, structures, or materials to identify the cause of vs postmodernism essay errors or other problems or defects. Essayshark Review. Interpreting the Meaning of Information for Others - Translating or explaining what information means and how it can be used.
Performing General Physical Activities - Performing physical activities that require considerable use of your arms and modernism, legs and consortium (ocwc), moving your whole body, such as climbing, lifting, balancing, walking, stooping, and handling of essay materials. Developing Objectives and sample, Strategies - Establishing long-range objectives and specifying the strategies and actions to achieve them. Handling and Moving Objects - Using hands and arms in handling, installing, positioning, and moving materials, and manipulating things. Provide Consultation and modernism, Advice to Others - Providing guidance and expert advice to review, management or other groups on technical, systems-, or process-related topics. Analyzing Data or Information - Identifying the vs postmodernism essay, underlying principles, reasons, or facts of information by papers in molecular, breaking down information or data into separate parts.
Estimating the Quantifiable Characteristics of Products, Events, or Information - Estimating sizes, distances, and modernism vs postmodernism essay, quantities; or determining time, costs, resources, or materials needed to perform a work activity.
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Modernism vs Postmodernism Essay - 2441 Words | Bartleby
nature of man essay A subtle chain of countless rings. The next unto the farthest brings; The eye reads omens where it goes, And speaks all languages the modernism vs postmodernism rose; And, striving to be man, the worm.
Mounts through all the spires of form. Introduction Our age is retrospective. It builds the sepulchres of the fathers. It writes biographies, histories, and criticism. The foregoing generations beheld God and nature face to face; we, through their eyes. Why should not we also enjoy an original relation to the universe? Why should not we have a poetry and philosophy of insight and thesis of pretoria, not of tradition, and a religion by revelation to vs postmodernism essay, us, and not the history of theirs?
Embosomed for a season in nature, whose floods of life stream around and through us, and invite us by the powers they supply, to action proportioned to nature, why should we grope among the dry bones of the papad plan past, or put the living generation into masquerade out of its faded wardrobe? The sun shines to-day also. There is more wool and vs postmodernism essay, flax in the fields. There are new lands, new men, new thoughts. Let us demand our own works and laws and worship. Undoubtedly we have no questions to ask which are unanswerable. We must trust the perfection of the creation so far, as to believe that whatever curiosity the order of things has awakened in our minds, the order of papad things can satisfy. Every man's condition is a solution in hieroglyphic to those inquiries he would put. He acts it as life, before he apprehends it as truth. In like manner, nature is already, in its forms and tendencies, describing its own design. Modernism Vs Postmodernism Essay. Let us interrogate the great apparition, that shines so peacefully around us.
Let us inquire, to what end is nature? All science has one aim, namely, to find a theory of nature. We have theories of races and of functions, but scarcely yet a remote approach to an idea of creation. We are now so far from the road to truth, that religious teachers dispute and hate each other, and speculative men are esteemed unsound and frivolous. But to a sound judgment, the business plan most abstract truth is the most practical. Whenever a true theory appears, it will be its own evidence. Modernism. Its test is, that it will explain all phenomena. Now many are thought not only unexplained but inexplicable; as language, sleep, madness, dreams, beasts, sex.
Philosophically considered, the universe is composed of Nature and the Soul. Strictly speaking, therefore, all that is separate from us, all which Philosophy distinguishes as the NOT ME, that is, both nature and business plan, art, all other men andmy own body, must be ranked under this name, NATURE. In enumerating the vs postmodernism values of nature and casting up their sum, I shall use the word in both senses; -- in its common and in its philosophical import. In inquiries so general as our present one, the inaccuracy is not material; no confusion of thought will occur. Nature, in the common sense, refers to essences unchanged by man; space, the air, the river, the leaf. Art is applied to the mixture of his will with the same things, as in a house, a canal, a statue, a picture. Formal Lab Report. But his operations taken together are so insignificant, a little chipping, baking, patching, and vs postmodernism, washing, that in an impression so grand as that of the world on the human mind, they do not vary the result. Chapter I NATURE To go into solitude, a man needs to retire as much from his chamber as from society. Writers Essayshark Review. I am not solitary whilst I read and write, though nobody is with me. But if a man would be alone, let him look at the stars.
The rays that come from those heavenly worlds, will separate between him and what he touches. One might think the atmosphere was made transparent with this design, to give man, in the heavenly bodies, the perpetual presence of the sublime. Seen in the streets of cities, how great they are! If the stars should appear one night in a thousand years, how would men believe and modernism vs postmodernism essay, adore; and preserve for papad business plan many generations the modernism vs postmodernism remembrance of the social responsibility city of God which had been shown! But every night come out vs postmodernism these envoys of beauty, and light the universe with their admonishing smile.
The stars awaken a certain reverence, because though always present, they are inaccessible; but all natural objects make a kindred impression, when the mind is opencourseware open to their influence. Nature never wears a mean appearance. Neither does the wisest man extort her secret, and lose his curiosity by finding out all her perfection. Vs Postmodernism Essay. Nature never became a toy to writers, a wise spirit. The flowers, the animals, the mountains, reflected the wisdom of his best hour, as much as they had delighted the simplicity of his childhood.
When we speak of modernism vs postmodernism nature in this manner, we have a distinct but most poetical sense in the mind. We mean the integrity of impression made by manifold natural objects. It is this which distinguishes the consortium (ocwc) stick of vs postmodernism essay timber of the wood-cutter, from the tree of the poet. The charming landscape which I saw this morning, is indubitably made up of some twenty or thirty farms. Master University. Miller owns this field, Locke that, and Manning the woodland beyond. But none of them owns the modernism vs postmodernism landscape. There is a property in the horizon which no man has but he whose eye can integrate all the parts, that is, the poet. This is the best part of papad these men's farms, yet to this their warranty-deeds give no title. To speak truly, few adult persons can see nature.
Most persons do not see the modernism sun. At least they have a very superficial seeing. The sun illuminates only the eye of the man, but shines into the eye and the heart of the child. The lover of formal lab report sample nature is he whose inward and outward senses are still truly adjusted to each other; who has retained the spirit of infancy even into the era of vs postmodernism manhood. Master. His intercourse with heaven and earth, becomes part of his daily food. Essay. In the corporate responsibility presence of nature, a wild delight runs through the man, in spite of real sorrows. Modernism Vs Postmodernism. Nature says, -- he is my creature, and maugre all his impertinent griefs, he shall be glad with me. Not the sun or the summer alone, but every hour and season yields its tribute of delight; for every hour and change corresponds to opencourseware, and authorizes a different state of the mind, from modernism breathless noon to grimmest midnight.
Nature is a setting that fits equally well a comic or a mourning piece. In good health, the air is a cordial of of pretoria incredible virtue. Crossing a bare common, in snow puddles, at twilight, under a clouded sky, without having in my thoughts any occurrence of special good fortune, I have enjoyed a perfect exhilaration. I am glad to modernism, the brink of fear. In the woods too, a man casts off his years, as the snake his slough, and at what period soever of life, is always a child.
In the woods, is perpetual youth. Within these plantations of opencourseware consortium (ocwc) God, a decorum and sanctity reign, a perennial festival is dressed, and the guest sees not how he should tire of them in a thousand years. Modernism. In the (ocwc) woods, we return to reason and faith. There I feel that nothing can befall me in life, -- no disgrace, no calamity, (leaving me my eyes,) which nature cannot repair. Standing on the bare ground, -- my head bathed by the blithe air, and uplifted into modernism vs postmodernism, infinite space, -- all mean egotism vanishes. Formal Sample. I become a transparent eye-ball; I am nothing; I see all; the vs postmodernism currents of the Universal Being circulate through me; I am part or particle of God. The name of the nearest friend sounds then foreign and accidental: to be brothers, to be acquaintances, -- master or servant, is then a trifle and master university, a disturbance. I am the lover of uncontained and immortal beauty. In the wilderness, I find something more dear and connate than in streets or villages. In the tranquil landscape, and especially in the distant line of the horizon, man beholds somewhat as beautiful as his own nature. The greatest delight which the fields and woods minister, is the suggestion of an occult relation between man and the vegetable.
I am not alone and unacknowledged. They nod to me, and I to them. The waving of the boughs in the storm, is new to me and old. Vs Postmodernism Essay. It takes me by surprise, and yet is not unknown. Its effect is in molecular like that of a higher thought or a better emotion coming over me, when I deemed I was thinking justly or doing right. Yet it is certain that the power to produce this delight, does not reside in nature, but in man, or in a harmony of both. It is necessary to use these pleasures with great temperance. For, nature is not always tricked in holiday attire, but the same scene which yesterday breathed perfume and glittered as for the frolic of the nymphs, is modernism vs postmodernism essay overspread with melancholy today.
Nature always wears the colors of the spirit. To a man laboring under calamity, the heat of his own fire hath sadness in it. Consortium (ocwc). Then, there is a kind of contempt of the landscape felt by modernism essay him who has just lost by death a dear friend. Consortium. The sky is modernism essay less grand as it shuts down over papad plan less worth in the population. Chapter II COMMODITY Whoever considers the modernism final cause of the world, will discern a multitude of usesthat result. They all admit of being thrown into one of the following classes; Commodity; Beauty; Language; and Discipline. Under the general name of Commodity, I rank all those advantages which our senses owe to nature. This, of course, is a benefit which is temporary and mediate, not ultimate, like its service to the soul. Yet although low, it is perfect in its kind, and is the only use of nature which all men apprehend.
The misery of man appears like childish petulance, when we explore the steady and corporate social, prodigal provision that has been made for his support and delight on this green ball which floats him through the heavens. What angels invented these splendid ornaments, these rich conveniences, this ocean of air above, this ocean of water beneath, this firmament of earth between? this zodiac of lights, this tent of essay dropping clouds, this striped coat of climates, this fourfold year? Beasts, fire, water, stones, and corn serve him. The field is at once his floor, his work-yard, his play-ground, his garden, and his bed. More servants wait on man. Than he 'll take notice of. ------ Nature, in its ministry to man, is not only the material, but is also the process and the result.
All the parts incessantly work into each other's hands for the profit of man. The wind sows the seed; the sun evaporates the sea; the wind blows the vapor to the field; the ice, on the other side of the planet, condenses rain on this; the rain feeds the sample plant; the modernism vs postmodernism plant feeds the animal; and thus the endless circulations of the divine charity nourish man. The useful arts are reproductions or new combinations by the wit of man, of the same natural benefactors. He no longer waits for favoring gales, but by means of steam, he realizes the fable of Aeolus's bag, and carries the (ocwc) two and thirty winds in the boiler of his boat. To diminish friction, he paves the road with iron bars, and, mounting a coach with a ship-load of men, animals, and merchandise behind him, he darts through the country, from town to town, like an eagle or a swallow through the air. By the vs postmodernism aggregate of these aids, how is the face of the world changed, from the era of consortium Noah to that of Napoleon!
The private poor man hath cities, ships, canals, bridges, built for him. He goes to the post-office, and the human race run on his errands; to the book-shop, and the human race read and write of vs postmodernism essay all that happens, for him; to the court-house, and research papers, nations repair his wrongs. He sets his house upon modernism vs postmodernism the road, and the human race go forth every morning, and shovel out the snow, and cut a path for him. But there is business no need of specifying particulars in this class of uses. The catalogue is endless, and modernism vs postmodernism, the examples so obvious, that I shall leave them to the reader's reflection, with the general remark, that this mercenary benefit is one which has respect to a farther good. Papers In Molecular. A man is fed, not that he may be fed, but that he may work. Modernism Vs Postmodernism Essay. Chapter III BEAUTY A nobler want of man is served by nature, namely, the love of Beauty. The ancient Greeks called the world , beauty. Writers Essayshark Review. Such is the vs postmodernism essay constitution of all things, or such the plastic power of the human eye, that the primary forms, as the sky, the mountain, the tree, the animal, give us a delight in and for themselves; a pleasure arising from outline, color, motion, and grouping.
This seems partly owing to the eye itself. The eye is the best of artists. Responsibility. By the mutual action of its structure and of the laws of light, perspective is produced, which integrates every mass of objects, of what character soever, into a well colored and shaded globe, so that where the particular objects are mean and unaffecting, the landscape which they compose, is round and symmetrical. And as the eye is the best composer, so light is the first of modernism essay painters. There is no object so foul that intense light will not make beautiful. And the stimulus it affords to the sense, and a sort of infinitude which it hath, like space and time, make all matter gay. Even the corpse has its own beauty. But besides this general grace diffused over nature, almost all the individual forms are agreeable to the eye, as is writers essayshark review proved by our endless imitations of some of them, as the acorn, the grape, the pine-cone, the wheat-ear, the egg, the wings and modernism vs postmodernism, forms of most birds, the lion's claw, the serpent, the butterfly, sea-shells, flames, clouds, buds, leaves, and the forms of many trees, as the palm. For better consideration, we may distribute the aspects of Beauty in corporate social, a threefold manner.
1. First, the simple perception of natural forms is a delight. The influence of the forms and actions in nature, is so needful to man, that, in its lowest functions, it seems to modernism essay, lie on the confines of commodity and beauty. To the body and business plan, mind which have been cramped by noxious work or company, nature is medicinal and restores their tone. The tradesman, the attorney comes out of the din and craft of the street, and modernism, sees the sky and (ocwc), the woods, and is a man again. In their eternal calm, he finds himself. The health of the eye seems to demand a horizon. We are never tired, so long as we can see far enough. But in other hours, Nature satisfies by its loveliness, and without any mixture of corporeal benefit. I see the spectacle of morning from the hill-top over against my house, from day-break to modernism vs postmodernism essay, sun-rise, with emotions which an angel might share. The long slender bars of cloud float like fishes in the sea of crimson light.
From the earth, as a shore, I look out into that silent sea. I seem to partake its rapid transformations: the active enchantment reaches my dust, and I dilate and conspire with the morning wind. How does Nature deify us with a few and cheap elements! Give me health and opencourseware, a day, and I will make the pomp of emperors ridiculous. The dawn is my Assyria; the sun-set and moon-rise my Paphos, and unimaginable realms of faerie; broad noon shall be my England of the senses and the understanding; the night shall be my Germany of modernism mystic philosophy and dreams. Not less excellent, except for our less susceptibility in the afternoon, was the charm, last evening, of a January sunset. The western clouds divided and subdivided themselves into pink flakes modulated with tints of unspeakable softness; and the air had so much life and sweetness, that it was a pain to come within doors.
What was it that nature would say? Was there no meaning in the live repose of the valley behind the mill, and which Homer or Shakspeare could not reform for me in words? The leafless trees become spires of flame in the sunset, with the blue east for consortium (ocwc) their back-ground, and the stars of the dead calices of flowers, and every withered stem and stubble rimed with frost, contribute something to modernism, the mute music. The inhabitants of cities suppose that the country landscape is pleasant only half the year. I please myself with the graces of the winter scenery, and believe that we are as much touched by it as by the genial influences of summer. To the attentive eye, each moment of the year has its own beauty, and in writers essayshark review, the same field, it beholds, every hour, a picture which was never seen before, and which shall never be seen again. Modernism Vs Postmodernism Essay. The heavens change every moment, and reflect their glory or gloom on the plains beneath.
The state of the crop in the surrounding farms alters the expression of the earth from week to week. The succession of native plants in the pastures and roadsides, which makes the silent clock by which time tells the summer hours, will make even the divisions of the day sensible to a keen observer. The tribes of birds and insects, like the plants punctual to their time, follow each other, and the year has room for all. By water-courses, the variety is greater. In July, the papad business plan blue pontederia or pickerel-weed blooms in large beds in the shallow parts of our pleasant river, and swarms with yellow butterflies in continual motion. Art cannot rival this pomp of purple and gold.
Indeed the river is a perpetual gala, and boasts each month a new ornament. But this beauty of Nature which is seen and vs postmodernism, felt as beauty, is the least part. Research Papers In Molecular Biology. The shows of modernism vs postmodernism essay day, the review dewy morning, the rainbow, mountains, orchards in blossom, stars, moonlight, shadows in still water, and the like, if too eagerly hunted, become shows merely, and mock us with their unreality. Go out of the house to see the moon, and 't is mere tinsel; it will not please as when its light shines upon your necessary journey. The beauty that shimmers in the yellow afternoons of October, who ever could clutch it? Go forth to find it, and it is gone: 't is only a mirage as you look from the modernism vs postmodernism essay windows of diligence. 2. The presence of a higher, namely, of the spiritual element is essential to its perfection. The high and divine beauty which can be loved without effeminacy, is that which is found in corporate social responsibility essay, combination with the human will.
Beauty is the mark God sets upon virtue. Every natural action is graceful. Every heroic act is also decent, and causes the place and the bystanders to shine. We are taught by great actions that the universe is the property of every individual in it. Every rational creature has all nature for his dowry and estate. It is his, if he will. He may divest himself of it; he may creep into a corner, and abdicate his kingdom, as most men do, but he is entitled to the world by his constitution.
In proportion to the energy of his thought and modernism vs postmodernism, will, he takes up the world into himself. All those things for which men plough, build, or sail, obey virtue; said Sallust. The winds and waves, said Gibbon, are always on the side of the opencourseware (ocwc) ablest navigators. So are the vs postmodernism essay sun and moon and all the stars of heaven. When a noble act is master university done, -- perchance in a scene of great natural beauty; when Leonidas and his three hundred martyrs consume one day in modernism vs postmodernism, dying, and the sun and moon come each and look at them once in the steep defile of Thermopylae; when Arnold Winkelried, in the high Alps, under the shadow of the avalanche, gathers in his side a sheaf of Austrian spears to corporate social, break the line for his comrades; are not these heroes entitled to modernism vs postmodernism, add the beauty of the scene to the beauty of the papers biology deed? When the bark of Columbus nears the shore of America; -- before it, the beach lined with savages, fleeing out of all their huts of vs postmodernism essay cane; the sea behind; and the purple mountains of the Indian Archipelago around, can we separate the man from the living picture? Does not the New World clothe his form with her palm-groves and savannahs as fit drapery? Ever does natural beauty steal in like air, and envelope great actions. When Sir Harry Vane was dragged up the Tower-hill, sitting on a sled, to suffer death, as the champion of the English laws, one of the multitude cried out to him, You never sate on so glorious a seat.
Charles II., to intimidate the citizens of London, caused the patriot Lord Russel to be drawn in an open coach, through the principal streets of the city, on his way to the scaffold. But, his biographer says, the multitude imagined they saw liberty and virtue sitting by his side. In private places, among sordid objects, an act of truth or heroism seems at once to draw to itself the sky as its temple, the sun as its candle. Nature stretcheth out her arms to embrace man, only let his thoughts be of formal sample equal greatness. Willingly does she follow his steps with the modernism vs postmodernism essay rose and the violet, and bend her lines of grandeur and opencourseware (ocwc), grace to the decoration of her darling child. Only let his thoughts be of equal scope, and the frame will suit the picture. A virtuous man is in unison with her works, and vs postmodernism, makes the central figure of the visible sphere. Homer, Pindar, Socrates, Phocion, associate themselves fitly in our memory with the geography and essayshark, climate of Greece. The visible heavens and earth sympathize with Jesus. And in common life, whosoever has seen a person of powerful character and happy genius, will have remarked how easily he took all things along with him, -- the persons, the opinions, and the day, and nature became ancillary to a man. 3. Vs Postmodernism Essay. There is still another aspect under which the beauty of the world may be viewed, namely, as it become s an object of the intellect.
Beside the relation of things to virtue, they have a relation to thought. The intellect searches out the absolute order of things as they stand in the mind of God, and responsibility essay, without the colors of affection. Modernism Vs Postmodernism Essay. The intellectual and the active powers seem to succeed each other, and the exclusive activity of the one, generates the exclusive activity of the essay other. There is vs postmodernism something unfriendly in each to corporate responsibility, the other, but they are like the alternate periods of feeding and working in animals; each prepares and will be followed by the other. Therefore does beauty, which, in relation to actions, as we have seen, comes unsought, and comes because it is unsought, remain for vs postmodernism essay the apprehension and pursuit of the intellect; and then again, in its turn, of the active power.
Nothing divine dies. All good is eternally reproductive. The beauty of nature reforms itself in the mind, and not for barren contemplation, but for new creation. All men are in some degree impressed by the face of the world; some men even to formal sample, delight. This love of beauty is Taste. Others have the same love in such excess, that, not content with admiring, they seek to embody it in new forms. The creation of beauty is Art.
The production of vs postmodernism a work of art throws a light upon the mystery of humanity. A work of art is an papad plan abstract or epitome of the world. Modernism Essay. It is the result or expression of nature, in miniature. For, although the works of nature are innumerable and all different, the result or the expression of them all is similar and single. Nature is a sea of forms radically alike and even unique. A leaf, a sun-beam, a landscape, the formal lab report ocean, make an analogous impression on the mind. What is common to them all, -- that perfectness and harmony, is beauty.
The standard of beauty is the entire circuit of vs postmodernism natural forms, -- the social totality of nature; which the Italians expressed by defining beauty il piu nell' uno. Nothing is quite beautiful alone: nothing but is beautiful in the whole. Vs Postmodernism Essay. A single object is papad only so far beautiful as it suggests this universal grace. The poet, the painter, the sculptor, the musician, the architect, seek each to concentrate this radiance of the world on one point, and each in modernism essay, his several work to business, satisfy the love of beauty which stimulates him to produce. Thus is Art, a nature passed through the alembic of man. Thus in art, does nature work through the will of a man filled with the beauty of her first works. The world thus exists to the soul to satisfy the desire of modernism essay beauty. This element I call an ultimate end. No reason can be asked or given why the soul seeks beauty. Beauty, in its largest and profoundest sense, is one expression for the universe. God is the all-fair.
Truth, and goodness, and beauty, are but different faces of the same All. But beauty in nature is not ultimate. It is the herald of inward and eternal beauty, and is not alone a solid and lab report sample, satisfactory good. Modernism Vs Postmodernism. It must stand as a part, and not as yet the last or highest expression of the final cause of Nature. Chapter IV LANGUAGE Language is a third use which Nature subserves to man.
Nature is the vehble, and threefold degree. 1. Words are signs of natural facts. 2. Particular natural facts are symbols of particular spiritual facts. 3. Nature is the symbol of spirit. 1. Business Plan. Words are signs of natural facts. The use of modernism vs postmodernism essay natural history is to give us aid in supernatural history: the papad use of the modernism outer creation, to give us language for the beings and research papers, changes of the inward creation. Every word which is modernism vs postmodernism used to express a moral or intellectual fact, if traced to its root, is found to be borrowed from some material appearance. Right means straight ; wrong means twisted . Spirit primarily means wind ; transgression , the crossing of a line ; supercilious , the raising of the eyebrow . Corporate Social Responsibility. We say the heart to express emotion, the head to denote thought; and thought and emotion a re words borrowed from sensible things, and now appropriated to spiritual nature. Vs Postmodernism Essay. Most of the process by which this transformation is made, is plan hidden from essay us in the remote time when language was framed; but the same tendency may be daily observed in children. Children and savages use only nouns or names of things, which they convert into verbs, and apply to analogous mental acts. 2. But this origin of all words that convey a spiritual import, -- so conspicuous a fact in writers, the history of language, -- is our least debt to nature.
It is not words only that are emblematic; it is things which are emblematic. Every natural fact is a symbol of modernism vs postmodernism essay some spiritual fact. Research Papers In Molecular Biology. Every appearance in nature corresponds to some state of the mind, and that state of the mind can only vs postmodernism be described by presenting that natural appearance as its picture. An enraged man is a lion, a cunning man is a fox, a firm man is a rock, a learned man is a torch. A lamb is research papers innocence; a snake is subtle spite; flowers express to us the delicate affections.
Light and modernism vs postmodernism essay, darkness are our familiar expression for opencourseware (ocwc) knowledge and ignorance; and heat for love. Visible distance behind and before us, is respectively our image of memory and hope. Who looks upon a river in a meditative hour, and is not reminded of the flux of all things? Throw a stone into the stream, and the circles that propagate themselves are the beautiful type of all influence. Man is conscious of a universal soul within or behind his individual life, wherein, as in a firmament, the natures of Justice, Truth, Love, Freedom, arise and shine.
This universal soul, he calls Reason: it is modernism vs postmodernism essay not mine, or thine, or his, but we are its; we are its property and plan, men. Modernism Vs Postmodernism Essay. And the blue sky in which the private earth is buried, the essayshark review sky with its eternal calm, and vs postmodernism, full of everlasting orbs, is the type of Reason. That which, intellectually considered, we call Reason, considered in relation to nature, we call Spirit. Spirit is the Creator. Spirit hath life in itself. And man in consortium (ocwc), all ages and countries, embodies it in vs postmodernism, his language, as the FATHER. It is easily seen that there is nothing lucky or capricious in these analogies, but that they are constant, and pervade nature.
These are not the dreams of a few poets, here and essayshark, there, but man is an analogist, and studies relations in all objects. He is modernism essay placed in the centre of beings, and a ray of relation passes from every other being to him. And neither can man be understood without these objects, nor these objects without man. All the master thesis facts in natural history taken by themselves, have no value, but are barren, like a single sex. But marry it to human history, and it is full of life. Whole Floras, all Linnaeus' and modernism vs postmodernism essay, Buffon's volumes, are dry catalogues of writers essayshark facts; but the most trivial of these facts, the essay habit of a plant, the organs, or work, or noise of an corporate responsibility essay insect, applied to the illustration of a fact in intellectual philosophy, or, in any way associated to human nature, affects us in the most lively and agreeable manner. The seed of a plant, -- to what affecting analogies in the nature of man, is that little fruit made use of, in all discourse, up to the voice of Paul, who calls the human corpse a seed, -- It is sown a natural body; it is raised a spiritual body. The motion of the earth round its axis, and round the sun, makes the day, and the year.
These are certain amounts of brute light and heat. Essay. But is there no intent of an analogy between man's life and the seasons? And do the opencourseware consortium seasons gain no grandeur or pathos from that analogy? The instincts of the ant are very unimportant, considered as the ant's; but the moment a ray of relation is modernism vs postmodernism essay seen to in molecular biology, extend from it to man, and the little drudge is seen to be a monitor, a little body with a mighty heart, then all its habits, even that said to be recently observed, that it never sleeps, become sublime. Because of this radical correspondence between visible things and human thoughts, savages, who have only what is necessary, converse in figures. As we go back in history, language becomes more picturesque, until its infancy, when it is all poetry; or all spiritual facts are represented by natural symbols. The same symbols are found to make the original elements of all languages. It has moreover been observed, that the idioms of all languages approach each other in passages of the greatest eloquence and power. And as this is the first language, so is it the last.
This immediate dependence of modernism language upon nature, this conversion of an outward phenomenon into a type of somewhat in human life, never loses its power to affect us. It is this which gives that piquancy to the conversation of a strong-natured farmer or back-woodsman, which all men relish. A man's power to connect his thought with its proper symbol, and so to utter it, depends on the simplicity of his character, that is, upon his love of truth, and his desire to communicate it without loss. The corruption of man is followed by the corruption of business plan language. When simplicity of character and modernism vs postmodernism essay, the sovereignty of ideas is broken up by the prevalence of secondary desires, the consortium desire of modernism vs postmodernism essay riches, of pleasure, of power, and of praise, -- and opencourseware consortium, duplicity and falsehood take place of simplicity and truth, the power over nature as an interpreter of the will, is in a degree lost; new imagery ceases to be created, and modernism, old words are perverted to stand for things which are not; a paper currency is employed, when there is no bullion in the vaults. In due time, the fraud is manifest, and lab report, words lose all power to modernism vs postmodernism essay, stimulate the understanding or the affections. Hundreds of writers may be found in every long-civilized nation, who for a short time believe, and make others believe, that they see and opencourseware, utter truths, who do not of themselves clothe one thought in its natural garment, but who feed unconsciously on the language created by vs postmodernism essay the primary writers of the country, those, namely, who hold primarily on nature. But wise men pierce this rotten diction and fasten words again to visible things; so that picturesque language is at once a commanding certificate that he who employs it, is review a man in vs postmodernism, alliance with truth and God. The moment our discourse rises above the ground line of familiar facts, and is inflamed with passion or exalted by thought, it clothes itself in corporate responsibility essay, images. A man conversing in earnest, if he watch his intellectual processes, will find that a material image, more or less luminous, arises in his mind, cotemporaneous with every thought, which furnishes the vestment of the thought.
Hence, good writing and brilliant discourse are perpetual allegories. Modernism Vs Postmodernism Essay. This imagery is spontaneous. It is the blending of experience with the present action of the mind. It is proper creation. It is the working of the Original Cause through the instruments he has already made. These facts may suggest the advantage which the country-life possesses for a powerful mind, over the artificial and curtailed life of cities.
We know more from nature than we can at will communicate. (ocwc). Its light flows into the mind evermore, and modernism, we forget its presence. The poet, the orator, bred in the woods, whose senses have been nourished by their fair and appeasing changes, year after year, without design and master thesis university of pretoria, without heed, -- shall not lose their lesson altogether, in the roar of cities or the broil of politics. Long hereafter, amidst agitation and terror in modernism vs postmodernism essay, national councils, -- in the hour of revolution, -- these solemn images shall reappear in their morning lustre, as fit symbols and (ocwc), words of the thoughts which the passing events shall awaken. At the call of a noble sentiment, again the woods wave, the vs postmodernism pines murmur, the river rolls and shines, and the cattle low upon the mountains, as he saw and heard them in his infancy.
And with these forms, the spells of persuasion, the keys of power are put into his hands. 3. We are thus assisted by natural objects in the expression of particular meanings. But how great a language to convey such pepper-corn informations! Did it need such noble races of creatures, this profusion of forms, this host of orbs in heaven, to furnish man with the dictionary and grammar of his municipal speech? Whilst we use this grand cipher to expedite the affairs of our pot and kettle, we feel that we have not yet put it to its use, neither are able. We are like travellers using the cinders of a volcano to roast their eggs. Whilst we see that it always stands ready to clothe what we would say, we cannot avoid the question, whether the characters are not significant of themselves. Have mountains, and research, waves, and skies, no significance but what we consciously give them, when we employ them as emblems of our thoughts? The world is emblematic.
Parts of speech are metaphors, because the whole of nature is a metaphor of the human mind. The laws of moral nature answer to those of matter as face to modernism vs postmodernism essay, face in a glass. The visible world and corporate social responsibility essay, the relation of its parts, is the dial plate of the invisible. The axioms of physics translate the laws of ethics. Thus, the whole is greater than its part; reaction is modernism essay equal to action; the smallest weight may be made to lift the greatest, the difference of weight being compensated by time; and many the like propositions, which have an ethical as well as physical sense. These propositions have a much more extensive and universal sense when applied to human life, than when confined to technical use. In like manner, the memorable words of history, and the proverbs of nations, consist usually of a natural fact, selected as a picture or parable of a moral truth. Thus; A rolling stone gathers no moss; A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush; A cripple in the right way, will beat a racer in the wrong; Make hay while the sun shines; 'T is hard to carry a full cup even; Vinegar is the son of wine; The last ounce broke the camel's back; Long-lived trees make roots first; -- and the like. In their primary sense these are trivial facts, but we repeat them for the value of their analogical import. What is true of proverbs, is true of all fables, parables, and allegories.
This relation between the mind and corporate social, matter is not fancied by vs postmodernism some poet, but stands in essayshark review, the will of God, and so is essay free to be known by all men. It appears to men, or it does not appear. When in fortunate hours we ponder this miracle, the wise man doubts, if, at all other times, he is not blind and deaf; ------ Can these things be, And overcome us like a summer's cloud, Without our special wonder? for the universe becomes transparent, and the light of higher laws than its own, shines through it. It is the standing problem which has exercised the wonder and the study of every fine genius since the world began; from the era of the Egyptians and the Brahmins, to that of Pythagoras, of Plato, of Bacon, of Leibnitz, of writers essayshark review Swedenborg. There sits the vs postmodernism Sphinx at the road-side, and from age to age, as each prophet comes by, he tries his fortune at reading her riddle. There seems to be a necessity in spirit to manifest itself in material forms; and lab report, day and night, river and storm, beast and bird, acid and alkali, preexist in necessary Ideas in modernism vs postmodernism, the mind of God, and are what they are by business virtue of preceding affections, in the world of spirit. A Fact is the vs postmodernism end or last issue of spirit. The visible creation is the terminus or the circumference of the invisible world.
Material objects, said a French philosopher, are necessarily kinds of scoriae of the substantial thoughts of the Creator, which must always preserve an exact relation to their first origin; in other words, visible nature must have a spiritual and papad business, moral side. This doctrine is abstruse, and though the images of garment, scoriae, mirror, c., may stimulate the fancy, we must summon the aid of subtler and more vital expositors to make it plain. Every scripture is to be interpreted by the same spirit which gave it forth, -- is the fundamental law of criticism. Vs Postmodernism Essay. A life in consortium (ocwc), harmony with nature, the love of truth and of virtue, will purge the eyes to understand her text. Vs Postmodernism Essay. By degrees we may come to know the primitive sense of the permanent objects of nature, so that the world shall be to us an open book, and corporate social, every form significant of its hidden life and modernism vs postmodernism, final cause.
A new interest surprises us, whilst, under the view now suggested, we contemplate the fearful extent and research in molecular biology, multitude of objects; since every object rightly seen, unlocks a new faculty of the soul. That which was unconscious truth, becomes, when interpreted and defined in essay, an object, a part of the domain of knowledge, -- a new weapon in (ocwc), the magazine of power. Chapter V DISCIPLINE In view of the significance of nature, we arrive at once at a new fact, that nature is a discipline. This use of the world includes the preceding uses, as parts of modernism vs postmodernism essay itself. Space, time, society, labor, climate, food, locomotion, the animals, the mechanical forces, give us sincerest lessons, day by day, whose meaning is unlimited. Master Thesis. They educate both the Understanding and the Reason. Every property of matter is modernism a school for the understanding, -- its solidity or resistance, its inertia, its extension, its figure, its divisibility. Research In Molecular. The understanding adds, divides, combines, measures, and finds nutriment and room for its activity in essay, this worthy scene. Meantime, Reason transfers all these lessons into its own world of thought, by perceiving the social analogy that marries Matter and Mind.
1. Nature is a discipline of the understanding in intellectual truths. Our dealing with sensible objects is a constant exercise in the necessary lessons of difference, of likeness, of order, of being and seeming, of progressive arrangement; of ascent from particular to general; of combination to one end of manifold forces. Proportioned to the importance of the organ to be formed, is the extreme care with which its tuition is provided, -- a care pretermitted in no single case. What tedious training, day after day, year after year, never ending, to form the essay common sense; what continual reproduction of annoyances, inconveniences, dilemmas; what rejoicing over us of little men; what disputing of prices, what reckonings of interest, -- and all to opencourseware, form the Hand of the mind; -- to instruct us that good thoughts are no better than good dreams, unless they be executed! The same good office is performed by Property and its filial systems of debt and credit. Debt, grinding debt, whose iron face the widow, the orphan, and the sons of genius fear and hate; -- debt, which consumes so much time, which so cripples and disheartens a great spirit with cares that seem so base, is a preceptor whose lessons cannot be forgone, and is needed most by those who suffer from it most. Moreover, property, which has been well compared to snow, -- if it fall level to-day, it will be blown into drifts to-morrow, -- is the surface action of internal machinery, like the index on the face of a clock. Whilst now it is the gymnastics of the understanding, it is hiving in the foresight of the spirit, experience in profounder laws. The whole character and modernism vs postmodernism, fortune of the individual are affected by the least inequalities in opencourseware consortium (ocwc), the culture of the understanding; for example, in the perception of differences. Therefore is Space, and therefore Time, that man may know that things are not huddled and lumped, but sundered and individual. Vs Postmodernism. A bell and a plough have each their use, and neither can do the office of the other.
Water is corporate responsibility good to drink, coal to burn, wool to wear; but wool cannot be drunk, nor water spun, nor coal eaten. Modernism. The wise man shows his wisdom in opencourseware consortium, separation, in gradation, and vs postmodernism, his scale of sample creatures and of merits is vs postmodernism essay as wide as nature. Business Plan. The foolish have no range in their scale, but suppose every man is as every other man. What is not good they call the worst, and what is not hateful, they call the best. In like manner, what good heed, nature forms in us! She pardons no mistakes. Her yea is yea, and her nay, nay. The first steps in Agriculture, Astronomy, Zoology, (those first steps which the farmer, the hunter, and the sailor take,) teach that nature's dice are always loaded; that in her heaps and rubbish are concealed sure and useful results. How calmly and genially the mind apprehends one after another the vs postmodernism essay laws of physics! What noble emotions dilate the mortal as he enters into the counsels of the creation, and feels by knowledge the privilege to BE!
His insight refines him. The beauty of opencourseware consortium (ocwc) nature shines in his own breast. Man is greater that he can see this, and the universe less, because Time and Space relations vanish as laws are known. Here again we are impressed and even daunted by essay the immense Universe to be explored. What we know, is a point to what we do not know. Open any recent journal of science, and weigh the problems suggested concerning Light, Heat, Electricity, Magnetism, Physiology, Geology, and judge whether the interest of natural science is likely to be soon exhausted. Passing by many particulars of the discipline of nature, we must not omit to thesis of pretoria, specify two. The exercise of the Will or the lesson of power is taught in modernism vs postmodernism essay, every event. From the child's successive possession of his several senses up to the hour when he saith, Thy will be done! he is learning the secret, that he can reduce under his will, not only particular events, but great classes, nay the whole series of corporate responsibility essay events, and modernism vs postmodernism, so conform all facts to his character. Nature is thoroughly mediate. It is made to serve.
It receives the dominion of man as meekly as the ass on which the Saviour rode. It offers all its kingdoms to man as the corporate responsibility essay raw material which he may mould into what is useful. Man is never weary of working it up. He forges the subtile and delicate air into wise and melodious words, and gives them wing as angels of modernism persuasion and master, command. Modernism Vs Postmodernism. One after another, his victorious thought comes up with and reduces all things, until the world becomes, at formal lab report sample last, only a realized will, -- the double of the man. 2. Sensible objects conform to the premonitions of Reason and reflect the conscience. All things are moral; and in their boundless changes have an unceasing reference to spiritual nature. Therefore is nature glorious with form, color, and motion, that every globe in the remotest heaven; every chemical change from the rudest crystal up to the laws of life; every change of vegetation from the first principle of growth in the eye of a leaf, to the tropical forest and antediluvian coal-mine; every animal function from the sponge up to Hercules, shall hint or thunder to man the laws of right and modernism vs postmodernism essay, wrong, and echo the Ten Commandments. Therefore is nature ever the ally of Religion: lends all her pomp and riches to the religious sentiment.
Prophet and priest, David, Isaiah, Jesus, have drawn deeply from this source. This ethical character so penetrates the bone and marrow of nature, as to seem the end for which it was made. Whatever private purpose is answered by any member or part, this is its public and universal function, and is never omitted. Nothing in responsibility, nature is exhausted in its first use. When a thing has served an end to modernism vs postmodernism essay, the uttermost, it is wholly new for an ulterior service. In God, every end is converted into lab report sample, a new means.
Thus the use of commodity, regarded by itself, is modernism essay mean and squalid. But it is to the mind an education in the doctrine of Use, namely, that a thing is good only so far as it serves; that a conspiring of parts and efforts to the production of an corporate responsibility end, is essential to any being. The first and vs postmodernism, gross manifestation of this truth, is our inevitable and hated training in values and wants, in corn and social responsibility essay, meat. It has already been illustrated, that every natural process is a version of a moral sentence. The moral law lies at the centre of nature and radiates to the circumference. It is the pith and marrow of essay every substance, every relation, and every process. All things with which we deal, preach to us. What is a farm but a mute gospel? The chaff and the wheat, weeds and plants, blight, rain, insects, sun, -- it is a sacred emblem from the first furrow of spring to the last stack which the snow of opencourseware consortium (ocwc) winter overtakes in the fields. Modernism Vs Postmodernism. But the sailor, the shepherd, the miner, the merchant, in corporate responsibility essay, their several resorts, have each an experience precisely parallel, and leading to the same conclusion: because all organizations are radically alike.
Nor can it be doubted that this moral sentiment which thus scents the air, grows in the grain, and impregnates the waters of the modernism essay world, is caught by thesis man and sinks into his soul. The moral influence of nature upon every individual is that amount of truth which it illustrates to him. Who can estimate this? Who can guess how much firmness the sea-beaten rock has taught the fisherman? how much tranquillity has been reflected to man from the azure sky, over whose unspotted deeps the winds forevermore drive flocks of stormy clouds, and vs postmodernism essay, leave no wrinkle or stain? how much industry and providence and affection we have caught from the pantomime of brutes? What a searching preacher of self-command is the varying phenomenon of social responsibility Health! Herein is especially apprehended the unity of Nature, -- the unity in variety, -- which meets us everywhere.
All the endless variety of things make an identical impression. Xenophanes complained in his old age, that, look where he would, all things hastened back to Unity. He was weary of seeing the modernism same entity in the tedious variety of forms. The fable of Proteus has a cordial truth. A leaf, a drop, a crystal, a moment of papad plan time is related to essay, the whole, and formal lab report, partakes of the perfection of the modernism vs postmodernism whole. Each particle is a microcosm, and faithfully renders the likeness of the world.
Not only (ocwc) resemblances exist in things whose analogy is obvious, as when we detect the type of the vs postmodernism human hand in the flipper of the fossil saurus, but also in objects wherein there is great superficial unlikeness. Thus architecture is called frozen music, by De Stael and Goethe. Vitruvius thought an architect should be a musician. A Gothic church, said Coleridge, is a petrified religion. Michael Angelo maintained, that, to an architect, a knowledge of anatomy is essential. In Haydn's oratorios, the notes present to writers essayshark review, the imagination not only motions, as, of the snake, the stag, and the elephant, but colors also; as the green grass. The law of harmonic sounds reappears in modernism essay, the harmonic colors. The granite is research papers in molecular differenced in its laws only by the more or less of heat, from the river that wears it away. The river, as it flows, resembles the air that flows over it; the air resembles the modernism vs postmodernism light which traverses it with more subtile currents; the light resembles the heat which rides with it through Space.
Each creature is opencourseware consortium only a modification of the vs postmodernism essay other; the likeness in them is more than the difference, and their radical law is one and the same. Thesis Of Pretoria. A rule of one art, or a law of one organization, holds true throughout nature. So intimate is this Unity, that, it is easily seen, it lies under the undermost garment of nature, and betrays its source in modernism, Universal Spirit. For, it pervades Thought also. Every universal truth which we express in words, implies or supposes every other truth. Omne verum vero consonat. It is like a great circle on papad plan, a sphere, comprising all possible circles; which, however, may be drawn, and comprise it, in like manner. Every such truth is the absolute Ens seen from modernism vs postmodernism essay one side. But it has innumerable sides.
The central Unity is still more conspicuous in actions. Words are finite organs of the infinite mind. They cannot cover the research papers in molecular dimensions of what is in truth. They break, chop, and impoverish it. An action is the perfection and publication of thought. A right action seems to fill the eye, and to be related to all nature. The wise man, in doing one thing, does all; or, in the one thing he does rightly, he sees the likeness of modernism vs postmodernism essay all which is done rightly. Words and actions are not the attributes of brute nature. They introduce us to the human form, of which all other organizations appear to be degradations. When this appears among so many that surround it, the spirit prefers it to all others. It says, `From such as this, have I drawn joy and knowledge; in such as this, have I found and beheld myself; I will speak to it; it can speak again; it can yield me thought already formed and papad business, alive.' In fact, the eye, -- the mind, -- is always accompanied by these forms, male and vs postmodernism, female; and these are incomparably the richest informations of the power and order that lie at the heart of things.
Unfortunately, every one of them bears the marks as of some injury; is marred and superficially defective. Essay. Nevertheless, far different from the deaf and dumb nature around them, these all rest like fountain-pipes on the unfathomed sea of thought and virtue whereto they alone, of all organizations, are the entrances. It were a pleasant inquiry to follow into detail their ministry to our education, but where would it stop? We are associated in vs postmodernism essay, adolescent and adult life with some friends, who, like skies and waters, are coextensive with our idea; who, answering each to a certain affection of the soul, satisfy our desire on that side; whom we lack power to put at formal lab report sample such focal distance from us, that we can mend or even analyze them. We cannot choose but love them. When much intercourse with a friend has supplied us with a standard of excellence, and has increased our respect for the resources of God who thus sends a real person to outgo our ideal; when he has, moreover, become an object of thought, and, whilst his character retains all its unconscious effect, is converted in modernism vs postmodernism essay, the mind into solid and sweet wisdom, -- it is a sign to us that his office is closing, and he is commonly withdrawn from our sight in a short time. Chapter VI IDEALISM Thus is the unspeakable but intelligible and practicable meaning of the world conveyed to man, the immortal pupil, in every object of sense.
To this one end of Discipline, all parts of nature conspire. A noble doubt perpetually suggests itself, whether this end be not the Final Cause of the Universe; and whether nature outwardly exists. It is a sufficient account of master university of pretoria that Appearance we call the World, that God will teach a human mind, and so makes it the vs postmodernism essay receiver of a certain number of congruent sensations, which we call sun and papers in molecular biology, moon, man and woman, house and trade. In my utter impotence to test the authenticity of the report of my senses, to know whether the impressions they make on me correspond with outlying objects, what difference does it make, whether Orion is up there in essay, heaven, or some god paints the image in papad business, the firmament of the soul? The relations of parts and modernism vs postmodernism essay, the end of the whole remaining the same, what is the opencourseware (ocwc) difference, whether land and vs postmodernism essay, sea interact, and worlds revolve and intermingle without number or end, -- deep yawning under deep, and galaxy balancing galaxy, throughout absolute space, -- or, whether, without relations of time and space, the same appearances are inscribed in the constant faith of man? Whether nature enjoy a substantial existence without, or is only in the apocalypse of the mind, it is alike useful and papad, alike venerable to me. Be it what it may, it is ideal to me, so long as I cannot try the accuracy of my senses.
The frivolous make themselves merry with the Ideal theory, as if its consequences were burlesque; as if it affected the vs postmodernism essay stability of in molecular biology nature. It surely does not. God never jests with us, and will not compromise the vs postmodernism end of nature, by permitting any inconsequence in writers essayshark, its procession. Any distrust of the permanence of laws, would paralyze the faculties of man. Their permanence is sacredly respected, and modernism, his faith therein is perfect. The wheels and springs of man are all set to the hypothesis of the permanence of opencourseware nature. We are not built like a ship to be tossed, but like a house to stand. It is a natural consequence of this structure, that, so long as the active powers predominate over the reflective, we resist with indignation any hint that nature is more short-lived or mutable than spirit. Modernism Vs Postmodernism. The broker, the wheelwright, the carpenter, the toll-man, are much displeased at the intimation.
But whilst we acquiesce entirely in the permanence of natural laws, the question of the absolute existence of nature still remains open. It is the uniform effect of culture on the human mind, not to shake our faith in essayshark, the stability of particular phenomena, as of heat, water, azote; but to lead us to modernism vs postmodernism essay, regard nature as a phenomenon, not a substance; to attribute necessary existence to spirit; to esteem nature as an accident and an effect. To the senses and the unrenewed understanding, belongs a sort of instinctive belief in the absolute existence of nature. In their view, man and nature are indissolubly joined. Things are ultimates, and they never look beyond their sphere. The presence of (ocwc) Reason mars this faith.
The first effort of thought tends to relax this despotism of the modernism essay senses, which binds us to nature as if we were a part of it, and shows us nature aloof, and, as it were, afloat. Until this higher agency intervened, the master university animal eye sees, with wonderful accuracy, sharp outlines and colored surfaces. When the modernism vs postmodernism essay eye of Reason opens, to outline and surface are at once added, grace and expression. These proceed from imagination and affection, and abate somewhat of the angular distinctness of objects. If the Reason be stimulated to more earnest vision, outlines and surfaces become transparent, and are no longer seen; causes and spirits are seen through them. The best moments of life are these delicious awakenings of the thesis of pretoria higher powers, and the reverential withdrawing of nature before its God. Let us proceed to indicate the effects of culture. 1. Our first institution in the Ideal philosophy is a hint from nature herself. Nature is made to conspire with spirit to emancipate us.
Certain mechanical changes, a small alteration in our local position apprizes us of a dualism. We are strangely affected by seeing the shore from modernism vs postmodernism essay a moving ship, from a balloon, or through the tints of an unusual sky. The least change in our point of view, gives the whole world a pictorial air. A man who seldom rides, needs only to get into a coach and traverse his own town, to turn the street into a puppet-show. The men, the women, -- talking, running, bartering, fighting, -- the earnest mechanic, the business lounger, the beggar, the boys, the dogs, are unrealized at once, or, at least, wholly detached from all relation to modernism, the observer, and seen as apparent, not substantial beings. What new thoughts are suggested by seeing a face of country quite familiar, in the rapid movement of the rail-road car! Nay, the most wonted objects, (make a very slight change in the point of vision,) please us most. In a camera obscura, the butcher's cart, and the figure of one of our own family amuse us. So a portrait of a well-known face gratifies us.
Turn the master university of pretoria eyes upside down, by looking at the landscape through your legs, and how agreeable is the picture, though you have seen it any time these twenty years! In these cases, by mechanical means, is suggested the difference between the observer and the spectacle, -- between man and nature. Hence arises a pleasure mixed with awe; I may say, a low degree of the sublime is felt from the fact, probably, that man is hereby apprized, that, whilst the world is a spectacle, something in himself is stable. 2. In a higher manner, the poet communicates the same pleasure. By a few strokes he delineates, as on air, the sun, the mountain, the camp, the city, the vs postmodernism hero, the maiden, not different from what we know them, but only lifted from the ground and afloat before the eye. He unfixes the land and the sea, makes them revolve around the axis of his primary thought, and disposes them anew. Possessed himself by a heroic passion, he uses matter as symbols of it. The sensual man conforms thoughts to things; the poet conforms things to his thoughts. The one esteems nature as rooted and fast; the other, as fluid, and impresses his being thereon. To him, the refractory world is ductile and flexible; he invests dust and stones with humanity, and makes them the words of the Reason. Business. The Imagination may be defined to be, the use which the Reason makes of the material world.
Shakspeare possesses the power of subordinating nature for the purposes of expression, beyond all poets. His imperial muse tosses the creation like a bauble from hand to hand, and uses it to embody any caprice of essay thought that is upper-most in his mind. The remotest spaces of corporate social responsibility nature are visited, and the farthest sundered things are brought together, by a subtle spiritual connection. We are made aware that magnitude of material things is relative, and all objects shrink and expand to serve the passion of the poet. Thus, in his sonnets, the lays of birds, the modernism essay scents and dyes of flowers, he finds to be the formal lab report sample shadow of his beloved; time, which keeps her from him, is his chest ; the suspicion she has awakened, is modernism essay her ornament ; The ornament of beauty is Suspect,
A crow which flies in master university of pretoria, heaven's sweetest air. His passion is not the fruit of chance; it swells, as he speaks, to a city, or a state. No, it was builded far from accident; It suffers not in smiling pomp, nor falls. Under the vs postmodernism essay brow of thralling discontent; It fears not policy, that heretic, That works on leases of short numbered hours, But all alone stands hugely politic In the strength of his constancy, the Pyramids seem to him recent and thesis university, transitory. The freshness of youth and love dazzles him with its resemblance to modernism, morning. Take those lips away.
Which so sweetly were forsworn; And those eyes, -- the break of day, Lights that do mislead the morn. The wild beauty of this hyperbole, I may say, in passing, it would not be easy to match in literature. This transfiguration which all material objects undergo through the passion of the poet, -- this power which he exerts to dwarf the opencourseware great, to modernism vs postmodernism essay, magnify the small, -- might be illustrated by a thousand examples from his Plays. I have before me the Tempest, and will cite only these few lines. ARIEL.
The strong based promontory. Have I made shake, and by the spurs plucked up. The pine and cedar. Formal. Prospero calls for music to soothe the frantic Alonzo, and his companions; A solemn air, and the best comforter. To an unsettled fancy, cure thy brains.
Now useless, boiled within thy skull. Again; The charm dissolves apace, And, as the morning steals upon the night, Melting the darkness, so their rising senses. Begin to chase the ignorant fumes that mantle. Their clearer reason. Begins to swell: and the approaching tide. Will shortly fill the reasonable shores. That now lie foul and muddy.
The perception of real affinities between events, (that is to say, of ideal affinities, for those only are real,) enables the poet thus to modernism vs postmodernism essay, make free with the most imposing forms and phenomena of the world, and to assert the predominance of the soul. 3. (ocwc). Whilst thus the poet animates nature with his own thoughts, he differs from the philosopher only herein, that the one proposes Beauty as his main end; the other Truth. But the philosopher, not less than the poet, postpones the apparent order and relations of things to the empire of thought. The problem of philosophy, according to Plato, is, for all that exists conditionally, to find a ground unconditioned and absolute. It proceeds on the faith that a law determines all phenomena, which being known, the essay phenomena can be predicted.
That law, when in the mind, is an writers review idea. Its beauty is modernism infinite. The true philosopher and the true poet are one, and a beauty, which is truth, and a truth, which is beauty, is the aim of both. Is not the charm of opencourseware consortium one of Plato's or Aristotle's definitions, strictly like that of the Antigone of Sophocles? It is, in both cases, that a spiritual life has been imparted to nature; that the solid seeming block of matter has been pervaded and dissolved by a thought; that this feeble human being has penetrated the vast masses of nature with an informing soul, and recognised itself in their harmony, that is, seized their law. In physics, when this is attained, the memory disburthens itself of its cumbrous catalogues of particulars, and carries centuries of observation in a single formula.
Thus even in physics, the modernism vs postmodernism essay material is degraded before the spiritual. The astronomer, the geometer, rely on their irrefragable analysis, and research in molecular, disdain the results of observation. The sublime remark of essay Euler on his law of arches, This will be found contrary to all experience, yet is social essay true; had already transferred nature into the mind, and modernism vs postmodernism, left matter like an outcast corpse. 4. Intellectual science has been observed to beget invariably a doubt of the existence of in molecular biology matter. Turgot said, He that has never doubted the modernism vs postmodernism existence of matter, may be assured he has no aptitude for metaphysical inquiries. It fastens the attention upon immortal necessary uncreated natures, that is, upon Ideas; and in their presence, we feel that the outward circumstance is a dream and a shade. Whilst we wait in this Olympus of gods, we think of nature as an writers review appendix to the soul. We ascend into their region, and know that these are the modernism vs postmodernism thoughts of the Supreme Being.
These are they who were set up from formal everlasting, from the beginning, or ever the earth was. When he prepared the modernism vs postmodernism essay heavens, they were there; when he established the clouds above, when he strengthened the fountains of the deep. Then they were by him, as one brought up with him. Of them took he counsel. Their influence is research in molecular biology proportionate. As objects of vs postmodernism science, they are accessible to few men. Yet all men are capable of being raised by piety or by passion, into their region. And no man touches these divine natures, without becoming, in some degree, himself divine.
Like a new soul, they renew the thesis body. We become physically nimble and lightsome; we tread on air; life is no longer irksome, and we think it will never be so. No man fears age or misfortune or death, in their serene company, for he is modernism vs postmodernism essay transported out of the district of change. Whilst we behold unveiled the nature of Justice and Truth, we learn the difference between the absolute and the conditional or relative. We apprehend the absolute.
As it were, for the first time, we exist. We become immortal, for we learn that time and space are relations of matter; that, with a perception of truth, or a virtuous will, they have no affinity. 5. Finally, religion and ethics, which may be fitly called, -- the practice of ideas, or the introduction of ideas into life, -- have an analogous effect with all lower culture, in degrading nature and suggesting its dependence on spirit. Ethics and responsibility essay, religion differ herein; that the one is the system of human duties commencing from man; the other, from modernism God. Religion includes the personality of God; Ethics does not. They are one to our present design. They both put nature under foot. Papad Business. The first and last lesson of religion is, The things that are seen, are temporal; the things that are unseen, are eternal. It puts an affront upon nature. It does that for modernism vs postmodernism essay the unschooled, which philosophy does for Berkeley and Viasa.
The uniform language that may be heard in the churches of the papad business most ignorant sects, is,------Contemn the modernism essay unsubstantial shows of the world; they are vanities, dreams, shadows, unrealities; seek the realities of religion. The devotee flouts nature. Some theosophists have arrived at a certain hostility and indignation towards matter, as the university Manichean and Plotinus. They distrusted in themselves any looking back to these flesh-pots of Egypt. Plotinus was ashamed of his body.
In short, they might all say of matter, what Michael Angelo said of external beauty, it is the frail and weary weed, in which God dresses the soul, which he has called into time. It appears that motion, poetry, physical and intellectual science, and religion, all tend to affect our convictions of the reality of the external world. But I own there is something ungrateful in expanding too curiously the particulars of the general proposition, that all culture tends to vs postmodernism, imbue us with idealism. I have no hostility to nature, but a child's love to papad business plan, it. I expand and live in the warm day like corn and melons. Let us speak her fair. I do not wish to fling stones at my beautiful mother, nor soil my gentle nest. I only wish to vs postmodernism, indicate the true position of nature in regard to man, wherein to establish man, all right education tends; as the ground which to attain is the object of human life, that is, of man's connection with nature. Culture inverts the vulgar views of nature, and brings the mind to call that apparent, which it uses to call real, and that real, which it uses to call visionary.
Children, it is true, believe in the external world. The belief that it appears only, is an afterthought, but with culture, this faith will as surely arise on business plan, the mind as did the first. The advantage of the ideal theory over the popular faith, is this, that it presents the world in precisely that view which is most desirable to the mind. It is, in fact, the view which Reason, both speculative and practical, that is, philosophy and virtue, take. For, seen in the light of thought, the vs postmodernism essay world always is phenomenal; and virtue subordinates it to the mind. Idealism sees the world in God. It beholds the essay whole circle of persons and things, of actions and events, of country and religion, not as painfully accumulated, atom after atom, act after act, in vs postmodernism essay, an aged creeping Past, but as one vast picture, which God paints on papers, the instant eternity, for the contemplation of the soul.
Therefore the vs postmodernism essay soul holds itself off from a too trivial and microscopic study of the universal tablet. It respects the end too much, to immerse itself in the means. It sees something more important in Christianity, than the master university scandals of ecclesiastical history, or the niceties of criticism; and, very incurious concerning persons or miracles, and not at vs postmodernism all disturbed by (ocwc) chasms of historical evidence, it accepts from God the phenomenon, as it finds it, as the pure and awful form of religion in the world. It is not hot and passionate at the appearance of what it calls its own good or bad fortune, at the union or opposition of other persons. No man is its enemy. It accepts whatsoever befalls, as part of its lesson. It is a watcher more than a doer, and it is a doer, only that it may the better watch. Chapter VII SPIRIT It is essential to a true theory of nature and of man, that it should contain somewhat progressive. Uses that are exhausted or that may be, and facts that end in the statement, cannot be all that is true of this brave lodging wherein man is harbored, and wherein all his faculties find appropriate and endless exercise. And all the uses of vs postmodernism nature admit of being summed in thesis, one, which yields the activity of man an infinite scope.
Through all its kingdoms, to the suburbs and modernism vs postmodernism essay, outskirts of things, it is faithful to the cause whence it had its origin. It always speaks of research in molecular Spirit. It suggests the absolute. It is a perpetual effect. It is a great shadow pointing always to modernism vs postmodernism essay, the sun behind us. The aspect of opencourseware consortium (ocwc) nature is modernism essay devout. Like the figure of Jesus, she stands with bended head, and hands folded upon the breast. The happiest man is he who learns from research papers in molecular biology nature the lesson of worship. Of that ineffable essence which we call Spirit, he that thinks most, will say least.
We can foresee God in the coarse, and, as it were, distant phenomena of matter; but when we try to define and describe himself, both language and thought desert us, and we are as helpless as fools and savages. That essence refuses to be recorded in essay, propositions, but when man has worshipped him intellectually, the noblest ministry of (ocwc) nature is to stand as the apparition of essay God. It is the organ through which the universal spirit speaks to the individual, and research, strives to lead back the essay individual to it. When we consider Spirit, we see that the views already presented do not include the whole circumference of man. We must add some related thoughts. Three problems are put by nature to the mind; What is matter? Whence is it? and Whereto? The first of these questions only, the ideal theory answers. Idealism saith: matter is a phenomenon, not a substance.
Idealism acquaints us with the total disparity between the evidence of our own being, and the evidence of the world's being. The one is perfect; the other, incapable of any assurance; the mind is a part of the papers biology nature of things; the world is a divine dream, from which we may presently awake to modernism, the glories and review, certainties of day. Idealism is a hypothesis to account for nature by other principles than those of carpentry and chemistry. Yet, if it only deny the existence of matter, it does not satisfy the demands of the spirit. It leaves God out of me. It leaves me in the splendid labyrinth of my perceptions, to wander without end. Then the heart resists it, because it balks the affections in denying substantive being to men and women. Nature is so pervaded with human life, that there is something of humanity in essay, all, and in every particular. But this theory makes nature foreign to me, and does not account for that consanguinity which we acknowledge to it. Let it stand, then, in corporate social responsibility, the present state of modernism vs postmodernism essay our knowledge, merely as a useful introductory hypothesis, serving to apprize us of the eternal distinction between the writers review soul and the world. But when, following the invisible steps of thought, we come to inquire, Whence is matter? and Whereto? many truths arise to us out of the recesses of consciousness.
We learn that the highest is modernism essay present to formal lab report sample, the soul of man, that the dread universal essence, which is not wisdom, or love, or beauty, or power, but all in one, and each entirely, is that for which all things exist, and that by which they are; that spirit creates; that behind nature, throughout nature, spirit is present; one and modernism, not compound, it does not act upon us from without, that is, in space and time, but spiritually, or through ourselves: therefore, that spirit, that is, the Supreme Being, does not build up nature around us, but puts it forth through us, as the life of the tree puts forth new branches and leaves through the pores of the old. As a plant upon the earth, so a man rests upon the bosom of God; he is nourished by unfailing fountains, and draws, at his need, inexhaustible power. Who can set bounds to the possibilities of man? Once inhale the upper air, being admitted to behold the absolute natures of justice and truth, and writers essayshark review, we learn that man has access to the entire mind of the Creator, is himself the essay creator in the finite. This view, which admonishes me where the sources of wisdom and power lie, and points to virtue as to opencourseware consortium, The golden key.
Which opes the essay palace of eternity, carries upon its face the biology highest certificate of truth, because it animates me to create my own world through the purification of my soul. The world proceeds from the same spirit as the body of man. It is a remoter and inferior incarnation of God, a projection of God in the unconscious. But it differs from the body in one important respect. It is not, like that, now subjected to the human will. Its serene order is inviolable by vs postmodernism essay us. It is, therefore, to us, the present expositor of the divine mind. It is a fixed point whereby we may measure our departure. As we degenerate, the plan contrast between us and our house is more evident.
We are as much strangers in nature, as we are aliens from God. Modernism Vs Postmodernism. We do not understand the notes of birds. The fox and the deer run away from us; the social essay bear and tiger rend us. We do not know the uses of vs postmodernism more than a few plants, as corn and the apple, the responsibility potato and the vine. Is not the landscape, every glimpse of which hath a grandeur, a face of vs postmodernism essay him? Yet this may show us what discord is between man and nature, for you cannot freely admire a noble landscape, if laborers are digging in the field hard by. The poet finds something ridiculous in his delight, until he is out of the sight of men.
Chapter VIII PROSPECTS In inquiries respecting the laws of the world and the frame of things, the highest reason is always the truest. That which seems faintly possible -- it is corporate social responsibility essay so refined, is modernism vs postmodernism often faint and dim because it is deepest seated in master university of pretoria, the mind among the modernism eternal verities. Empirical science is apt to cloud the sight, and, by the very knowledge of functions and processes, to writers review, bereave the student of the manly contemplation of the whole. The savant becomes unpoetic. Vs Postmodernism. But the best read naturalist who lends an entire and devout attention to truth, will see that there remains much to learn of of pretoria his relation to the world, and that it is not to be learned by any addition or subtraction or other comparison of known quantities, but is arrived at by untaught sallies of the spirit, by a continual self-recovery, and by entire humility. He will perceive that there are far more excellent qualities in modernism vs postmodernism, the student than preciseness and infallibility; that a guess is often more fruitful than an indisputable affirmation, and that a dream may let us deeper into the secret of nature than a hundred concerted experiments. For, the corporate responsibility problems to be solved are precisely those which the physiologist and the naturalist omit to state.
It is not so pertinent to man to know all the individuals of the animal kingdom, as it is to essay, know whence and whereto is this tyrannizing unity in his constitution, which evermore separates and papad business, classifies things, endeavoring to reduce the most diverse to one form. Modernism Vs Postmodernism. When I behold a rich landscape, it is less to my purpose to recite correctly the order and superposition of the strata, than to know why all thought of multitude is lost in a tranquil sense of unity. I cannot greatly honor minuteness in details, so long as there is no hint to (ocwc), explain the relation between things and thoughts; no ray upon modernism vs postmodernism essay the metaphysics of conchology, of botany, of the arts, to show the relation of the forms of flowers, shells, animals, architecture, to the mind, and build science upon opencourseware (ocwc) ideas. Modernism. In a cabinet of natural history, we become sensible of a certain occult recognition and opencourseware, sympathy in regard to the most unwieldly and eccentric forms of beast, fish, and insect. The American who has been confined, in his own country, to the sight of buildings designed after foreign models, is surprised on entering York Minster or St. Peter's at modernism Rome, by the feeling that these structures are imitations also, -- faint copies of an invisible archetype.
Nor has science sufficient humanity, so long as the naturalist overlooks that wonderful congruity which subsists between man and the world; of which he is lord, not because he is the most subtile inhabitant, but because he is its head and heart, and finds something of himself in papad plan, every great and small thing, in every mountain stratum, in every new law of color, fact of astronomy, or atmospheric influence which observation or analysis lay open. Modernism Vs Postmodernism Essay. A perception of this mystery inspires the muse of George Herbert, the beautiful psalmist of the seventeenth century. The following lines are part of his little poem on Man. Man is master thesis university all symmetry, Full of proportions, one limb to another, And to all the world besides. Each part may call the farthest, brother;
For head with foot hath private amity, And both with moons and vs postmodernism, tides. Nothing hath got so far. But man hath caught and kept it as his prey; His eyes dismount the highest star;
He is in little all the sphere. Herbs gladly cure our flesh, because that they. Find their acquaintance there. For us, the winds do blow, The earth doth rest, heaven move, and fountains flow; Nothing we see, but means our good, As our delight, or as our treasure; The whole is either our cupboard of food, Or cabinet of pleasure.
The stars have us to bed: Night draws the curtain; which the university sun withdraws. Music and light attend our head. All things unto our flesh are kind, In their descent and being; to our mind, In their ascent and cause. More servants wait on man. Than he'll take notice of.
In every path, He treads down that which doth befriend him. When sickness makes him pale and modernism, wan. Oh mighty love! Man is papad business one world, and hath. Another to attend him. The perception of this class of truths makes the attraction which draws men to science, but the end is modernism vs postmodernism lost sight of in attention to the means.
In view of this half-sight of science, we accept the sentence of Plato, that, poetry comes nearer to vital truth than history. Every surmise and vaticination of the papers mind is entitled to a certain respect, and we learn to prefer imperfect theories, and modernism, sentences, which contain glimpses of truth, to digested systems which have no one valuable suggestion. A wise writer will feel that the ends of study and composition are best answered by announcing undiscovered regions of thought, and so communicating, through hope, new activity to opencourseware, the torpid spirit. I shall therefore conclude this essay with some traditions of man and essay, nature, which a certain poet sang to me; and which, as they have always been in the world, and perhaps reappear to every bard, may be both history and corporate social, prophecy. `The foundations of man are not in matter, but in modernism essay, spirit. But the element of spirit is eternity. To it, therefore, the longest series of events, the oldest chronologies are young and recent. In the cycle of the universal man, from whom the known individuals proceed, centuries are points, and lab report, all history is but the epoch of one degradation.
`We distrust and deny inwardly our sympathy with nature. We own and disown our relation to it, by turns. We are, like Nebuchadnezzar, dethroned, bereft of modernism reason, and sample, eating grass like an ox. But who can set limits to the remedial force of spirit? `A man is a god in ruins.
When men are innocent, life shall be longer, and shall pass into the immortal, as gently as we awake from dreams. Now, the world would be insane and rabid, if these disorganizations should last for hundreds of years. It is kept in check by death and infancy. Infancy is the perpetual Messiah, which comes into the arms of fallen men, and pleads with them to return to paradise. `Man is the dwarf of himself. Modernism Vs Postmodernism Essay. Once he was permeated and dissolved by spirit. He filled nature with his overflowing currents.
Out from him sprang the sun and moon; from man, the sun; from woman, the moon. The laws of his mind, the periods of his actions externized themselves into day and night, into the year and the seasons. Formal Sample. But, having made for himself this huge shell, his waters retired; he no longer fills the veins and veinlets; he is shrunk to a drop. He sees, that the structure still fits him, but fits him colossally. Modernism Essay. Say, rather, once it fitted him, now it corresponds to him from far and on high. He adores timidly his own work. Now is man the follower of the sun, and woman the follower of the moon.
Yet sometimes he starts in responsibility essay, his slumber, and wonders at himself and his house, and muses strangely at the resemblance betwixt him and it. He perceives that if his law is still paramount, if still he have elemental power, if his word is sterling yet in modernism vs postmodernism, nature, it is not conscious power, it is not inferior but superior to his will. It is Instinct.' Thus my Orphic poet sang. At present, man applies to nature but half his force. He works on the world with his understanding alone. He lives in it, and masters it by a penny-wisdom; and he that works most in it, is but a half-man, and whilst his arms are strong and his digestion good, his mind is imbruted, and essayshark, he is a selfish savage. His relation to nature, his power over it, is through the understanding; as by vs postmodernism manure; the economic use of fire, wind, water, and the mariner's needle; steam, coal, chemical agriculture; the repairs of the human body by the dentist and the surgeon.
This is papad business such a resumption of power, as if a banished king should buy his territories inch by inch, instead of vaulting at once into his throne. Meantime, in the thick darkness, there are not wanting gleams of a better light, -- occasional examples of the modernism essay action of man upon nature with his entire force, -- with reason as well as understanding. Such examples are; the traditions of essayshark miracles in the earliest antiquity of all nations; the history of essay Jesus Christ; the achievements of master thesis of pretoria a principle, as in religious and political revolutions, and in modernism essay, the abolition of the Slave-trade; the miracles of enthusiasm, as those reported of Swedenborg, Hohenlohe, and the Shakers; many obscure and yet contested facts, now arranged under the name of Animal Magnetism; prayer; eloquence; self-healing; and the wisdom of sample children. These are examples of Reason's momentary grasp of the sceptre; the exertions of modernism essay a power which exists not in time or space, but an essayshark instantaneous in-streaming causing power. Modernism Vs Postmodernism Essay. The difference between the actual and the ideal force of man is happily figured by the schoolmen, in saying, that the knowledge of man is an evening knowledge, vespertina cognitio, but that of God is thesis university a morning knowledge, matutina cognitio. The problem of modernism restoring to the world original and eternal beauty, is solved by the redemption of the soul. The ruin or the blank, that we see when we look at nature, is in our own eye. Master Thesis Of Pretoria. The axis of vision is not coincident with the axis of things, and so they appear not transparent but opake. The reason why the world lacks unity, and lies broken and in heaps, is, because man is disunited with himself.
He cannot be a naturalist, until he satisfies all the demands of the spirit. Love is vs postmodernism essay as much its demand, as perception. Formal Lab Report. Indeed, neither can be perfect without the other. Modernism Essay. In the uttermost meaning of the words, thought is devout, and devotion is thought. Deep calls unto deep.
But in actual life, the marriage is not celebrated. There are innocent men who worship God after the tradition of their fathers, but their sense of duty has not yet extended to the use of all their faculties. And there are patient naturalists, but they freeze their subject under the corporate social responsibility essay wintry light of the understanding. Modernism Essay. Is not prayer also a study of truth, -- a sally of the soul into the unfound infinite? No man ever prayed heartily, without learning something. But when a faithful thinker, resolute to detach every object from personal relations, and see it in the light of thought, shall, at the same time, kindle science with the fire of the opencourseware consortium (ocwc) holiest affections, then will God go forth anew into the creation. It will not need, when the mind is prepared for study, to search for objects. The invariable mark of wisdom is to essay, see the miraculous in the common. What is a day?
What is a year? What is research papers in molecular summer? What is modernism vs postmodernism woman? What is a child? What is sleep? To our blindness, these things seem unaffecting. We make fables to hide the baldness of the fact and conform it, as we say, to the higher law of the mind. But when the fact is seen under the light of an idea, the gaudy fable fades and shrivels.
We behold the real higher law. Consortium. To the wise, therefore, a fact is true poetry, and the most beautiful of fables. These wonders are brought to modernism vs postmodernism, our own door. You also are a man. Man and woman, and their social life, poverty, labor, sleep, fear, fortune, are known to opencourseware (ocwc), you.
Learn that none of these things is superficial, but that each phenomenon has its roots in the faculties and affections of the mind. Whilst the abstract question occupies your intellect, nature brings it in the concrete to be solved by your hands. It were a wise inquiry for the closet, to compare, point by vs postmodernism essay point, especially at remarkable crises in life, our daily history, with the rise and progress of ideas in formal lab report sample, the mind. So shall we come to look at the world with new eyes. It shall answer the endless inquiry of the intellect, -- What is modernism vs postmodernism essay truth? and of the affections, -- What is good? by yielding itself passive to the educated Will.
Then shall come to pass what my poet said; `Nature is not fixed but fluid. Spirit alters, moulds, makes it. The immobility or bruteness of nature, is the absence of spirit; to pure spirit, it is fluid, it is volatile, it is obedient. Every spirit builds itself a house; and beyond its house a world; and beyond its world, a heaven. Know then, that the world exists for you. For you is the phenomenon perfect. What we are, that only can we see. All that Adam had, all that Caesar could, you have and can do.
Adam called his house, heaven and earth; Caesar called his house, Rome; you perhaps call yours, a cobler's trade; a hundred acres of ploughed land; or a scholar's garret. Yet line for line and point for point, your dominion is as great as theirs, though without fine names. Build, therefore, your own world. As fast as you conform your life to the pure idea in your mind, that will unfold its great proportions. A correspondent revolution in things will attend the influx of the spirit. So fast will disagreeable appearances, swine, spiders, snakes, pests, madhouses, prisons, enemies, vanish; they are temporary and shall be no more seen.
The sordor and filths of nature, the sun shall dry up, and the wind exhale. As when the summer comes from the formal lab report south; the snow-banks melt, and essay, the face of the lab report sample earth becomes green before it, so shall the advancing spirit create its ornaments along its path, and carry with it the beauty it visits, and the song which enchants it; it shall draw beautiful faces, warm hearts, wise discourse, and heroic acts, around its way, until evil is no more seen. The kingdom of essay man over thesis university nature, which cometh not with observation, -- a dominion such as now is beyond his dream of God, -- he shall enter without more wonder than the blind man feels who is gradually restored to perfect sight.'
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(policy) How should the country's school system be reformed? (policy) Should the U.S. adopt an educational system like Europe's? (policy) What causes students to graduate from high school without basic skills? (cause) How do American students compare with students from other countries? (fact) What role should technology play in education? (value) What is the value of a liberal arts education? (value) Should students be required to research papers biology take foreign language courses (or any other type of specific course)? Does adding days to the school year really improve learning? (fact) Should schools continue to modernism vs postmodernism spend money on fine arts? (value) How should students whose first language is not English be taught in public schools? (policy) Should college athletes be paid? (policy) Cell phones control our relationships. (definition) Computers are changing the way humans think. (fact) Texting and cell phone use has caused young people to be less able to concentrate and focus (or you can do the lab report, reverse—has caused them to essay be able to handle multi-tasking more effectively and efficiently). (cause) Cell phones have changed the way we relate to each other in positive ways. (value) Cell phones, texts, and emails are not as good as talking face-to-face. (value) Textbooks should be replaced by i-Pads and online resources. (policy) How are online technologies changing the way we live? (policy) How is technology changing our definition of what it means to be human? (value) What laws should we have about papers biology, cell phone use in cars? (policy) How is modernism vs postmodernism, social media changing family relationships? (definition) Should parents limit teenagers' use of social media? (policy) What privacy policies should be upheld by social media companies? (policy) What should (and should not) be posted on Facebook by research papers in molecular college students? (value) Should scientists be allowed to experiment on essay, human embryos? (value) What is nanotechnology? What are its applications and possible uses in the future? (definition)
Which kind of topic are you most interested in? Is China the Next Superpower? (Fact) How should we respond to papad plan the global problem of illegal immigration? (policy) Would a border fence solve the immigration problem in the U.S.? (fact) What is the relationship between immigration and nationality? (definition) What causes people to modernism immigrate illegally? (cause) Should the U.S. (ocwc)? have a visitor work program? (policy) How has immigration affected the modernism vs postmodernism, history of the U.S.? (definition) Should all states have laws giving policemen the right to require people to prove their legal status? (policy) How can legal immigration be streamlined? (policy) Who should be allowed to master thesis of pretoria immigrate? Who should not? (value) How many illegal immigrants live in the U.S.? Who are they and where do they live? (fact) Toilet Video Games? Have We Gone Too Far? Is war inevitable? How does war become integral to society? (definition) How do people justify war? (value) What might help establish peace? (policy) Should the modernism vs postmodernism, U.S. continue to act as a policeman for other countries? (value) How should the United States defend itself against papers in molecular biology terrorism? (policy) Is drone warfare ethical? (value) How is cyber warfare becoming more important? (fact) Is the U.S. Modernism Vs Postmodernism? engaging in cyber attacks on other countries? (fact) How did 9/11 change the way Americans feel about themselves as a world power? (definition) Should military spending in the U.S. Corporate Responsibility Essay? increase or decrease? (policy) How important is race to modernism vs postmodernism essay American identity? (fact) To what extent does individual identity depend on opencourseware, ethnic affiliation? (definition) How does immigration from Latin America affect the culture of America? (fact) Why do Americans think in terms of a person having one race when so many Americans have a mixed racial, cultural, and/or ethnic background? (value) Is it a good idea for people to adopt children from another ethnic group? (value) What is culture? (definition) What is the vs postmodernism, value of knowing your racial and cultural heritage? (value) Should schools be required to teach multiculturalism? (policy) Should churches work harder to be multi-racial? (value) How can parents help raise their children to be appreciative of other cultures? (policy) Is global warming a problem and if so, what can we do about it? (fact) How can we resolve the economy versus environment debate? (policy) How can we be sure to provide clean water for everyone? (policy) What responsibility do Americans have for providing clean water to other nations? (value) How will the research biology, worldwide population increase affect our planet? (fact) What can be done to stop poaching of endangered species? (policy) Is hunting good for the environment? (definition/fact) How can citizens be responsible for their local environment? (policy) What can manufacturers do to help clean up the earth? (fact) What is the modernism vs postmodernism essay, importance of clean water? (fact) What is the relationship between health and pollution? (fact) How does the current trend of species extinction compare to the past? (fact) What can Americans do to stop global pollution? (policy) How can we encourage people to recycle more? (value) How does global warming increase the dangers of disease in the U.S.? (fact) Sometimes, it can help to look through your textbook to find essays to spark ideas.
In my class, we use a book by Nancy Wood called Perspectives on Argument . In the back of this book is a list of suggested issues and articles related to papad business those issues. Usually, these articles are just a start for looking for vs postmodernism, a topic. You can take an idea from the article you like and papers in molecular biology, then research it to find out what different people think about modernism, that issue. Still having trouble finding a topic? Try looking up an research papers in molecular, issue you are interested in on essay, YouTube. You might get some good ideas just browsing around. Sometimes the title of a video can give you a main idea and title. Especially look for ideas that can be turned into questions that you can argue pro (ocwc), or con.
Whether you go online or look at vs postmodernism essay, a paper copy, you can use the papad plan, news to give you an idea of what to write about. Just remember that if you are doing a research paper that you will need to cite any sources that you use, so make sure you keep a copy. How to Write an Evaluation Paper with Sample Essays. by modernism vs postmodernism Virginia Kearney 15. 100 Problem Solution Essay Topics with Sample Essays. by essay Virginia Kearney 42. 100 Expository Essay Topic Ideas, Writing Tips, and vs postmodernism, Sample Essays. by papad Virginia Kearney 22. Easy Argumentative Essay Topics for College Students. by vs postmodernism essay Virginia Kearney 5. 100 Problem Solution Essay Topics with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 42. How to Write a Summary, Analysis, and consortium (ocwc), Response Essay Paper With Examples. by Virginia Kearney 55. Modernism Essay? Virginia Kearney 2 weeks ago from United States. Hi Rosie--You have a good topic and university of pretoria, an interesting personal connection. I'd suggest that you do a frame story introduction and conclusion.
Start with your situation and then stop part-way through and ask the modernism, question: should you call CPS? Then do your answer and tell why or why not. Finish with telling the end of your story. See my articles on How to write an argument paper and formal lab report, How to write a position paper for full instructions. Wondering how to write a position essay.
Topic should you call Child Protective Services. Modernism Vs Postmodernism? In my personal life we are going through a situation where we called the child protective services but much is not being done. Was thinking if I choose this topic I could write some of our family's frustration about the papers biology, situation, don't know how to go about writing this essay. Virginia Kearney 5 weeks ago from United States. Khen--You can find help if you look for vs postmodernism essay, my articles about how to write different kinds of position or argument papers. I have several different articles that can lead you step by step through the biology, process. Can you please help me in my position paper?
Virginia Kearney 2 months ago from United States. Roami, You have an modernism, interesting idea. I think one way for you to writers review get some good information to start your paper is to research why local languages are not included in the instruction first. Next, you might want to interview some people to find out their positions and to modernism essay get some quotes on this topic. Finally, you might want to get some research articles which show whether or not using a local or home language of a student helps them to research papers in molecular learn better. In the United States, research has shown that students who receive some instruction in essay, their own language at least at (ocwc), first often do better in the long run than a child who is modernism essay, fully immersed in English.
In my own experience as a teacher, I discovered that children who came to papers biology an all-English classroom before grade 2 or 3, generally was very competent in that language by age 12. However, if they entered an all English school later, they were often not able to catch up. However, that only works if the child is in essay, a school where no one else speaks their native language (as is often true in the U.S. Papers Biology? but not true in a school where all the children speak their local language together). You have a wonderful topic and one that is very important for your country to consider. I wish you great success in your paper. pls, i need u to look into this position topic for me. Should local languages be made as compulsory as religious languages in schools. Modernism Vs Postmodernism Essay? Virginia Kearney 4 months ago from United States. Hi Sam, you might want to papers try my article about Funny Argumentative Essay Topic Ideas, or else do the negative of any idea here or in one of my many other argument essays. Modernism? In a devil's advocate paper, you want to go against what most people think. Here are a few ideas just to get you thinking: Why Trump will be regarded as one of our top 5 presidents. Why we should leave ISIS alone.
Why race is less a problem in America than Europe. Formal Lab Report? Why the leader of North Korea isn't really crazy. I have this assignment of vs postmodernism essay, playing the role of devil's advocate and I can't think of a good topic! ( I personally prefer a political related topic). Virginia Kearney 6 months ago from essayshark United States. Modernism Essay? Aidyn-You add a very interesting position topic. I had not thought about schools making rules against plan fasting but it certainly could hurt a child's performance in school if they were fasting for a longer period than a day or two. That could cause a school to be concerned. Modernism? Thanks for your comment and idea. Aidyn Krikorian 6 months ago. I greatly appreciate your website, and I have a suggestion for master, a topic.
Should we allow fasting or other religious acts in vs postmodernism essay, schools? This topic facsinates me and I do hope you will consider it. Consortium? I have chosen a topic to use for modernism essay, a paper from research in molecular biology this webpage and will be returning. Thank you, Aidyn. Virginia Kearney 6 months ago from vs postmodernism United States. Rose--You did not mention what aspect of culture you are writing about which makes it hard to papad plan help you.
However, for example, if you are writing a paper arguing to people that only like modern music that classical music is worth listening to, you could start by talking about modernism, what you agree with about modern music and acknowledge why people of your generation might prefer to listen to writers it. Then you could explain why they would actually enjoy classical music if they gave it a try or explain how they could grow to appreciate that kind of music. I need help on modernism vs postmodernism, my regerian Argument eassy on culture. I dont now how to start it, Does anyone knows how.thanks. Preston Heard 8 months ago. These are great topics for corporate social essay, the upcoming research essays. I will definitely be using one of them. Thank you for this resource! Aaron Gibson 8 months ago. Modernism Vs Postmodernism? Excited for your class this semester! Matt Hartman 8 months ago.
This article along with many of the other articles you have written will be very helpful this semester! I'm looking forward to your class! Virginia Kearney 11 months ago from United States. Papad Business? Look for my articles about how to write argument or position essays for lots of ideas on how to vs postmodernism introduce essays and find sources. Luckily, Google Scholar has lots of excellent peer-reviewed essays that are good sources, but you can also find many good sources that come from government, Universities or published journals that post online (look for .gov, .edu or a journal that also appears in print).
One easy way to start your introduction is to tell a story about thesis university, a student who is generally shy (or maybe bullied) but gets excited (and more included by others) when they are able to share about their own culture during a multiculturalism unit. I am doing an Apa essay on essay, should schools be required to formal teach multiculturalism any idea on how I should start my intro and modernism vs postmodernism essay, what sources I should use? Virginia Kearney 11 months ago from United States. Bebe--You don't tell me whether your paper is a research paper or not, but I've written many articles on how to write different sorts of essays. You can use the search engine on research in molecular, HubPages to find them, or look at the links that usually appear when you pull up one of modernism vs postmodernism essay, my articles. Search Argument essays or How to Write a Position Essay or just type in writers review, VirginiaLynne. Modernism Essay? To start a paper on formal sample, your topic, I think I would use a story in the introduction showing a miscommunication when people don't talk face to modernism essay face. Hey . In Molecular? Can you please help me in my position paper . I dont how to essay start . My topic is cellphone,texts and emails are not as good as talking face to face . It is from yours sample :) thank you. I think that is video gaming good or bad is a great topic to choose. Virginia Kearney 19 months ago from United States.
Yes Alsaifl, I think that What is beauty? could be a topic. You are right that your answer would be a definition claim. Jumanah Alsaif 19 months ago. Is the thesis, topics What is true beauty? (definition) a good topic for a position paper? I was thinking of essay, writing how the definition of beauty is different for social responsibility essay, each individual. Brittany Adams 14 2 years ago.
Thank you so much for posting! This helps a lot with my writing! Tariq Ali Khan 2 years ago. Excellent work buddy! Thank you so much ! Kristen Howe 2 years ago from Northeast Ohio. Great topics for a variety of essays for modernism essay, everyone who needs to be inspired. Voted up for papad business, useful! That Tom Hanks video is hilarious.
These ideas are very thought-provoking and vs postmodernism essay, inspiring! Virginia Kearney 2 years ago from United States. Cindy A. So glad I was able to give you some good information! Unbelievable. You have helped me enormously. Thank you so much. Thank you for these great topics.
VJG 2 years ago from Texas. This would be an interesting article for school students. They always seem to struggle for essay ideas. Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States. Corporate Social Responsibility? Hi Safa--Here are the main steps: 1. Choose a question you are going to write about. Vs Postmodernism? Then think about what your answer to the question is going to opencourseware consortium be. 2. Decide what you want your reader to vs postmodernism essay think, do or believe after they read your essay. That is your thesis (the answer to your question). 3. Decide who you want to persuade to believe this (that is your reader or audience).
Think about lab report, what that reader already knows and modernism vs postmodernism, believes about your topic. That will help you develop your arguments. Sample? The reader should not be someone who already believes what you do. If they do, you aren't really arguing are you? 4. Think of at vs postmodernism essay, least 3 reasons why your reader should believe your thesis.
Those reasons will be the sample, main body part of modernism, your essay. 5. Corporate Social Responsibility Essay? Think of examples or evidence which supports each of modernism essay, those reasons. That is what you will use to support those three reasons. 6. What objections will your reader have? Write those out and also your answers to those objections. This will be a paragraph after your reasons. 7. For your conclusion think of what good will come if your reader believes you. Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States. Hi katha- if you look at the bottom right blue box I have the links to sample essays. These are student essays so they are published by research biology my students under their own names here on hubpages. Maybe I should move these up on the page so you can find them more easily.
Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States. Essay? Samarah--Yes I think that vaccinating children is a very good topic. You can also narrow that to particular types of vaccinations that are new like the chickenpox vaccine or the HPV. Biology? Another possible argument on vs postmodernism essay, this topic is whether or not it is true that vaccines are the main reason for better health in people today than in the past. Is the right to vaccinate children a good topic? Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States. Papad Business? I think you can do something related to obesity or how different types of modernism vs postmodernism, food are good or bad for your health.
Or you can talk about GMO foods or organic or locally grown produce. Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from United States. Papad Plan? Xstatic--I love the fact that you do have a position on essay, everything--I like to review look at all sides of modernism, things and that is great as an instructor teaching positions, because I can play the devils advocate, but sometimes I do need to just nail down my own point of view! Jim Higgins 5 years ago from Eugene, Oregon. A great how to for position papers. I have not written one for years, though I have a position on corporate social responsibility essay, almost everything.
Useful Hub and well done as usual. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners. Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners. HubPages ® is a registered Service Mark of HubPages, Inc. HubPages and Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on this page based on affiliate relationships and advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and others.
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Modernism Vs Postmodernism - UK Essays
concluding a paper Generics and Biosimilars Initiative Journal (GaBI Journal). 2013;2(4):173-7. When an innovative biological product goes off-patent, biopharmaceutical or biotechnological companies may file an application for regulatory approval of biosimilar products. In practice, however, important information on the innovative (reference) product may not be available for assessment. Modernism Essay! Thus, it is important to first establish a reference standard while assessing biosimilarity between a biosimilar product and writers review the reference product. In this paper, reference standard is established through the biosimilarity index approach based on a reference-replicated study (or R-R study), in which the vs postmodernism essay, reference product is (ocwc), compared with itself under various scenarios.
The reference standard can then be used for assessing the degree of similarity between the test and reference drugs in biosimilar studies. Submitted: 24 April 2013; Revised: 10 June 2013; Accepted: 8 July 2013; Published online first: 31 July 2013. A biosimilar product is defined as a biological drug product that is highly similar to vs postmodernism, the reference product notwithstanding minor differences in clinically inactive components. No clinically meaningful differences exist in terms of safety, purity, and potency (Biologics Price Competition and Innovation [BPCI] Act 2009). In the BPCI Act, however, how ‘similar’ is considered ‘highly similar’ has not been addressed. The BPCI Act as part of the (ocwc), Affordable Care Act was signed into law in March 2010.
It gave FDA the authority to approve similar biological drug products. Currently, FDA has not set out clear standards for biosimilar approvals . Kang and Chow  proposed a method that uses the relative difference, i.e. the difference between test (T) and reference (R) products compared with the difference between R and essay R as the primary measure for assessing biosimilarity. As a result, the difference between R and social responsibility R is important, as it serves as the reference standard for comparison. In practice, important information such as variabilities in pharmacokinetic parameters of the reference product may not be accessible to the biosimilar manufacturers as they are proprietary knowledge. Thus, it is important to conduct a reference-replicated study (R-R study), i.e. a study in which the reference product is compared with itself, to vs postmodernism, obtain this information. Master Thesis Of Pretoria! As biosimilar products are made by living cells or organisms that are sensitive to small changes or variations in environmental factors, such as light or temperature, it is expected that a small difference will occur between two reference products resulting from different manufacturing processes or locations, or different batches from the same manufacturing process. The R-R study will provide the information on variability associated with the reference product, and also establish a baseline, i.e. similarity between R and R, for comparison in biosimilarity testing. The biosimilarity index approach was proposed by Chow et al. Vs Postmodernism! [3, 4] to assess the level of formal lab report sample, similarity. The index is based on the concept of essay, reproducibility probability and is evaluated as the estimated power of the thesis university, testing procedure when the alternative hypothesis is true.
This approach has been shown to be robust to the study endpoints, criteria and study designs. Thus, in this paper, we have chosen to vs postmodernism, establish the reference standards in the framework of this biosimilarity index approach. In the next section, the study design and statistical model used for the R-R study are described. Research! In Section 3, biosimilar index based on reproducibility probability is introduced. In Section 4, the statistical properties of the reference standards are discussed through simulation studies. We provide some concluding remarks and vs postmodernism recommendations in the last section. Study design and statistical model. Crossover designs are often recommended for sample, bioequivalence studies. Biosimilarity is often assessed in a parallel design in modernism vs postmodernism, practice [ 5 ], however, because of the relatively long half-life and papad plan the possibility of immunogenicity of biological products, concerns are increasing over interchangeability in biosimilars, which can only be assessed in crossover designs.
Thus, we have chosen a standard two-sequence, two-period (2 ? 2) crossover design for the establishment of reference standards. A 2 ? 2 crossover study can be viewed as a two-arm parallel study with replicates; the advantage of using a crossover design is that the intra-subject variability could be estimated for the reference standards. In a 2 ? 2 standard crossover study design, participants are randomly assigned to modernism, either sequence 1 (R 1 R 2 ) or sequence 2 (R 2 R 1 ) in the R-R study. Consortium (ocwc)! For sequence 1, participants are first treated with R 1 and, after a sufficient washout period, are treated with R 2 ; for sequence 2, participants are first treated with R 2 and then with R 1 . As mentioned, R 1 and R 2 could be two different batches of the reference drug or drugs from different locations such as the modernism essay, US and EU. The interval hypotheses of the similarity testing written in terms of formal lab report, parameters are: where ? is the study parameter chosen to assess biosimilarity; ? L and ? U are the vs postmodernism, biosimilarity limits, i.e. the accepted lower and upper bounds for declaring biosimilarity. In bioequivalence assessment for generic drug products, average bioequivalence criterion chooses ? as the ratio of the geometric means between reference and test products; and writers the corresponding limits are set to be 80% and 125%. The hypotheses in equation (1) are usually decomposed into two sets of one-sided hypotheses: Schuirmann’s two one-sided tests procedure is commonly used for testing the hypotheses in equation (2) . The overall p value is the essay, larger of the p values from these two tests. For a standard 2 x 2 crossover study design, we consider the following statistical model with the assumption of no carryover effects: where Y ijk is the response for subject i in the kth sequence at the jth period, where i = 1, … , n k indicates subject, j = 1, 2 indicates period, k = 1, 2 indicates sequence; µ represents the corporate responsibility essay, overall mean; S ik represents the random effect of ith subject in kth sequence, assumed independently and identically distributed (i.i.d.) as N(0, s s2 ); P j is the period effect; T (j,k) represents the fixed effect of the modernism essay, treatment in the kth sequence administered at the jth period; e ijk is the within-subject random error, assumed i.i.d. Opencourseware Consortium (ocwc)! as N(0, s e2 ). Finally S ik ’s and e ijk ’s are assumed to be mutually independent. To establish the reference standards, we have chosen the modernism essay, average biosimilarity criterion, i.e. ? = µ R2 – µ R1 . One concludes average biosimilarity if.
where and are the least square means for the two reference products; they can be obtained from the sequence-by-period means: and ; n 1 and n 2 are the formal lab report sample, number of subjects in vs postmodernism essay, sequence 1 and sequence 2; is the pooled sample variance of papers in molecular, period difference from both sequences, and can be obtained from vs postmodernism essay, , where . To reflect the characteristics and effect of variability on research papers in molecular, the therapeutic effect of biological products, Chow et al. [ 3 , 4 ] in essay, 2011 proposed the development of an index based on the concept of the thesis of pretoria, reproducibility probability to assess ‘highly biosimilar’. Reproducibility probability in clinical trials was first proposed in modernism vs postmodernism essay, 2002 by Shao and Chow  to provide assessment on the strength of formal lab report, evidence against null hypothesis for regulatory agencies in deciding whether a single clinical trial is sufficient for approval. Reproducibility probability addresses the vs postmodernism, question of research in molecular biology, whether the observed significant result from modernism vs postmodernism, a clinical trial is reproducible. Following a similar idea, a biosimilarity index was developed based on the reproducibility probability for review, the interval hypotheses in equation (2) to modernism vs postmodernism, evaluate the degree of similarity between two drug products. That is, we define a reproducibility probability for evaluating the biosimilarity of thesis, two drug products as follows: P BI = concluding average biosimilarity between two products in vs postmodernism, a future trial given that the average biosimilarity based on a chosen criterion has been established in the first trial. To evaluate the biosimilarity index, the index is expressed as the estimated power of the business, testing procedure when the alternative hypothesis is true, replacing the parameter by its estimate based on the data observed. By this estimated power approach, the biosimilarity index for the 2 ? 2 crossover design and average biosimilarity criterion can be obtained from the following equation: where T L and T U are the test statistics given in equation (4) and equation (5). Both T L and T U follow non-central t-distribution, with n 1 + n 2 – 2 degree of freedom and non-centrality parameters d L and d U , respectively. d L and d U relate to the population means, variances and similarity limits; their estimate and modernism vs postmodernism essay can be obtained from the data using the consortium, formulas and. To apply the proposed biosimilarity index approach to assess biosimilarity, Chow et al. in 2013 proposed the modernism vs postmodernism, following steps [ 8 ], see Table 1 . To establish p 0 , we recommend it be based on p RR , the biosimilarity index obtained in research, an R-R study.
By basing p 0 on p RR , the biosimilarity index approach allows us to vs postmodernism, assess the degree of similarity relative to the reference product. From the definition of the biosimilarity index and the testing steps illustrated above, we can see that this approach has the following advantages. First, it is robust with respect to the selected study endpoints, biosimilarity criteria, and consortium (ocwc) study designs [ 7 ], because the biosimilarity index used in the second stage of testing ‘highly similar’ is calculated using the same selected study endpoint, biosimilarity criterion, and study design. Second, it takes variability into modernism vs postmodernism essay consideration in the calculation of the writers essayshark, index, and is sensitive to the variance of the modernism vs postmodernism, test products. Third, it allows the definition and assessment of the degree of similarity. Or, in other words, it provides an answer to the question of ‘how similar is considered highly similar?’ In practice, important information about the innovative (reference) product may not be available for assessment. Thus, it is important to establish the reference standard (p 0 ) while assessing biosimilarity between a biosimilar and the reference product. Papad! In this section, we set out to conduct simulation studies to establish reference standards under various scenarios. Simulation studies were conducted to modernism vs postmodernism essay, demonstrate how to establish reference standards.
Standard 2 ? 2 crossover design and average biosimilarity criterion are used. The biosimilarity index is plan, calculated as the steps outlined in section 3. The study parameter ? is the mean difference, i.e. Modernism Essay! ? = µ R2 – µ R1 , and the corresponding similarity limits are those accepted in bioequivalence studies, i.e. (? L , ? U ) = (log0.8, log1.25) = (-0.223, 0.223). The data are assumed to following normal distribution, and the means and variances of the papers biology, two reference products are assumed to be the same in the simulation, i.e. µ R1 = µ R2 = µ and modernism essay s R1 = s R2 = s. To evaluate how reference standards are affected by variability of the drug products, different coefficients of variation are chosen: 20–50% by an increment of 5%. Note that coefficients of variation is the ratio of the master thesis university of pretoria, standard deviation to the mean, therefore in terms of s and µ in the normal distribution, the chosen coefficients of variation values translate to s = 0.2µ, 0.25µ, 0.3µ, 0.35µ, 0.4µ, 0.45µ or 0.5µ. In bioequivalence studies, it is recommended that data are first log-transformed. For lognormal distribution, coefficients of variation of vs postmodernism, 20%, 25%, 30%, 35%, 40%, 45% and 50% translate to s = 0.2, 0.25, 0.294, 0.340, 0.385, 0.429 and 0.472 ( ). We have chosen µ = 1 so that the results are comparable with those shown in original scales in bioequivalence studies. The effects of different sample sizes (n = n 1 + n 2 = 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90 and 100) with equal allocation are also investigated.
A total of 1,000 random trials are generated for each parameter combinations. The percentage of trials that have passed the Step 1 biosimilarity test, i.e. the probability of claiming biosimilarity on the basis of the corporate social, average biosimilarity criterion, are shown in Table 2 and Figure 1. The results are in accordance with results observed in other studies . As the variability increases, the vs postmodernism essay, probability decreases. Even with no mean difference between the two drug products, the probability of concluding biosimilarity can be quite low when the coefficients of research, variation are high. For example, when the coefficients of modernism essay, variation is 50%, with a total sample size of 40, biosimilarity is concluded only about 30% of the times. The probability of concluding biosimilarity can be boosted by increasing sample size. In the previous scenario, the probability can be increased from 30% to business plan, 86% if a sample size of 100 is used instead of 40.
For those trials that have passed the modernism vs postmodernism, Step 1 test, the p values from the Schuirmann’s two one-sided tests procedure are recorded and the averages are reported in Table 3 and Figure 2. As the variability increases, the p values also increase, becoming close to 0.05. In other words, as the variability increases, the evidence against of pretoria null hypotheses weakens. For those trials that have passed the modernism vs postmodernism, Step 1 test, we further report in Table 4 and Figure 3 the reproducibility probability or biosimilarity index, termed p RR in R–R study. The p RR is papad business, calculated from equation (6). As expected, the results show that the p RR increases as the sample size increases, and it decreases as variability increases. Notice that when the coefficients of variation are 45%, and the total sample size is 40, the p RR is modernism essay, only 48.5%.
When a reference drug compared with itself can only have a 48.5% reproducibility probability, it is superfluous to follow the same study design to demonstrate that a ‘follow-on biologic’ is highly similar to this reference. There are two ways to correct a low p RR : one is to choose a different criterion as in corporate, bioequivalence studies with the use of a scaled criterion; the other is to increase sample size. This also demonstrates the importance of conducting an modernism vs postmodernism R–R study: one is able to opencourseware (ocwc), choose an appropriate criterion, sample size, or both, to modernism, establish reference standards. As shown above in the simulation studies, as coefficients of variation increase, it is less likely that similarity can be declared even when R is compared with R. To further illustrate the effect of the high variability on formal sample, the conclusion of biosimilarity, and how the biosimilarity index addresses the degree of similarity, we consider example data with a total sample size of 40 and coefficients of variation of 45%, again assuming no true mean difference. First, we obtain an example where H 0 is not rejected and give the sample means in Table 5. The observed mean difference and the observed variability . The 90% confidence interval of the mean difference is (-0.065, 0.327); similarity is not declared. Under the same setting, another set of data is generated. Under this scenario, we observe that R 1 and essay R 2 are not identical yet similarity is declared. The sample means are given in Table 6, from opencourseware consortium (ocwc), which we could calculate the sample mean difference and the variability . From the observed mean difference and variability, the vs postmodernism essay, p RR as evaluated from equation (6) is 0.563.
This example shows that when coefficients of variation is writers review, high, even though biosimilarity is declared based on the average similarity criterion, the degree of similarity as measured by biosimilarity index is low, so is the confidence that we have in vs postmodernism essay, the biosimilarity conclusion. The simulation studies have shown that, as variance increases, the probability of declaring biosimilarity in the Step 1 test decreases; and, for those trials that pass the Step 1 test, the degree of similarity, quantified by biosimilarity index, decreases. The biosimilarity index is calculated for the trials that have passed the Step 1 test, thus it reflects the social responsibility, characteristics of the biological products that have already been declared biosimilar based on the average biosimilarity criterion. To apply the biosimilar index approach, an appropriate p 0 , see Table 1 for details of Step 3 in the testing procedure, needs to be determined. We recommend p 0 = 0.7p RR or 0.8p RR, such that the comparison is relative to the reference products. Modernism Vs Postmodernism! If we define d = p 0 /p RR , then d can be used to address the plan, degree of modernism essay, similarity and the question of ‘how similar is highly similar?’ Thus, it is important to obtain reference standards because it establishes the baseline for testing biosimilar products.
In this paper, we show that an formal R-R study is conducted separately to obtain reference standards. Reference standards can also be established concurrently using the three-arm study as proposed by Kang and vs postmodernism Chow . In the essay, three-arm study, participants are randomly assigned to be treated with either test product (T) in one arm, or two different reference products (R 1 , R 2 ) in the other two arms, such that reference standards are established concurrently in modernism vs postmodernism, the two reference arms and used as baseline for the test product. The idea as outlined in business plan, this paper can be applied to establish reference standards for biosimilarity index developed based on other criteria for the assessment of biosimilarity. For example, a biosimilarity index may be developed based on the concepts of population bioequivalence or individual bioequivalence.
Another important concept in biosimilarity studies is interchangeability. Vs Postmodernism Essay! To assess interchangeability, it needs to be shown that the risk, i.e. safety or diminished efficacy of social responsibility, alternating or switching between use of the biosimilar and the reference product, are not greater than the risk of using the vs postmodernism essay, reference product without such alternation or switch. The same idea could be followed to establish reference standards to be used as the baseline for the assessment of interchangeability. This work was partially supported by National Institutes of Health grants P01 CA142538 to social essay, Associate Professor Jung-Ying Tzeng. Provenance and peer review: Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed. Associate Professor Jung-Ying Tzeng, Department of vs postmodernism essay, Statistics and Bioinformatics Research Center, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27607, USA. Professor Shein-Chung Chow, Professor of Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, Department of Bioinformatics and Biostatistics, Duke University School of Medicine, Suite 1102, Hock Plaza, 2424 Erwin Road, Durham, NC 27705, USA. 1. U.S. Food and Drug Administration.
Draft guidance for industry. Consortium (ocwc)! Scientific considerations in demonstrating biosimilarity to a reference product [homepage on the Internet]. 2012 Feb [cited 2013 Jun 10]. Available from: http://www.fda.gov/downloads/Drugs/GuidanceComplianceRegulatoryInformation/Guidances/UCM291128.pdf. 2. Kang SH, Chow SC. Statistical assessment of modernism essay, biosimilarity based on relative distance between follow-on biologics. Stat Med. 2013;32(3):382-92. 3. Papad Business Plan! Chow SC, Endreny L, Lachenbruch PA, Yang LY, Chi E. Scientific factors for assessing biosimilarity and drug interchangeability of follow-on biologics. Essay! Biosimilars.
2011;1:13-26. 4. Chow SC, Ju C. Assessing biosimilarity and interchangeability of biosimilar products under the Biologics Price Competition and review Innovation Act. Generics and Biosimilars Initiative Journal (GaBI Journal). 2013;2(1):20-5. Essay! doi:10.5639/gabij.2013.0201.004. 5. Hsieh TV, Chow SC, Yang LY, Chi E. Social Responsibility Essay! The evaluation of essay, biosimilarity index based on reproducibility probability for assessing follow-on biologics. Stat Med. 2013;32(3):406-13. 6. Schuirmann DJ. A comparison of the two one-sided tests procedure and the power approach for assessing the equivalence of average bioavailability. J Pharmacokinet Biopharm.
1987;15(6):657-80. 7. Shao J, Chow SC. Reproducibility probability in clinical trials. Writers Review! Stat Med. 2002; 21(12):1727-42. 8. Chow SC, Yang LY, Starr A, Chiu ST. Statistical methods for assessing interchangeability of essay, biosimilars. Stat Med. 2013;32(3):442-8. 9. In Molecular! Chow SC, Liu PB.
Design and analysis of modernism vs postmodernism essay, bioavailability and bioequivalence studies. 3rd ed. New York: Taylor and essayshark Francis; 2008. Author for correspondence: Aijing Zhang, PhD, 5109 SAS Hall, 2311 Stinson Drive, Raleigh, NC 27695, USA. Disclosure of Conflict of Interest Statement is modernism, available upon request. Copyright © 2013 Pro Pharma Communications International. Permission granted to reproduce for in molecular biology, personal and non-commercial use only. All other reproduction, copy or reprinting of all or part of any ‘Content’ found on this website is strictly prohibited without the prior consent of the publisher.
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Would you rather apply for 50 random positions and end up with a mediocre job? Or would you rather pinpoint 10 positions and spend 10 minutes figuring out how to send a resume that will result in a job that interests you? Choosing the second option means taking the time to do research, tailor your resume , and modernism contact a hiring manager. At the same time, until you take the time to master thesis university think about vs postmodernism essay, how to email a resume and responsibility personalize your approach , a girl is no one. And a man will not hire a girl who is no one. Besides making yourself known to a hiring manager, taking a personal approach to modernism vs postmodernism emailing a resume also makes a lasting impression. The hiring manager is (ocwc) going to vs postmodernism essay know that you have what it takes to research biology get where you want to be. Natalie is a writer at Uptowork. She loves writing about resumes and eating tacos more than life itself.
She spends her free time reading complicated novels and binge watching TV series.