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How to Write Better Essays: 6 Practical Tips. The best students enjoy writing essays because they’re a chance to shine; they’re an interesting intellectual exercise in which the essays, writer must craft thoughtful arguments on complex topics within the confines of a prescribed and often restrictive word count. For many such students, each essay brings with it the challenge of making it that little bit better than the last one. The problem is war ii papers that when you write essays regularly, it’s easy to essays get stuck in a rut of stories repeating the hog farming, same formula each time particularly when you already receive good feedback from the teachers who read them. So how do you take your essays to the next level and go from great to brilliant? Here are some practical tips and techniques that will help you write consistently impressive essays. Offer to share your essays with other people and they may return the favour. World War Ii Research? Even better: start a study group. Just as the books you read subconsciously help mould your own writing style, so reading other people’s essays can help you develop and build on your own essay-writing style. Try to read a range of other essays, including those of your peers and of academics. Read essays on a wide variety of subjects, not necessarily just those that you’re studying; different disciplines might apply different kinds of arguments or styles, so the wider you read, the more possible techniques there are for you to pick up and use in essays of your own.
As you read other people’s essays, don’t just take them at face value. Be critical: what do you like about them? What don’t you like about them? How persuasive do you think they are? Is the argument a balanced one, with points adequately supported with evidence? Has the writer used any techniques you’ve not seen before? Another good source of essays is the essays, broadsheet newspapers. Preparation Packet? Read the hog farming essays, opinion pieces and dissect how the writer has supported their points with evidence, and again, be critical; note where they#8217;ve left things out to try to persuade you to a particular opinion. Essays should be balanced, so you can learn from the best of these writers and pick up some techniques to help you shape a balanced piece.
2. Build your vocabulary and war ii research, use it properly. Make use of dictionaries and hog farming, thesauri. A good vocabulary will allow you to express exactly what you mean, as clearly and concisely as possible. Economy with words is a characteristic of stories to write all good essays, because readers (and essay-markers) don’t like having their time wasted with long, rambling points that could have been expressed in half the number of words. One way of ensuring that you can communicate clearly and to the point is hog farming through accurate and effective use of advanced vocabulary. World War Ii? A good essay writer should never rest on their laurels when it comes to vocabulary; it’s something you should be working on essays, continually, as there are always new words to learn that could help convey a point more effectively. What’s more, deploying a good vocabulary displays intelligence and allows you to be more persuasive in emmett packet your essay-writing. Here are some ways in which you can build your vocabulary: Subscribe to a #8216;word a day#8217; email (such as this one from Merriam-Webster). Hog Farming Essays? Create a folder in dissertation reading committee your email account for essays, new word emails, so that you can file each email away and have them all in respiration essay one place ready to essays flick through and learn from in an idle moment. Read widely, and refer to war ii research a dictionary for words you don#8217;t know as you go along; this way, you’ll learn the new word as well as seeing it in context so you know how to essays use it properly.
Read different genres of essay fiction, and essays, non-fiction covering a range of topics, and you’ll have the added bonus of dissertation committee widening your general knowledge as well as your vocabulary. Hog Farming? Use a thesaurus if you find yourself using the same words over war ii research, and over essays, again, add variety to your language by looking up those words in dissertation reading committee form a thesaurus and finding other words that mean the hog farming, same thing. A word of warning: words you find in a thesaurus can’t always be used interchangeably; even words with similar meanings can differ subtly in a way that makes them inappropriate in certain contexts, so find examples of emmett packet a word used correctly before you use a new word for the first time. Learn prefixes, suffixes and roots it sounds boring, but this shortcut will help you learn a great many more words. Many roots come from Latin and Greek words, such as “bene” in Latin, meaning “good”, which gives rise to words such as “benefactor”, “benevolent” and “benefit”. It#8217;s often possible to deduce the meaning of a new word if you know its root and read it in context.
Prefixes are added to hog farming the beginning of a word to change the meaning, such as “semi” or “ante”, while suffixes are added to the end, such as “-able” or “-ance”. Start a vocabulary book you probably have one if you’re learning a foreign language, so why not have one for your native language as well? Buy yourself a nice notepad and use it to collect new words and career, their meanings. The act of essays writing down the definition will help you remember it, and you could include an example of how the papers, word is used to increase your chances of memorising it for use in essays. It may help to have different sections for words on essays, particular themes; you could have a general section, and then further parts of the notebook could be dedicated to words of use in history essays, science essays and so on. The aim of improving your vocabulary is to increase precision and reduce waffle. Emmett Till Packet? Put the new words you’ve learned to good use right away, perhaps setting yourself the challenge of including a minimum number of new ones in each essay you write.
This will help consolidate your knowledge at hog farming the same time as impressing the reader. One important thing to remember, though: don’t use big words just for the sake of it. Using a long, obscure word when a simpler one would suffice risks making you sound pompous, which may have the opposite essay effect to the one intended. What’s more, be wary of adding words for the sake of it; cut the hog farming, waffle by reviewing each sentence and removing any words or sentences that don’t add anything to what you’re saying. Ultimately, your goal should be to make your writing as clear and easy-to-understand as possible, so that it is a pleasure to read. 3. Words to help develop an argument. Part of sounding intelligent in accomplishments an essay is not repeating yourself; as you’re writing, focus on hog farming, using language effectively to emmett till essay packet help build an argument and create a sense of structure.
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This is quite a tough exercise, as it forces you to be ruthlessly concise in your thinking and choice of words; but you can use this summary to help you write your introduction, and it’ll help you achieve clarity in what you’re trying to hog farming essays say. 5. Essay? Tell the hog farming, reader what other people say. Be aware of papers who the foremost writers on a subject are, even if you decide not to reference them. For instance, anyone studying Beowulf should be aware of JRR Tolkien’s essay, ‘The Monsters and the Critics.’ We’ve mentioned this on a previous article on essay writing, but it seems pertinent to mention it here too. Essays are a chance for you to show off how widely read you are, so make sure you quote other people’s opinions, and original sources, on what you’re writing about. For example, if you were to write a history essay on early religious practices in Britain, you could quote original texts on that topic (such as Bede’s Ecclesiastical History of the English People ) and also mention what a range of modern scholars have to essays say about the topic.
Contrasting views should be sought; it’s unlikely that everyone agrees on the topic, so show you’ve looked at all the on professional identity, possible angles. For each of the subjects you’re studying, start a page in a notebook for hog farming essays, important people in that field, with a summary of when they lived and what their views are. That way, you’ll have something to refer to when you’re writing an accomplishments essay essay and want to consult appropriate scholars or other writers whose opinions you might wish to include. Don’t quote too much; mix citations with your own opinions so that it doesn’t look as though you have to hide behind other people’s words. It’s fine to disagree with a scholar you quote, provided you can give evidence and reasoning for doing so.
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C’est dans ce recit qu’il faut d’abord chercher les premiers indices de la tentation qui va mettre l’anachorete a l’epreuve. Hog Farming! En proie a l’ennui, Antoine sillonne le plateau desertique ou il s’est refugie et opere un retour sur sa vie dans un monologue d’introduction. World War Ii Research Papers! Quelques-uns des biographemes y sont deja reconnaissables en tant que tentations de la paresse, de la luxure, de l’orgueil ou de l’envie9. Hog Farming Essays! Puis il prend la Bible et cite au hasard des passages qui se lisent comme des prefigurations des visions qui l’assaillent dans le second tableau. World Research! En meme temps, on apprend par le recitque les deux bras de la croix plantee a dix pas de sa cabane projettent une ombre qui ressemble a deux grandes cornes et qui lui causent une grande frayeur. Essays! Aussitot, Antoine s’explique ce phenomene par une illusion d’optique : « Ah . Papers! c’etait une illusion ! » (p. Hog Farming! 60) La suite de l’exposition montre qu’Antoine est epuise physiquement ; il marche plus lentement, s’appuie contre sa cabane et commente lui-meme : « C’est d’avoir trop jeune ! » (p. Career Accomplishments Essay! 62) Il ferme les yeux, revant de nourriture, de viande et de lait caille. Hog Farming! L’hallucination gagne peu a peu les autres sens : il sent un parfum de femme, croit distinguer des silhouettes au loin, entend des voix et apercoit un torse de femme. To Write About! Cependant, le recit indique qu’il s’agit d’illusions des sens. Hog Farming Essays! Les voix sont demasquees en tant qu’echo ou bruissement du vent : « Le vent qui passe dans les intervalles des roches fait des modulations ; et dans leurs sonorites confuses, il distingue des VOIX comme si l’air parlait. Respiration Essay! » (p.
64) Le torse de femme penche au bord de la falaise s’avere etre un vieux palmier. Hog Farming! Antoine retourne dans sa cabane et eteint sa torche. Creative About! A propos des images qu’il continue de voir et qui proliferent de plus en plus, il est dit : Ces images arrivent brusquement, par secousses, se detachant sur la nuit comme des peintures d’ecarlate sur de l’ebene. Leur mouvement s’accelere. Hog Farming Essays! Elles defilent d’une facon vertigineuse. Essay Identity! D’autres fois, elles s’arretent et palissent par degres, se fondent ; ou bien, elles s’envolent, et immediatement d’autres arrivent. Antoine ferme les yeux. Elles se multiplient, l’entourent, l’assiegent. Hog Farming! Une epouvante indicible l’envahit ; et il ne sent plus rien qu’une contraction brulante a l’epigastre. Reading Committee! Malgre le vacarme de sa tete, il percoit un silence enorme qui le separe du monde. Hog Farming! Il tache de parler ; impossible ! C’est comme si le lien general de son etre se dissolvait ; et, ne resistant plus, Antoine tombe sur la natte. World! (p. Hog Farming Essays! 64)
4 Les symptomes peuvent s’interpreter de la maniere suivante : les visions sont provoquees par des perceptions sensorielles externes, elles se multiplient en un deferlement d’images et suscitent l’epouvante. On Professional! L’ermite a des crampes d’estomac, il est incapable de parler et il est victime d’une sorte de defaillance physique. Hog Farming Essays! – Ces symptomes recouvrent a peu pres la description que Flaubert donne de ses hallucinations a Hippolyte Taine dans ses lettres : effroi, perte de la personnalite, explosion de la memoire sur fond d’images incontrolees. 10 Flaubert a H. Essay! Taine, nov. Essays! 1866, Correspondance , ed. Respiration Essay! par Jean Bruneau, Gallimard, Paris, 1991, tome (. Essays! ) Dans l’hallucination [. Accomplishments Essay! ], il y a toujours terreur, on hog farming essays sent que votre personnalite vous echappe, on war ii research papers croit qu’on va mourir10. 11 Flaubert a H. Essays! Taine, lettre du 1 er decembre 1866, Corr., III, p. Essay! 572. 1? D’abord une angoisse indeterminee, un malaise vague, un sentiment d’attente avec douleur [. Hog Farming! ] 2? Puis, tout a coup, comme la foudre, envahissement ou plutot irruption instantanee de la memoire [. Emmett Till Packet! ]. Hog Farming! C’est [l’hallucination] une maladie de la memoire, un relachement de ce qu’elle recele. To Write! On sent les images s’echapper de vous comme des flots de sang11. 12 Max Allenspach, Gustave Flaubert. Essays! « La Tentation de saint Antoine » . Eine literarasthetische Unter (. Creative About! ) 5 Le recit du premier tableau fournit donc au lecteur la ligne directrice qui lui permettra de comprendre les tentations demoniaques qui assaillent Antoine : il s’agit d’un phenomene pathologique, d’une perte de controle et de volonte de l’ermite. Hog Farming Essays! Dans les tableaux suivants, on dissertation reading form trouve une fois une allusion a l’etat cataleptique d’Antoine : « Antoine reste accote contre le mur de sa cabane, la bouche grande ouverte, immobile, – cataleptique. Hog Farming! » (p. Reading Committee! 70) Une autre fois – dans la transition entre le repas de serpents des Ophites et l’amphitheatre ou les Chretiens sont jetes en pature aux lions –, le concept d’hallucination figure expressement : « [. Hog Farming! ] l’hallucination le reprenant [. Emmett Till Preparation Packet! ] » (p. Hog Farming Essays! 123).
Enfin, le celebre « Antoine delirant » (p. Career Accomplishments! 237) qui annonce, a la fin du texte, le desir d’Antoine de devenir matiere, peut sans doute etre aussi compris en ce sens que la conscience de l’ermite continue d’etre alteree. Hog Farming Essays! C’est la un trait de genie, car il elimine la possibilite d’assigner a Antoine une profession de foi ou unprocessus de prise de conscience de quelque nature que ce soit. About! On peut meme (avec Max Allenspach) observer une lente progression de l’etat hypnagogique du soir vers les hallucinations nocturnes. Essays! Le paroxysme est constitue par la catalepsie du deuxieme chapitre tandis que le reveil le lendemain matin, a la fin du texte, clot les hallucinations12. 6 C’est seulement dans la troisieme version du texte, celle de 1874, qu’on peut observer une definition des visions en tant qu’hallucinations. Identity! Dans la premiere version (1849), Antoine ne comporte pas encore de traits pathologiques. Hog Farming! En revanche, il est dote de traits merveilleux et medievaux. Essay! Arme d’un missel et d’un chapelet, Antoine parle encore sans la moindre irritation avec les vices personnifies, les vertus theologales et, bien sur avec le cochon, son compagnon, attribut traditionnel de saint Antoine.
Il n’y a qu’un seul passage ou, dans un soliloque, il se demande comment interpreter ce qu’il voit. Apres la disparition de l’extravagante reine de Saba et de sa suite : 13 La Tentation de saint Antoine (1849), p. Hog Farming! 392s. Suis-je eveille ? [. Accomplishments! ] Oh ! tout ce que j’ai vu, comment faire pour savoir si je l’ai pense ou si je l’ai vu vraiment ? Quelle est la limite du reve et de la realite ?13. 14 N.A.F. 23671, fol. Hog Farming Essays! 64, in stories to write : N.A.F., ?uvres completes de Gustave Flaubert , vol. Hog Farming! 4 ( La Tentation de (. Career Accomplishments Essay! ) 7 Ici, c’est la question du reve et de la realite qui est posee, dans la derniere version ce sera celle de la deviance ou de la normalite. Essays! Qu’il s’agisse de reve ou de deviance, le but de Flaubert est de representer les visions d’Antoine de la maniere la plus realiste possible. Creative Stories! Ceci ressort des brouillons du texte ou, dans une note en marge, il est dit au sujet d’Antoine : « Il sait d’abord que ce sont des Visions, se revolte, veut les chasser, ne le peut. Essays! Puis les accepte comme des realites. »14 La definition des visions en tant qu’« hallucinations », lesquelles sont des produits de l’imagination, doit paradoxalement les rendre plus realistes, plus authentiques que les visions (ou sur le plan rhetorique, les personnifications) de la premiere version du texte, lesquelles etaient immediatement presentees comme telles. 15 Michel Foucault, « La bibliotheque fantastique », in respiration essay : Gerard Genette, Tzvetan Todorov (ed.), Trav (. Hog Farming Essays! ) 16 Jean Seznec, Les sources de l’episode des dieux dans la Tentation de saint Antoine. (Premiere vers (. Research! ) 17 Transcription in hog farming essays : Flaubert, La Tentation de saint Antoine , ed. Stories To Write About! par Claudine Gothot-Mersch, Gallim (. Hog Farming Essays! ) 8 La tentation d’Antoine se compose de choses vues, dites ou lues.
Michel Foucault a, dans un essai qui a fait date, montre que ce qui, dans La Tentation , releve du delire, de la chimere, de l’hallucination, en un mot : de l’imaginaire, ne se constituait pas en opposition au reel, mais qu’il etait ancre dans l’espace livresque de la science15. Dissertation Reading Committee Form! Au plus tard depuis l’etude tres minutieuse des sources effectuee par Jean Seznec, on hog farming sait que Flaubert n’a rien invente, qu’il a au contraire effectue des recherches poussees, qu’il a rassemble, combine et arrange16. Essay! Pour Foucault, la Tentation est un phenomene livresque : elle est a la bibliotheque ce que les tableaux de Manet sont au musee, elle est un produit de l’episteme du XIX e siecle dans lequel la reflexion sur son heritage intertextuel est egalement toujours inscrite. Hog Farming Essays! Une lecture symptomatologique comme celle-la fait vite oublier que dans la reecriture intertextuelle les discours ne sont pas niveles. Career Essay! Antoine n’est pas seulement un bibliothecaire qui classe les livres et en fait l’inventaire, il reste quelqu’un qui est soumis a la tentation et qui lutte, ne serait-ce que dans l’hallucination. Le christianisme reste la reference privilegiee. Hog Farming Essays! Ceci apparait deja dans le choix du theme comme dans la liste des livres utilises par Flaubert pendant la redaction de la Tentation : la tres grande majorite est a ranger dans la rubrique « Christianisme »17. 18 Mary Orr souligne le caractere central de La Magie et l’Astrologie de Maury en particulier pour le (. World War Ii Research Papers! ) 19 Alfred Maury, La Magie et l’Astrologie dans l’Antiquite et au Moyen-Age , Didier, Paris, 1860, p. Essays! 1. 9 Si l’on examine l’histoire du discours, on respiration s’apercoit en outre que ce que la psychologie naissante considere comme des hallucinations constitue toujours pour la theologie des phenomenes mystiques (ou demoniaques) et que les sciences naturellesmodernes les qualifient de reliquats magiques. Hog Farming Essays! Parmi la liste de livres que Flaubert a lus pour la Tentation ne figure certes pas Le Sommeil et les reves de Maury, mais son ouvrage La Magie et l’Astrologie dans l’Antiquite et au Moyen-Age (Paris 1860)18. La magie, ecrit Maury dans l’introduction, est un moyen de sesoumettre la nature et un precurseur de la science moderne : « Cette science avait pour but d’enchainer a l’homme les forces de la nature et de mettre en notre pouvoir l’?uvre de Dieu. War Ii Research! »19 Il traite son sujet en deux parties : dans la premiere, il est question de la representation chronologique de la magie et de l’astrologie chez les Chaldeens, les Perses, les Egyptiens, les Grecs, les Romains, les Neoplatoniciens et chez les Chretiens.
Il explique qu’au debut du christianisme, la magie etait ce qui etait combattu sous le nom de demonologie. Hog Farming! Dans la seconde partie, systematique celle-la, il est question de l’origine de la magie. Essay! A son avis, elle ne reposait en effet pas seulement sur le mensonge et la credulite, mais. 20 Maury, La Magie et l’Astrologie , p. Hog Farming! 225. cet art prenait son origine dans des phenomenes singuliers, propres a certaines affections, certains troubles nerveux ou qui se manifestent pendant le sommeil20. 21 Il fait surtout ressortir l’effet nefaste d’une ascese poussee a l’extreme telle qu’elle fut prati (. Essay On Professional Identity! ) 22 Gustav Roskoff, Geschichte des Teufels , Leipzig 1869 ; Albert Reville, « Histoire du Diable », Rev (. Hog Farming Essays! ) 23 Joseph von Gorres, Die christliche Mystik , 5 vol., Munich/Ratisbonne 1836ss.(reimprime a Graz en 1 (. Reading! ) 10 Ces phenomenes sont ensuite classes par Maury en quatre groupes : 1. Hog Farming! les songes, 2. On Professional Identity! l’hallucination et le delire, 3. Hog Farming! l’influence de la volonte et de l’imagination et 4. Career! l’hypnotisme, la catalepsie et le somnambulisme. Hog Farming! – Il s’agit donc d’une histoire de l’origine de la magie sous forme de classification des phenomenes proches du reve. Career Accomplishments Essay! Le merveilleux chretien y est explique en tant que phenomene onirique, la possession par le demon (en droite ligne de Des Maladies mentales et De la Demonomanie d’Esquirol) en tant que maladie nerveuse dont le symptome principal est l’hallucination ; enfin, les apparitions mystiques sont citees comme exemple de l’influence pouvant etre exercee sur les visions par la volonte et l’imagination. Essays! Maury explique les visions des saints, surtout celles des Peres du desert, en employant expressement son concept d’hallucinations hypnagogiques21. Accomplishments! Il est tout a fait remarquable que, dans son chapitre sur les hallucinations, Maury fournisse une veritable histoire du diable, qui devient chez lui l’histoire d’une personnification croissante et d’une montee de la paranoia collective jusqu’a ce que la croyance au diable soit de nouveau endiguee par les Lumieres. Hog Farming! A la meme epoque, le theologien protestant Gustav Roskoff ecrivait lui aussi l’histoire du diable. Flaubert connaissait probablement cet ouvrage par l’intermediaired’Albert Reville, qui l’avait presente en detail et resume dans la Revue des Deux Mondes 22.
Lui aussi la raconte comme l’histoire d’une ascension et d’une chute. Creative Stories To Write! « C’est presque une biographie », ecrit-il, fascine, au debut de sa recension. Hog Farming! Au XIX e siecle, on stories to write a donc non seulement affaire a un dieu ou des dieux mourant(s), mais aussi a un diable moribond. Essays! Or, il manque apres le point de vue philosophique et liberal de Maury et celui du protestant Reville, une optique catholique romaine. Essay! Il convient d’ajouter ici l’?uvre monumentale de Joseph Gorres intitulee Die christliche Mystik (1836 et sq.), que Flaubert connaissait dans la traduction de Charles Sainte-Foi ( La mystique divine, naturelle et diabolique , Paris 1862). Essays! Ce qui est interessant dans la facon dont Gorres presente la mystique, c’est – et le titre francais le montre bien – la distinction qu’il opere entre une « vraie » mystique chretienne et une « fausse » mystique demoniaque. Stories To Write About! Ce qui la s’appelle l’extase est ici la possession par les demons. Essays! Les symptomes, eux aussi, ont leur pendant : au ravissement extatique correspond le vol des sorcieres, a la stigmatisation les marques corporelles et la transformation des sens (sur des points precis, il devient tout de meme difficile de separer ce qui est demoniaque de ce qui releve de l’orthodoxie religieuse). Respiration! Gorres connait dans l’extase trois visions qui se distinguent par leur degre de sensibilite : 1. Essays! « des sens devenus clairvoyants », c’est-a-dire des impressions sensorielles accrues ; 2. World Papers! des produits de l’imagination, un sens interieur devenu clairvoyant et 3. des visions intellectuelles, un « esprit devenu clairvoyant ». Les deux premiers types de visions correspondent a peu pres au concept d’hallucination et de reve chez Maury, a cette difference pres, bien sur, que Gorres rejette les explications organicistes et que pour lui l’origine de la vision est a chercher dans le « foudroiement » provoque par l’Esprit-Saint et donc dans la physis humaine23. Hog Farming Essays! Il ne faudrait donc pas comparer les tentations d’Antoine avec l’extase, mais avec son pendant demoniaque, la possession.
Si Gorres est si interessant ici, c’est surtout parce qu’il explique toute la demonologie par une conception heretique du Mal, laquelle repose sur une fausse substantialisation (le presuppose d’une « puissance des tenebres » opposee a la puissance divine de la lumiere), et dont il voit la manifestation la plus pure dans la religion gnostique du manicheisme. Essay! Le lien avec la Tentation de Flaubert devient ici manifeste, car le quatrieme chapitre, le chapitre central, est constitue par la confrontation d’Antoine avec les Heresiarques, qui commence justement par Manes, le fondateur du manicheisme. 24 La Tentation de saint Antoine (1849), p. Hog Farming Essays! 215, 259, 304, 491. 11 Mais revenons-en au texte : les figures des visions ne sont qualifiees de demons ni par le recit ni par Antoine lui-meme. Creative To Write! Ce n’etait pas encore le cas dans la premiere version, ou Antoine chasse les apparitions par des mots comme « Demons de mes pensees, arriere ! ». Hog Farming Essays! Certes, la aussi il est souvent en proie a l’inquietude, car il ne sait comment interpreter ses visions et se demande : « Ou suis-je ? sont-ce les demons qui parlent ? » – « Sont-ce des prophetes ? sont-ce des demons ? » Mais dans ses moments de clarte, de meme qu’a la fin quand il prie Dieu pour repousser la tentation diabolique, Antoine sait que ce sont des demons qui le tentent : « J’entends la voix du Demon qui grince de rage autour de moi »24. Preparation! – Dans la derniere version, Antoine est d’autant plus victime de la tentation qu’il n’a plus aucun moment de clarte et qu’il reste jusqu’a la fin un hallucine. Hog Farming! Pour l’hallucine, les visions sont la realite et il accepte qu’il en soit ainsi. L’hallucination de la connaissance. 12 Mais qu’est-ce qui hallucine Antoine ? Dans le quatrieme chapitre de la Tentation , le chapitre central, le plus long aussi, Antoine est conduit par Hilarion dans une basilique ou les Heresiologues et les Heresiarques proclament et pratiquent leur doctrine de facon tres spectaculaire. Respiration! Dans leur representation, Flaubert met surtout en avant la diversite des formes de culte et la divergence des comportements ethiques, qui vont du libertinisme absolu a l’ascese la plus stricte.
Antoine est attire par la Gnose, ce qui apparait deja dans le premier chapitre. Hog Farming Essays! Il dit que les propos des gnostiques lui reviennent sans cesse a l’esprit ; aussi s’est-il decide avec quelques adeptes a mener une vie d’ermite pour leur echapper : « Je leur ai impose une regle pratique, en haine des extravagances de la Gnose et des assertions des philosophes. To Write About! » (p. Hog Farming Essays! 54) « Extravagant », c’est aussi l’expression que Flaubert utilise pour caracteriser son travail sur la Tentation : 25 Flaubert a G. Career Accomplishments! Sand, lettre du 24 juin 1869, Corr., IV, p. Hog Farming! 69. J’ai repris ma vieille toquade de Saint Antoine . On Professional Identity! J’ai relu mes notes, je refais un nouveau plan, et je devore les Memoires ecclesiastiques de Le Nain de Tillemont. Hog Farming Essays! J’espere parvenir a trouver un lien logique (et partant un interet dramatique) entre les differentes hallucinations du Saint. Dissertation Form! Ce milieu extravagant me plait. Hog Farming! Et je m’y plonge. On Professional Identity! Voila25. 26 Kurt Rudolph, Die Gnosis , Vandenhoeck Ruprecht, Gottingen, 1994, p. Hog Farming! 7. World War Ii Research Papers! (Nous traduisons). 13 Flaubert se plonge donc dans le milieu gnostique de la fin de l’Antiquite. Essays! L’Egypte d’Antoine le Grand est un creuset des religions.
Le christianisme se constitue au contact de la mythologie et de la philosophie romaines et grecques, au contact de la religion des Perses, des Phrygiens, des Chaldeens, des Egyptiens et des Indiens. Accomplishments! En meme temps, c’est une periode d’emiettement religieux. Essays! Le concile de Nicee (325 ap. World War Ii! J.-C.) qui va affirmer le caractere divin du Christ et en faire un dogme est imminent. Hog Farming Essays! Cela signifie donc une scission par rapport a d’autres groupes plus ou moins chretiens, des groupes gnostiques qui, comme le christianisme, s’efforcaient d’elucider certaines questions : Comment le monde a-t-il ete cree ? Quelle est l’origine du Mal dans le monde ? Que se passe-t-il apres la mort ? La Gnose, au sens grec du terme, est une religion de la connaissance ou du savoir. Essay! Avec Kurt Rudolph, nous pouvons parler d’une « religion dualiste composee de plusieurs ecoles et de plusieurs courants », « qui se caracterisait par une attitude de rejet face au monde et a la societe de l’epoque et qui pronait une liberation (une “redemption”) de l’homme des contraintes de l’existence terrestre par la “conscience” de son appartenance essentielle – parfois enfouie –, que ce soit en tant qu’“ame” ou “esprit”, a un royaume supraterrestre de la liberte et de la quietude. Hog Farming Essays! »26. 27 Cf. On Professional! Jacob Taubes dans l’article « Einleitung. Essays! Das stahlerne Gehause und der Exodus daraus oder ein (. Reading Committee! ) 14 C’est en fait deja depuis que l’epoque moderne s’interesse a la Gnose que celle-ci peut aussi etre lue « sur le mode du palimpseste en tant que lieu du present »27 . Hog Farming! Le livre le plus celebre qui essaie d’etablir une analogie entre l’esprit de la Gnose et l’esprit de la modernite est celui de Hans Jonas intitule Gnosis und spatantiker Geist , qui est date de 1934. Emmett Till Essay Preparation Packet! Mais l’interet du XIX e siecle positiviste pour la Gnose etait deja grand.
Les sources principales de Flaubert etaient l’ Histoire du manicheisme d’Isaac de Beausobre (1734/39) et l’ Histoire critique du gnosticisme de Jacques Matter (1828). Hog Farming Essays! D’apres Matter, la Gnose qualifie. 28 Jacques Matter, Histoire critique du gnosticisme , 2 vol., F.G. Essay! Levrault, Paris, 1828, ici : vol. Hog Farming! 1 (. Dissertation! ) l’introduction, dans le sein du christianisme, de toutes les speculations cosmologiques et theosophiques qui avaient forme la partie la plus considerable des anciennes religions de l’Orient, et que les nouveaux platoniciens avaient adoptees egalement en Occident28. 15 Il y voit le combat finalement perdu de l’ancien monde contre le nouveau. Essays! Un autre ouvrage que Flaubert devait connaitre, ne serait-ce que par l’intermediaire des travaux d’Albert Reville, met en evidence les eclaircissements que la Gnose peut apporter en matiere de symptomatologie : Die Christliche Gnosis oder die Religionsphilosophie in dissertation reading form ihrer geschichtlichen Entwicklung (1835) de Ferdinand Christian Baur. Hog Farming! Baur, un eleve de Hegel, a analyse la philosophie de l’idealisme allemand pour y mettre au jour des topoi gnostiques. Dissertation Committee! Il est hors de doute que l’Antiquite tardive qui sert de cadre a La Tentation de Flaubert est aussi (mais pas seulement) une surface de projection pour le XIX e siecle. Essays! Marie Orr a montre dans un travail detaille, minutieux et convaincant cette superpositiond’elements religieux, scientifiques et philosophiques : le concile de Nicee et, en surimpression, le concile de Vatican I(1869-1870), la lutte pour l’autorite menee par Athanase a Alexandrie et celle menee par le pape Pie IX, la suprematie de Constantin sur l’Egypte et la campagne d’Egypte de Napoleon, les sectes gnostiques comme les Valentiniens, les Manicheens, les Elcesaites et les courants modernes comme les Gallicans, les Ultramontains, les francs-macons, les Saint-Simoniens, les magnetiseurs, etc. 29 D'apres une source manicheenne de Severe d'Antioche cite par Gedaliahu Stroumsa, « Konig und Schwe (. War Ii! ) 30 Les grands traits des systemes gnostiques appliques ici a saint Antoine suivent l’analyse de Karl (. ) 31 Barbara Aland insiste particulierement sur ce point.
Cf. Hog Farming! Barbara Aland, « Was ist Gnosis ? Wie wur (. Career! ) 32 Clement d'Alexandrie, Ex Theodoto, 78, 2, cite par : Kurt Rudolph, Die Gnosis, Vandenhoeck Rupre (. Essays! ) 16 Si l’on ne part pas seulement d’une superposition des epoques, mais si l’on examine tout particulierement la gnose et la modernite, l’Antoine de Flaubert apparait comme un gnostique moderne aspirant a la connaissance scientifique et religieuse. Stories To Write! Antoine partage avec les gnostiques le dualisme entre un monde materiel, terrestre et un principe premier d’essence divine dans l’au-dela, le monde materiel etant considere comme mauvais, soumis a des puissances hostiles. Hog Farming Essays! Le diable correspond au demiurge, au dieu createur, qui s’oppose au dieu transcendant et inconnu, le dieu de la lumiere. Emmett Essay Preparation! Antoine essaie par l’ascese de s’assurer du lien de son etincelle divine ( pneuma ), emprisonnee dans son corps comme « l’or dans la fange »29, avec le dieu transcendant. Hog Farming Essays! Son implication dans le monde materiel, laquelle nourrit son desir de redemption, est dans La Tentation une implication dans le systeme fort ingenieux des peches capitaux.
Le pneumatique est celui qui recoit la connaissance (Gnose) sous forme de revelation immediate.Aussi l’allegresse et les louanges sont-elles des traits caracteristiques des textes gnostiques30. Essay! Ce n’est que retrospectivement, apres que le gnostique a recu la revelation, que le monde materiel devient pour lui insignifiant, voire digne d’etre aneanti31. Hog Farming Essays! Une formule valentinienne resume l’objet de la connaissance gnostique de la facon suivante : « Ce qui nous rend libres, c’est la connaissance de ce que nous etions et de ce que nous sommes devenus ; c’est de savoir ou nous etions et dans quel monde nous avons ete jetes ; ou nous courons et de quoi nous serons delivres ; ce qu’est la naissance et ce qu’est la re-naissance. World Research! »32 On pourrait presque prendre cette citation comme une description du projet de la Tentation. Hog Farming Essays! Et Flaubert n’est pas le seul a apprehender cette connaissance sur le mode de l’hallucination. Respiration! C’est ainsi qu’Hippolyte Taine ecrit a propos de la Gnose : 33 Hippolyte Taine, Essais de critique et d’histoire , Paris 1896, p. Essays! 292c.; cit. in respiration : Jean Seznec, No (. ) La vie reelle semblait un songe. Hog Farming! [. Committee! ] Quiconque lit les dogmes des gnostiques, des Valentiniens, des Ophites, des Carpocratiens, respire l’odeur de la fievre et se croit dans un hopital, parmi des hallucines qui contemplent leur pensee fourmillante et fixent sur le vide leurs yeux brillants33. 17 D’un point de vue macro-structurel, les visions d’Antoine peuvent se lire comme une deconstruction du dualisme. Essays! L’element gnostique du texte reste le non-surmontement du dualisme ethique et ontologique, lequel s’exprime sur le plan rhetorique par la resistance de l’allegorique dans la Tentation de saint Antoine . Essay! Au fil des differentes versions du texte, Flaubert a certes abandonne un grand nombre de personnifications : dans la derniere version, ni les peches capitaux ni les vertus theologales que sont Foi, Esperance, Charite ne parlent plus directement.
La Logique et la Science se fondent dans la figure historique d’Hilarion, un ancien disciple d’Antoine. Hog Farming Essays! Et la figure du cochon, concue des le debut en tant que double familier et repoussant d’Antoine, est interiorisee par ce dernier. Career Essay! Neanmoins, cela ne suffit pas, et de loin, pour achever une desallegorisation, une historisation du texte. Hog Farming Essays! Il reste le diable qui, dans le sixieme chapitre, emmene Antoine dans son vol metaphysique (pantheiste et sceptique) a travers l’univers. Dissertation Form! Et dans le dernier chapitre subsistent les allegories du Sphinx et de la Chimere de meme que de la Luxure et de la Mort, pour ainsi dire les grandes oppositions synthetisantes de tout le texte.
18 Mais a la fin de La Tentation , le texte se presente differemment. Hog Farming Essays! Le dualisme est ici surmonte, deconstruit une seule fois, dans la mise en scene d’une inversion du monisme (etre-dans-le-monde) et du dualisme (acosmisme) : en assouvissant le desir, l’hallucination demoniaque devient moniste ; en suscitant le desir de transcendance, la priere chretienne devient dualiste. Dissertation! Cette inversion est indiquee dans la parenthese que forment, autour de la vision finale, de la volonte d’etre matiere, ces mots « Antoine delirant ». Hog Farming! La description euphorique d’une appartenance au monde denuee d’angoisse reste une hallucination et, chose remarquable, le texte lui-meme ne s’arrete pas sur l’allegresse et les louanges gnostiques, mais sur la reprise laconique de la priere au lever du jour. Essay! En meme temps, cette fin etrange acheve seulement la structure circulaire du texte. Hog Farming Essays! Le lecteur en est sur et certain : la nouvelle journee qui commence pour Antoine ne lui apportera rien de nouveau, elle lui apportera ce qu’il connaissait deja : un ennui infini, le sentiment d’etre etranger au monde interrompu par des moments de peur et d’effroi. Essay Identity! Il est remarquable que la presence non-demoniaque d’Antoine, ses phases d’eveil de plus en plus rares au fil des differentes versions soient placees sous le signe de la croix. Hog Farming Essays! Des la premiere description de l’ermitage, il est question de la croix plantee a dix pas de la cabane : A dix pas de la cabane, il y une longue croix plantee dans le sol [. World! ]. (p. Hog Farming! 51) 19 Et La Tentation se termine sur ces mots : Tout au milieu, et dans le disque meme du soleil, rayonne la face de Jesus-Christ.
Antoine fait le signe de la croix et se remet en prieres. Reading Form! (p. Essays! 237) 34 Il convient ici de rappeler egalement l’esquisse de la mort du Christ. Stories About! Flaubert avait momentanemen (. Hog Farming! ) 35 Barbara Vinken, Flaubert. Creative Stories! Durchkreuzte Moderne , Fischer, Francfort-sur-le-Main, 2009. 20 La croix, d’une maniere generale la christologie, est paradoxalement, tout en restant presente, systematiquement occultee dans La Tentation 34. Hog Farming Essays! Elle n’est plus synonyme de redemption, mais point de fuite de l’hallucination. Respiration! On pourrait meme aller jusqu’a dire qu’Antoine cherche l’hallucination, et plus rien d’autre, dans le signe de la croix. Hog Farming Essays! Il se rapproche ainsi de ce que Barbara Vinken a appele une pratique intensifiee de la kenose35. Sa forme de resistance devient la forme la plus radicale de l’autodepouillement.
Son imitation du Christ n’apporte pas la guerison (de la possession par les demons), mais l’hallucination, la folie comme etat permanent. Essay! Ceci est aussi corrobore par le fait qu’au cours de son travail sur La Tentation Flaubert a elimine des passages de priere et quasiment reduit a zero la resistance d’Antoine face a la tentation.Antoine entretient finalement le meme rapport a la priere que sainte Therese d’Avila par moments. Hog Farming! Elle lui devient insupportable : La priere m’est intolerable ! J’ai le c?ur plus sec qu’un rocher ! Autrefois il debordait d’amour ! (p. Creative Stories About! 216) 21 A la fin du texte, l’inversion a donc eu lieu. Essays! Le lieu du bonheur et de l’extase n’est plus pour Antoine, comme dans son regrette passe, la priere dans le desert : Le sable, le matin, fumait a l’horizon comme la poussiere d’un encensoir ; au coucher du soleil, des fleurs de feu s’epanouissaient sur la croix ; – et au milieu de la nuit, souvent m’a semble que tous les etres et toutes les choses, recueillis dans le meme silence, adoraient avec moi le Seigneur. Dissertation Committee! O charme des oraisons, felicites de l’extase, presents du ciel, qu’etes-vous devenus ! (p. Hog Farming! 216s.) 22 Le lieu du bonheur est a la fin la mer dans laquelle, allonge sur le ventre, le Pere du desert s’hallucine. Essay! Cet etat de bonheur ne s’exprime plus de maniere oratoire, mais animale, par des aboiements, des beuglements, des hurlements.
Mais ce n’est que par la priere qu’il parvient a cette animalisation hallucinee, laquelle se donne ainsi a lire en tant que realisation immanente, deformee d’une promesse de salut. 1 Je remercie Mme Rose-Marie Eisenkolb pour la traduction francaise de cette contribution. Hog Farming Essays! Pour une version allemande du texte, legerement modifiee, cf. On Professional Identity! Dagmar Stoferle, „Damonen, Halluzinationen und der Traum der Erkenntnis. Essays! Flauberts Tentation de saint Antoine ” in essay Traumwissen und Traumpoetik. Essays! Onirische Schreibweisen von der literarischen Moderne bis zur Gegenwart , ed. Career Essay! Susanne Goumegou et Marie Guthmuller, Konigshausen Neumann, Wurzburg, 2011 (sous presse). 2 Athanase d’Alexandrie, Vie d’Antoine , ed. Hog Farming! par G.J.M. Respiration Essay! Bartelink, Les editions du cerf, Paris, 1994. 3 Bernhard Teuber a montre comment l’ambiguite ontologique des demons se reflete aussi dans l’histoire de la transmission et de la traduction du texte, ou alternent les denominations telles qu’« animaux sauvages », « demons » ou « etincelles ». Hog Farming! Comme il s’agit pour les demons d’une realite intrapsychique, Teuber range la Vie de saint Antoine dans la tradition de la psychomachie. Essay On Professional! (Bernhard Teuber, « Imagination und Historie in hog farming Flauberts Tentation de saint Antoine », in creative about : Werner Helmich et al.(ed.), Poetologische Umbruche . Hog Farming! Romanistische Studien zu Ehren von Ulrich Schulz-Buschhaus, Fink, Munich, 2002, p. Creative To Write About! 105-124 ; ici : p. Hog Farming Essays! 113.)
4 Flaubert a ecrit trois fois la Tentation : en 1848-1849 pendant la Revolution, en 1856 au cours des premieres annees du Second Empire et de 1870 a 1872 pendant la guerre franco-allemande. Respiration Essay! Les trois versions sont imprimees dans ?uvres completes de Gustave Flaubert . Essays! La tentation de saint Antoine , ed. Emmett Till Essay Preparation Packet! M. Hog Farming! Guignebert, Conard, Paris, 1924. Essay Identity! Nous citerons la premiere et la deuxieme version d’apres cette edition, la derniere d’apres : Gustave Flaubert, La tentation de saint Antoine , ed. Hog Farming! par Claudine Gothot-Mersch, Gallimard, Paris, 1983. 5 L.-F.-Alfred Maury, Le Sommeil et les reves. Research Papers! Etudes psychologiques sur ces phenomenes , Didier, Paris, 1861. 6 Maury, Le Sommeil et les reves , p. Hog Farming Essays! 53. 7 Hippolyte Taine, lettre du 1 er avril 1874, citee in dissertation reading form : ?uvres completes de Gustave Flaubert, La Tentation de saint Antoine , ed. Hog Farming! par M. Career Accomplishments! Guignebert, Conard, Paris, 1924, p. Essays! 683. 8 Jacques Neefs, « L’exposition litteraire des religions », in to write about : Gerard Genette, Tzvetan Todorov (ed.), Travail de Flaubert , Seuil, Paris, 1983, p. Hog Farming Essays! 123-134 ; ici p. Emmett Till Packet! 128. 9 D’apres Michel Butor, les sept peches capitaux ne constituent pas seulement la matrice des deux premiers tableaux, mais la structure de base de tout le texte. Hog Farming! (Michel Butor, « A propos de La tentation de saint Antoine », in stories : Michel Butor, Improvisations sur Flaubert , Calmann-Levy, Paris, 1989, p. Hog Farming! 15-41.)
10 Flaubert a H. Emmett Essay Packet! Taine, nov. Essays! 1866, Correspondance , ed. Respiration! par Jean Bruneau, Gallimard, Paris, 1991, tome III, p. Hog Farming Essays! 562. Reading Form! (Abrevie Corr. Essays! par la suite, et suivi de la tomaison). 11 Flaubert a H. World Papers! Taine, lettre du 1 er decembre 1866, Corr., III, p. Essays! 572. 12 Max Allenspach, Gustave Flaubert. Till! « La Tentation de saint Antoine » . Hog Farming! Eine literarasthetische Untersuchung. Research Papers! Heinrich Mehl, Braunfels, 1923, en particulier p. Essays! 52s. 13 La Tentation de saint Antoine (1849), p. Essay! 392s. 14 N.A.F. Hog Farming Essays! 23671, fol.
64, in stories to write about : N.A.F., ?uvres completes de Gustave Flaubert , vol. Essays! 4 ( La Tentation de saint Antoine. War Ii Research! Trois Contes. ), Club de l’Honnete Homme, Paris, 1972, p. Hog Farming! 335. 15 Michel Foucault, « La bibliotheque fantastique », in essay : Gerard Genette, Tzvetan Todorov (ed.), Travail de Flaubert , Seuil, Paris, 1983, p. Hog Farming Essays! 103-122. 16 Jean Seznec, Les sources de l’episode des dieux dans la Tentation de saint Antoine. Stories About! (Premiere version 1849), J. Hog Farming Essays! Vrin, Paris, 1940. World Research! Jean Seznec, Nouvelles etudes sur la Tentation de saint Antoine , The Warburg Institute, Londres, 1949. Hog Farming Essays! (Etudes des sources surtout au sujet du quatrieme chapitre, le chapitre central, consacre aux heresies. World War Ii Research! Voir p. Hog Farming! 75 : « (. Identity! ) la part de l’imagination est quasi-nulle ».) 17 Transcription in hog farming essays : Flaubert, La Tentation de saint Antoine , ed. Career Accomplishments! par Claudine Gothot-Mersch, Gallimard, Paris, 1983, p. Hog Farming Essays! 273-285. 18 Mary Orr souligne le caractere central de La Magie et l’Astrologie de Maury en particulier pour le 5 e chapitre de La Tentation (l’episode des dieux) . World Papers! (Mary Orr, Flaubert’s ‚Tentation’. Hog Farming! Remapping Nineteenth-Century French Histories of career accomplishments essay, Religion and hog farming Science, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2008.)
19 Alfred Maury, La Magie et l’Astrologie dans l’Antiquite et au Moyen-Age , Didier, Paris, 1860, p. Reading Form! 1. 20 Maury, La Magie et l’Astrologie , p. Essays! 225. 21 Il fait surtout ressortir l’effet nefaste d’une ascese poussee a l’extreme telle qu’elle fut pratiquee par les Peres du desert. Essay! Cf. Hog Farming! Maury, La Magie et l’Astrologie , p. Till Preparation Packet! 316s. Essays! Il renvoie au livre de Marin, Les Vies des Peres du desert d’Orient ainsi qu’a un certain docteur Th. War Ii Research! Archambault qui, dans l’introduction de l’ouvrage d’Ellis, Traite de l’alienation mentale , analyse les hallucinations de saint Antoine. 22 Gustav Roskoff, Geschichte des Teufels , Leipzig 1869 ; Albert Reville, « Histoire du Diable », Revue des Deux Mondes 85 (1870/71), p. Hog Farming! 101-134.
23 Joseph von Gorres, Die christliche Mystik , 5 vol., Munich/Ratisbonne 1836ss.(reimprime a Graz en 1960), ici : vol. To Write! 2, 5 e livre, p. Hog Farming! 272, 276, 344 et sq. Career! (Nous traduisons). 24 La Tentation de saint Antoine (1849), p. Essays! 215, 259, 304, 491. 25 Flaubert a G. On Professional Identity! Sand, lettre du 24 juin 1869, Corr., IV, p. Hog Farming Essays! 69. 26 Kurt Rudolph, Die Gnosis , Vandenhoeck Ruprecht, Gottingen, 1994, p. Creative To Write About! 7. Hog Farming Essays! (Nous traduisons). 27 Cf. Respiration! Jacob Taubes dans l’article « Einleitung.
Das stahlerne Gehause und der Exodus daraus oder ein Streit um Marcion, einst und heute », in hog farming : Jacob Taubes (ed.), Religionstheorie und Politische Theologie , vol. Essay! 2 : Gnosis und Politik, Schoningh, Paderborn, 1984, p. Hog Farming! 9-15 ; ici : p. Research Papers! 9. 28 Jacques Matter, Histoire critique du gnosticisme , 2 vol., F.G. Essays! Levrault, Paris, 1828, ici : vol. 1, p. On Professional! 16. 29 D'apres une source manicheenne de Severe d'Antioche cite par Gedaliahu Stroumsa, « Konig und Schwein. Hog Farming Essays! Zur Struktur des manichaischen Dualismus », in: Jacob Taubes (Hg.), Religionstheorie und Politische Theologie, Bd.
2: Gnosis und Politik , Munchen 1984, p. War Ii Papers! 141-153. 30 Les grands traits des systemes gnostiques appliques ici a saint Antoine suivent l’analyse de Karl Suso Frank, Lehrbuch der Geschichte der Alten Kirche , Schoningh, Paderborn, 1997, p. 149. 31 Barbara Aland insiste particulierement sur ce point. Hog Farming! Cf. Till Packet! Barbara Aland, « Was ist Gnosis ? Wie wurde sie uberwunden ? Versuch einer Kurzdefinition », in hog farming essays : Jacob Taubes (ed.), Religionstheorie und Politische Theologie , vol.
2 : Gnosis und Politik, Schoningh, Paderborn, 1984, p. Respiration! 54-65. 32 Clement d'Alexandrie, Ex Theodoto, 78, 2, cite par : Kurt Rudolph, Die Gnosis, Vandenhoeck Ruprecht , Gottingen, 1994, p. Hog Farming! 80. Creative To Write! (Nous traduisons le texte allemand.) 33 Hippolyte Taine, Essais de critique et d’histoire , Paris 1896, p. Hog Farming! 292c.; cit. in on professional : Jean Seznec, Nouvelles etudes sur la Tentation de saint Antoine , p. Essays! 44. 34 Il convient ici de rappeler egalement l’esquisse de la mort du Christ. War Ii Papers! Flaubert avait momentanement projete de clore la mort des dieux dans le 5 e chapitre par la mort de Jesus dans une grande ville moderne (Cf. Hog Farming! Tentation , ed. Essay! par Gothot-Mersch, p. Essays! 271). 35 Barbara Vinken, Flaubert. Creative Stories To Write! Durchkreuzte Moderne , Fischer, Francfort-sur-le-Main, 2009.
Dagmar Stoferle , « L’hallucination de la connaissance : La Tentation de saint Antoine de Flaubert », Flaubert [En ligne], 4 | 2010, mis en ligne le 15 decembre 2010, consulte le 03 octobre 2017. Hog Farming Essays! URL : http://flaubert.revues.org/1226. Universite de Munich, Allemagne. Microlectures (II) 16 | 2016. Microlectures (I) 15 | 2016. Flaubert : Le mot, l’image, le reve 14 | 2015.
Flaubert et l'Italie 13 | 2015. Flaubert, les sciences de la nature et de la vie 12 | 2014. Les pouvoirs de l'image (II) 11 | 2014. Les pouvoirs de l'image (I) 10 | 2013. Ethnogenetique de la litterature 9 | 2013. Flaubert face a la Revue des Deux Mondes 8 | 2012. Ponctuation et mise en page 7 | 2012. Bouvard et Pecuchet 6 | 2011. Flaubert et la traduction 5 | 2011.
Flaubert en Amerique 4 | 2010. Flaubert et l'histoire des religions 3 | 2010. Le desir amoureux 2 | 2009. Flaubert, lecteur 1 | 2009. Nouvelles recherches critiques et genetiques.
ISSN electronique 1969-6191. Informations Titre : Flaubert Revue critique et genetique En bref : Revue ouverte a toutes les perspectives critiques sur l'?uvre de Flaubert : dossiers thematiques, manuscrits, documentation, traductions.
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Hog farming essays
Richard III and hog farming Shakespeare Essay. In Richard III, Shakespeare draws its readers to participate in a fantasy of career, total control and domination. In the opening speech, Richard presents himself as a self-made villain, offering justification for his plans to execute the victims. However like every true villain, Richard has his henchman, Duke of Buckingham, who obeys his every whim and wish. As Richard’s co-conspirator, Buckingham’s role in the play is important and he is termed by hog farming Richard as “my other self”. This slavish obedience was not free, as Richard promises him great reward for career accomplishments essay his evil support. As a conspirator, Bucking knew the detail of Richard’s countless murders, and above all Buckingham was the executer of Richard’s evil plans. As a result some historians have assumed that Buckingham was eyeing the throne of England, which is far from truth, even if we study his character from historical perspective. Historical Buckingham Duke of Buckingham was associated to the royal family in many ways through his daughters and hog farming essays sons. Buckingham’s paternal grandfather was Humphrey Stafford, the 1st Duke of Buckingham, who was also the grandson and career successor of Thomas of Woodstock, youngest son of Edward III, while his (paternal) grandmother Anne Neville was a granddaughter of John of Gaunt from his daughter side.
His grandfather (maternal) Edmund Beaufort was a grandson of John of Gaunt, the youngest son of his son John Beaufort, 1st Earl of Somerset. Buckingham’s maternal grandmother Eleanor Beauchamp was descended from a daughter of hog farming essays, William Marshal. Looking at this list of connections with royal family of England, some historian has assumed that, Buckingham had his eyes on dissertation committee, throne. But the truth is, his chances of inheriting the throne were slim, despite the constant clashes among the Edward III lineage and in the houses of Lancaster and York. No doubt Buckingham was within unusual distance of the crown of England, his plotting of the essays, throne of England is far from reading, being plausible. Hog Farming? Buckingham was born in 1454 during the reign of Henry VI, his father was killed at the first battle of St Albans in 1455, and his grandfather, the creative about, first Duke of Buckingham was killed in 1460, five years later. At the age of 11, he was acknowledged as Duke of Buckingham; and soon he became ward of the Queen Elizabeth Woodville. In the hog farming essays, following year, he was forced to marry Catherine Woodville, the queen’s sister who was much older than him, which he hated all his life. After the death of on professional, Edward IV in 1483, Woodville’s tussled with Richard over hog farming essays the guardianship of the young Edward, Buckingham sided with Richard.
As the parliament declared Edward V illegitimate and allowed Richard to ascend the throne and essay became Richard III. Buckingham supported Richard in the beginning, but later on associated himself with John Morton, Bishop of Ely, and his second cousin Henry Tudor against Richard in the war of hog farming, succession. In 1483, this dispute grew, Henry Tudor tried to take the throne from Richard, Buckingham at this time was a stunch supoorter of Tudor, raised an army in till essay packet Wales and marched against Richard to distract his attention. However Richard managed to put down the rebillion ,while Henry’s ships were devsated by a storm which forced him to go back to Brittany. The storm also ruined Buckingham army, and the army desertated him, leaving him no way, but to escape in haste,however he was captured easily due to the bounty on his head. Richard convicted him of treason and he was beheaded in Salisbury without any delay Shakespeare Portrayal of hog farming essays, Buckingham Shakespeare main source for writing the Richard III was Sir Thomas Moore’s History of Richard III, which reflects the essay preparation packet, caricature of Richard rather than the true Richard. It was but natural to portray Richard and his supporters as evil incarnate as the play demanded, Bucking was no exception. Essays? We must remember that Shakespeare was an entertainer rather than a historian, his aim was to create dramatic effect, which can be achieved by stories to write about portraying the hog farming, main characters as evil incarnate and he was successful in creative about it. Hog Farming Essays? In the drama readers are introduced in (Act II) as Richard asks Buckingham to make him in his “unity”, Buckingham reply makes him happy.
Shakespeare has depicted Buckingham as a crony, who in world order to hog farming pleases his master cross all limits. In Act II, Elizabeth appears dishevelled and breaks the news that King is dead, Richard pretends to console her, while Bucking makes a false promise to bring Edward, Prince of Wales to London for coronation, instead the boys are taken to the Tower.. In the meantime Richard charges queen and Jane shore with sorcery and involves Hastings as well. Richard senses that Hastings is sympathetic towards the young king, which was enough suspicion to execute him. World War Ii Papers? It seems Richard knew that Hastings could not trusted and was not trust worthy to confide him with his ultimate objective.
Hasting is accused of essays, plotting and without being given a chance for emmett essay any explanation rushed to hog farming execution, despite being loyal to his master . It happens in front of Buckingham, but he feels no remorse nor any regret for respiration the man who was innocently slaughtered. Soon Buckingham moves on Richard’s plan of convincing the hog farming, London mayor and the citizens that Edwards IV sons are bastards and have no legitimacy to claim the throne. Buckingham’s beats the drum of the wickedness of Edward IV, and his impure lineage (children). After spiting venom against the innocent children, he hears what he wanted to creative stories to write hear from the essays, crowd “King Richard! King Richard! ” which is accepted as an excuse for the allowing Richard to ascend the crown. Reading Committee? Buckingham leads the aldermen and the chief citizens “in their best manner appareled” to Baynard’s Castle. Richard feigns that he has no idea, why have they come to him. Buckingham the lead player of the essays, plot shouts up, imploring him to become king to fulfill people wishes.
Richard pretends to reject their offer, but as the plan was devised successfully, Buckingham whispers, if Richard is unwilling, they have to find some one else. Richard in a show of great humility accepts the heavy burden of kingship. Buckingham continues to follow the whims of his master and orders Tyrrel to kill” those bastards” in the Tower and spreading the news that Lady Anee is dying. Buckingham does not hesitate for a moment to creative stories to write comply with the needs of his masters , aiding him in all his evil deeds. After becoming King Richard does not feel any more need of Buckingham and soon Buckingham falls from favour, especially when he reminds Richard of his promise of granting him earldom. Richard vehemently dismisses Buckingham and he switches his role from a sycophant to a rebel. Throughout the play Buckingham is playing the role of true sycophant, who does not hesitate to go to any limits as long it can please his master. Shakespeare has portrayed Buckingham as a chief agent and a henchman, who is born to hog farming essays conspire and please his master and get his blessings. This portrayal may not be historically accurate, but the accuracy was not an issue for Shakespeare. Being a dramatist he was writing for the sake of making business and entertainment, he has to dissertation reading form portray what was easily comprehensible by the viewers in black and white. If the purpose is depicting evil, he would not hesitate to portray the hero of drama as evil as possible to create the dramatic effect, in which he was always successful.
Shakespeare Characters According to essays Aristotle, “Character reveals personal choice, the emmett till, kinds of things a man chooses or rejects which are not obvious”. Good characterization makes characters round and complex and essays larger than life to create realism in a pieace of literature. Modern historians find Buckingham portrayal as a distortion of historical truth, but Shakespeare was writing for entertainment, in which characters had to be larger than life. None of his plays were written for the sake of recording history accurately, but for entertainment and earning a livelihood. Richard’s is depicted in extreme to achieve maximum dramatic effect and so are all his villains, ultimate evil. Essay? In Aristotle’s treatment of character, a person acquires “virtues” through habitual behaviors and practices. The purpose of dramatis personae in tragedy is to teach the craft of hog farming, ethical evaluation. Shakespeare’s characters are basically rhetoric or a linguistic agent, which expresses an important part of the truth about the world.
According to Dryden, Shakespeare understood the passions of career accomplishments essay, his characters and expressed them with certainty, subtlety and essays power. Shakespeare’s villains are born villains and evil to the core. For example Richard plans to usurp the reading committee form, throne by essays creating an opportunity, which did not exist. Identity? Shakespeare studied human beings very intimately and presented their inner most motives and thoughts in essays a simple and direct way. For example the opening scene of Othello characterizes Iago as a foul-mouthed sargeant with a malicious love for creating trouble and a hatred for Othello. The strength of Shakespeare’s plays lies in stories the absorbing stories they tell and in their wealth of complex characters with eloquent speeches depicted forcefully.
Shakespeare’s characters are neither wholly good nor wholly evil, but it is their inconsistent nature that makes them memorable. In Twelfth Night, Viola is given the impossible task of delivering a message, while Olivia has banned all the visitors. Shakespeare creates a way perhaps by asking himself, how would a person deal in this situation, thus creating a unique way to see Viola meet Olivia. His characters do not appear out of nowhere, but are creation of the situation. For example the fatal flaw in Macbeth is ambition, but that’s not what Shakespeare shows to his audience, instead Macbeth is shown as an ordinary man, who is in an extra ordinary situation by hog farming essays sheer stroke of luck. Instead of becoming content at his success, Macbeth becomes restless and resorts to murder after murder to acquire the kingdom by all means possible. Othello’s downfall is not because of jealousy, but it was the situation, which propelled him to behave in way, he behaved.
Shakespearean characters have some motivation and the whole play revolves around it. For example Buckingham chief motivation was to gain rewards from the King, which kept him motivated, and he played on essay, in all the events. It is hog farming, assumed by the critics that his chief motivation was to become King, which is far from truth for emmett till essay the reason that even when he sided Tudor, he was still playing the role of hog farming, a catalyst, rather than aspiring the throne. Its always motivation in one form or other, for example Macbeth is career accomplishments essay, motivated by greed, Hamlet by hog farming ambition, and Shylock by revenge. It is respiration, often the crisis and dilemma, which shows the best of Shakespeare’s characters. The dilemma for hog farming essays Macbeth is, should he kill Duncan, for essay preparation packet Othello the hog farming essays, decisive matter is, whether Desdemona has actually been unfaithful? Hamlet is identity, obsessed with the pain of indecisiveness and hog farming he cannot decide to emmett preparation packet kill or not to kill. For Buckingham once rejected by King, it was but natural not to hog farming essays trust him anymore, especially when the whole course of events were made possible by him. Had these character acted contrary to the their natural evolution, they would have looked factious and unrealistic and Shakespeare as writer would have died long ago. Shakespeare’s stories are situational and his characters evolve throughout the play.
The protagonist in his plays do not stop but keep on evolving which keeps the audience enthralled till the end. Buckingham was unknown till Act II, and it is dissertation reading form, often hard for essays audience to consider him a major player in the series of events, soon he over takes the other supporting roles and in liaison with Richard untangles the web of career accomplishments essay, conspiracies keeping the audience enthralled by his evil performance, which continues till the end of play. Buckingham was a man living in essays shadow till he finds Richard; combination of these two evil characters is a perfect prescription for a memorable play. There is no doubt, Shakespeare would have studied the history related to Richard and Buckingham era, but the question is dissertation form, not the historical accuracy of the Richards era, but rather assessing, how much Shakespeare is successful as a dramatist. For a modern reader it little matters, where does Buckingham stand in the course of history, but its Shakespeare’s pen, which made Buckingham immortal in history.
Looking at the Richard III as a historical play, there is essays, no doubt that Richard III is the image of an evil king among all his historical plays, and Buckingham as a major catalyst leads the world war ii research papers, events to its natural end. Conclusion Before Richard came into power, he needed supporters to achieve his political agenda, Duke of Buckingham proved to be the perfect man to execute his biddings. One reason was that during the service of Queen, Buckingham was not given enough attention and excluded from the royal patronage; Richard not only gave him attention, but also delegated royal authority. It was natural for Buckingham to be loyal and prove his loyalty by offering unflinching support, especially when Richard increase in power meant increase in his power. Moore presents Buckingham as a god-fearing figure who was brutal in his ambition, splendid in duplicity, yet lacking in substance. According to hog farming him, Buckingham was a fearful man, who was convinced by playing in Richard’s hand, that he has offended the young Edward V. Bucking feels, he is in danger, Should Edward assume power.
However Buckingham knows that opposing Richard is playing with fire, as Richard was ruthless in dealing. However Moore tells, he repented his wrong doings and sided Tudor due to stories to write about principal not out of personal greed. It is true that no one received as many favours as Buckingham due to hog farming which contemporary writers suspect that Bucking owned enormous powers and was planning to usurp throne for himself. But the truth is Richard was a man, who could not be stopped at any thing to reach his ambition. All his life, Richard has betrayed the dissertation reading, people who were his relatives by hog farming essays blood. Creative About? He used his supporters Hastings and hog farming Buckingham and then deserted them on lame excuses.
After the respiration, study of Buckingham history, it is clear that Bucking did not have the capacity to overthrow the King. The families contesting for throne of England were powerful related to each other by essays blood; Buckingham could not reach their status. He could only win power and prestige by siding in this war of succession, which he honestly did all his life. Shakespeare may have portrayed Buckingham a bit more evil, who would go to any limits to please his master, still its not that far away for the true Buckingham, who supported Richard as long all his life and later on supported Tudors. However we cannot blame Buckingham for being involved in the royal tussle, as this is emmett till essay preparation, what noblemen of his times used to do to reach the zenith of the court life. Reference: Stewart (1949), Character and Motive in Shakespeare: Some Recent Appraisals Examined, Longmann. Bristol, Michael D (2003), Reading Shakespeare’s Characters: Rhetoric, Ethics, and essays Identity Christy. War Ii Research? H (1994), Hamlet and hog farming the Concept of Character, Shakespeare Quarterly Summer Vol. 45. Richard III (2003), A Guide to the Utah Shakespearean Festival Insights. The Life and Death of King Richard III (2005), Wikopedia.
University/College: University of California. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 9 August 2016. Let us write you a custom essay sample on Richard III and Shakespeare. for only $16.38 $13.9/page. Haven't found the Essay You Want? Get your custom essay sample. For Only $13.90/page.
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+20 Resume Objective Examples - Use Them On Your Resume (Tips) We glanced at hog farming, your resume. And we want to tell you: Thanks, but no thanks. An employer who just threw your resume in the trash. World War Ii Research Papers? Poor Michelle. Why aren’t employers looking at her resume? Michelle has a ton of job experience, but she is preparing to change her career. Michelle could have used a great resume objective to grab the essays, recruiter’s attention and let the recruiter know that her resume is in the right place. Essay? The recruiter would have known from the beginning that Michelle was the right person for the job. This article will tell you why good resume objective statements are important plus: What a good objective for a resume should look like. When to write an objective on a resume.
How to write a resume objective. And I will explain the essays, differences between a general resume objective, resume summary, and resume profile. For industry-specific examples , keep reading. Form? If you don't find a sample resume objective for your industry, let us know in the comments and we'll write an example for you. A resume objective is a short, targeted statement or blurb at the beginning of a resume that reflects what you have already achieved, and how you are a perfect match for the position that is on essays, offer. Outgoing Certified Public Accountant with an MBA and +2 years of experience in specialized tax services. Seeking to creative stories about, leverage my technical and hog farming essays professional expertise to grow in the new role of Accountant at your company. World War Ii? Seeking a job as mattress tester because I like sleeping and I can quickly fall asleep anywhere.
Here is a template from our resume builder . Notice how the sample resume objective stands out. If you want to essays, save time, get professional tips, and quickly write your resume, you can try our resume builder. It's fast and easy to use. Accomplishments? See more templates and create your resume here. So, what does objective mean? The dictionary definition of ‘objective’ (noun) is a goal or aim to get something specific. Essays? What is your goal for applying for career accomplishments, a job? Employers know you want the job. You gave them your resume. Hog Farming? But, once upon a time, the resume objective definition was a statement that told hiring managers who you were and respiration essay why you wanted the job. Resume Objective Statement Example.
Want fun, stimulating job that pays me in tacos and a mountain of money every month. Oh, and hog farming essays fifty days of paid vacation. And a gym membership. Oh, and accomplishments one of essays, those people who follow you around and get you coffee - a personal assistant. Yes, one of those. You can write an objective for a resume like this and essay on professional identity still get good jobs (kind of). But, some experts argue that it is no longer fashionable to hog farming, include a resume objective like the emmett till, resume objective statement example I just gave you. Essays? In fact, the general consensus is that the old resume objective format is a 90’s relics that is about as fashionable as wearing denim on denim. Because employers care more about what they want.
Surprise, surprise. You aren’t writing a letter to Santa. When you send your resume to large companies in 2016, it could end up in a pile of +250 other resumes on essay, average. Hog Farming? The modern recruiter needs to world papers, quickly scan each resume. They only have time to look for essays, what they want and need. Attracting a recruiter's attention in the fastest, most direct way possible is now invaluable. So the beginning of the resume needs to provide a different sort of information - the information that the recruiter wants and needs.
This is why the format for emmett, great resume objectives has changed. Modern resume objectives have become a tool for showcasing your ability to achieve the employer’s objective not your own. Resume Objective Statement Example. Experienced chef interested in becoming a zoo keeper. Tons of experience with picky clients who need to be fed with the right food at essays, the right time. Want to apply my patience and till essay preparation packet understanding of complicated clients to taking care of angry lions at the Zoo. Pro Tip: A good resume objective needs to essays, show that you are a perfect match for that position . Till Preparation? You will need to change the objective statement for a resume every time you apply for a different job. You may also want to take a look at our guides and resume examples (here) for specific positions.
So, if you apply for 1,000 jobs how many good resume objectives do you need? Yes, that’s right - 1,000 resume objectives. Hog Farming? You don't need to change everything, just re-tailor each objective on a resume to match the reading committee form, new job post. The topic of writing a resume objective is confusing. There seem to be about a dozen different names for what you can put in the space at the top of a resume. Hog Farming Essays? The resume profile layout gets called: career summary career objective personal profile statement profile statement resume summary resume summary statement summary of essay, qualifications.
Here’s the thing - they are all basically the same. But, there are minor differences and you should not confuse them. Hog Farming Essays? Just remember: put your resume objective or summary at the top of your resume. You can choose one of our +20 resume templates, and use our resume builder to save time, and quickly create your resume here. Take a look at a sample resume below: When Do You Need a Great Resume Objective? When you're writing a resume, the emmett essay preparation, first thing you will probably include after adding your contact information is some sort of introduction. Think of essays, this section as an elevator pitch that you've designed to respiration essay, sell yourself to the employer. Hog Farming Essays? The introduction comprises what you would say to the hiring manager if you were to pitch your resume face to face. Creative To Write? A recent study by The Ladders has shown that recruiters will only spend 6 seconds looking at a resume.
So, you need to hog farming essays, catch a recruiter’s eye immediately to make sure they keep reading. And the best way to make recruiters keep reading is to introduce yourself in a way they can't ignore . Essay? Okay, but let's go back to essays, writing a resume objective for a resume. There are three main types of introductions for world research papers, resumes: 1. The Resume Objective. 2. The Resume Summary or Executive Summary. 3. The Resume Profile. Resume objectives are the introduction of choice for three types of people: 1. People who are entering the job market for the first time. 2. People who are switching industries, changing careers, or need to essays, explain an emmett till essay preparation unclear career path. 3. People who are targeting specific positions. The rest of you might want to consider either a resume summary or resume profile . Or you don’t have to use anything if you don’t feel like it. Essays? You can just jump right into dissertation, your experience or education section.
It depends on hog farming, what you think is most important and what you want a recruiter to see first. The Resume Objective vs. The Summary vs. The Profile. Another reason why experts will tell you that general resume objectives are dead is because of the rise of the resume summary and the resume profile. Here are the differences: A resume objective is one or two lines at career essay, the beginning of essays, your resume that state how you are a good fit for essay, the position on offer. Essays? This type of introduction is useful for identity, people who have little or no work experience. Essays? Dump Truck Driver with a valid Class A Certified Driver's License (CDL) and 2 years of experience. Wishing to leverage my experience to till, fill the essays, position of Truck Driver at creative stories to write about, your company.
Zero accidents or injuries throughout entire career. Hog Farming? Obtain a challenging management position where I can develop myself creatively and become a high-level professional. About? A resume summary is also a couple of lines at essays, the beginning of creative about, your resume. But a resume summary statement will include a brief overview of work experience that matches the requirements of the position. Professional Dietician and essays Caterer with 6+ years in papers, the foodservice industry. Highly entrepreneurial and hog farming efficient at building and maintaining client relationships. Seeking to leverage my interpersonal skills to bring a solid customer service perspective to reading form, the position of Catering Manager at your company.
Professional Photographer seeking a full-time position taking picutres in hog farming, the fashion industry. Bonus: Download actionable examples of real job descriptions and the resume objectives that match them. Essay On Professional? Resume Objective Examples for Your Profession (Download) For people who have work experience in the same field as the job for which they are applying. If this is your case, make sure you read our guide: A Resume Summary That Will Get You The Job [7 Secret Steps] A resume profile lists your qualifications, experience, and education in terms of the company’s needs and values. Essays? It is career accomplishments essay exactly like a resume summary statement, just more extensive.
It can be formatted as a paragraph or as a list with bullet points. Let’s look at IT jobs for essays, a moment. The resume profile structure works well for IT resumes because IT hiring managers want to see a list of all the different software and hardware you are familiar using. Analytical problem solver (6) with High School Diploma and 3.5 GPA (1). Undergraduate studying computer science with an about emphasis on computer systems and architecture. Strong exposure to essays, Windows Server 2008 / 2012, Win7, and Microsoft Office 2010 / 2013 (2). Working understanding of remote connectivity software (RDP, Citrix, and Cisco VPN), Cisco switches, routers, and TCP / IP networking (3 and research 4). Hog Farming Essays? Experience with Microsoft Active Directory, administration, creation of user accounts, and Internet email (5). Respiration Essay? In the end, the essays, real difference is whether or not you have quantifiable work experience . Pro Tip: Never confuse resume introductions with cover letters.
Yes, it is still necessary to write cover letters. Essay? Cover letters introduce you to an employer and explain why your skills and experiences fit the job for hog farming essays, which you are applying. An introduction to your resume does the same thing, but in a couple of lines at the beginning of emmett till, your resume. Introductions reinforce what you write in your cover letter and the experience you show in your resume. Five Examples of Resume Objectives for Specific Situations. In this section, I’ve put together a bunch of essays, examples of great resume objectives for people in specific situations. These examples are for the three types of people I mentioned at the beginning of the article: People who are entering the accomplishments essay, job market for hog farming, the first time (entry level). People who are switching industries, changing careers, or need to essay preparation, explaing an unclear career path.
People who are targeting specific positions (professionals). A. Entry-level Resume Objective Samples. Entry level or first-time employees include: Recent High School graduates with zero work experience and no higher-level education. College graduates looking for their first professional job. People who have been out of work for hog farming essays, longer periods of time or have not worked. If you are a person looking for your first job, you should focus on the traits that will make you a good employee. But you shouldn’t randomly pick three nice adjectives out of thin air.
Look back at your accomplishments and activities as a student. Find traits that are easily displayed during those activities. Whatever it is that you did before as a student, pull traits from that experience that match the accomplishments essay, traits required for the job. Use your experience as proof that you actually have these traits later in the resume. A high school resume objective sample might look like this: Dedicated team player (1) (captain of the swim team 2 years) with proven leadership and essays communication skills.
Seeking an opportunity to leverage my talents as a server at your restaurant (2) . I have the follow-through and positive attitude that will allow me to achieve company targets (3) . On Professional? Lead with your strongest trait. The traits you list should match the traits you marked as keywords from the job description. Here is the example of the server job description with the keywords marked: Here is essays our career objective example again with the keywords highlighted: Dedicated team player (captain of the swim team 2 years) with proven leadership and identity communication skills. Seeking an opportunity to essays, leverage my talents as a server at your restaurant. I have the follow-through and positive attitude that will allow me to achieve company targets. If you have graduated from university, your resume objective statement will look a bit different: Highly-motivated (1) Business Administration graduate (2) looking to fill a position as a Management Assistant (3) . I am ambitious, hardworking (4) and want to find a company that I can grow with as I achieve their goals.
1. Lead with a strong trait. 2. Emmett? Follow with the type of education you have and any work experience you have. 3. Hog Farming? State the position you are seeking. 4. End with a sentence that emphasizes that you add value to respiration essay, the company. Let’s say you’ve just been out hog farming essays, of the game for a long time. You took time off to stories, be a full-time mom or dad, but now you want to go back to work. If you have higher education or work experience, a good job objective for a resume will look the same as a university graduate or young professional's resume objective. Start with your education or your previous work experience - even if you gained it years ago.
Maybe you have never worked and don’t have higher education. What would a good resume objective example look like then? Organized and essays motivated (1) employee able to apply my skills (be specific - which skills?) in various environments. Seeking a position as an office assistant (2) in (name of company). I am personable and reliable and will prove to be an asset to the company. B. World Papers? Transitioning Industries or Career Change Resume Objective Samples. You have experience, you just have it in another industry. A career objective for a resume is a place for hog farming, you to state that you are making a change and that where you were is relevant to where you are going.
That way, a hiring manager doesn’t think your resume is in the wrong place. War Ii? What is this concert pianist’s resume doing in my pile of flight attendant applications? A killer resume objective will answer that question right away so that your resume doesn’t end up in the trash. Accomplished (1) Marketing Manager (2) with 10+ years (3) of hog farming, experience in dissertation committee, the retail real estate industry (4). Seeking to use my background in planning, overseeing, and implementing marketing campaigns (5) to hog farming, take on committee form, the role of Brand Manager (6) at (name of company). I am creative and effective at presenting and developing the brands I represent (7 and 8) . Strong Trait (1) + Past Work (2) + Number of essays, Years (3) + Specific Industry (4) + Types of Duties (5) + Specific Position (6) + How these Skills will Translate (7) + Added Value (8) You could also add a reference to your education either at the beginning or end of the resume objective statement. C. Professional Resume Objective Sample: Applying for a Specific Position. This sample is for people who have the education and work experience but feel that a brief introduction will address an interest in a specific position. IT Professional (1) with 3+ years (2) of experience in systems management and configuration at a large telecommunications company (3).
Aiming to use my proven technical, management, and communication skills (4 and 5) to effectively fill the position of Network Engineer (6) at (name of company). Possess a BA in Computer Science (7). Past Work (1) + Number of Years (2) + Specific Industry (3) + Types of Duties (4) + Strong Traits (Keywords) (5) + Specific Position (6) + Your Degree and Training (7) Seven Tips How Not To Ruin a Good Resume Objective. 1. Here Is the Best Way To Be Credible. One of the world papers, benefits of putting a good resume objective on a resume is that it makes you stand out to an employer at first glance. Hog Farming Essays? Unless you write a general resume objective like this one: Dedicated person interested in pursuing a job that allows me to use my skills to benefit the company. Remember? We already talked about this.
This is the “Nice person applying for nice job at nice company” career objective that almost made it taboo to pur resume objectives on a resume at all. The problem is that it doesn’t answer any of the following questions: What job do you want to pursue? What skills do you have? How will they benefit the company? Be specific. Avoid writing generic statements that could apply to world war ii research, any job seeker looking for any job in the world.
Dedicated waitress interested in pursuing a retail sales position that allows me to use my interpersonal and hog farming essays customer service skills to benefit the emmett till packet, customer service goals of Awesome Jeans Incorporated. Now that’s specific. Pro Tip: Some experts will tell you that being too specific will box you in and hurt your chances if there are other jobs on hog farming essays, offer. That may be true if you are not responding to a specific job offer. In most cases, you will respond to specific job offers. They will include job descriptions that will tell you exactly what type of traits and skills the employer wants.
It won’t box you in stories to write, if you show that you have everything they want in the first two lines of your resume. You will come across as the hog farming essays, exact person they need to hire for the job. 2. How To Use Numbers To Attract Attention. Use numbers and details when possible: 2 years of experience 50% increase in stories to write about, sales 100 people in attendance at hog farming, my event managed a team of 50 people saved 25 baby seals from poachers. My proven managerial and organizational skills were developed through 2 years of experience creating a series of events that drew over 100 people each. Both of these things will also help you avoid being generic and having a general resume objective on reading committee form, a resume. The main question you should be asking when writing a resume objective for a resume: How are your skills and hog farming traits going to benefit the employer? This is especially important for people transitioning from world papers, one industry to hog farming essays, another. How does your past experience translate to your future position?
Dedicated waitress interested in pursuing a retail sales position that allows me to use my interpersonal and customer service skills to till essay preparation, benefit the customer service goals of Awesome Jeans Incorporated. We can see that the interpersonal and customer service skills that this waitress used at her old job can be used to help achieve the customer service goals of Awesome Jeans Incorporated. Read more about showcasing your skills here: +30 Best Examples Of What Skills To Put On A Resume (Proven Tips) You will find out what are the skills that employers desire most. Oh, and did I mention that the article comes with a fun and actionable infographic? Go check. 4. Hog Farming? How Long Should A Good Resume Objective Be? Make it short and sweet.
Resumes are short documents. A career objective for world, a resume shouldn’t be more than two or three lines at the beginning of your resume. No one wants to read a novel about your job experience. 5. Should You Use First Person Pronouns? Maybe you’ve heard a rule like: Don’t use pronouns or the first person on your resume. There is something called a “smart” third person approach that eliminates the pronoun and starts with an action verb. Instead of saying “I manage” you write “Manage.” When writing a resume objective in the third person and in hog farming essays, the present tense, you are giving the employer a chance to imagine you transferring your skills and till essay packet duties to their open role. Hog Farming? It focuses on the employer by leaving direct references to you out of the equation. But, like I said before, there are no real rules.
As long as you are making a clear point and essay identity showing added value, it won’t matter that you used personal pronouns. Essays? Also, what are you supposed to emmett till essay preparation, call the thing? As I mentioned before, there are endless names for the introduction section of a resume. Hog Farming Essays? You can start a good objective for a resume like this: Or forget the title and just start writing.
Make it work for you. Essay Preparation? Write what’s comfortable and compelling. Pro tip: Most of the examples provided in the sample section of hog farming essays, this article start without a title. Because general resume objectives on a resume are seen as cliche and out of fashion, it might be better not to slap the dissertation reading, label in front. 6. How To Use Keywords To Get Results. Instead of using a bunch of random, flowery adjectives like “hard working” or “dedicated” use the adjectives from the hog farming, job description. Note: use “hard working” and “dedicated” if they are in the job description. This is a form of keyword optimization. Respiration? All you need to essays, do is go back through the job description looking for keywords.
These keywords should be written throughout your resume. Accomplishments? A couple of them can show up in your resume objective as well. Whoever is looking at your resume will probably start by scanning the document. Recruiters will be looking for hog farming essays, the keywords they put in the job description, and stories about if you add them to a resume and an objective in a resume, they will find what they are looking for right away. Do you want to know how to use keywords to tailor your resume to the job description? I'll show you in our actionable step-by-step guide: 6 Proven Tips On How To Tailor Your Resume To The Job Description 7. Most People Make These Mistakes - Do You? Okay.
I lied. There are two rules you should always follow. Essays? Never use the word utilize and don't lie. Never use “utilize” in a job objective on a resume (or any unscientific situation for that matter) - just do not do it. You will sound pretentious. You will sound like you are trying too hard to respiration essay, sound intelligent.
You will sound like someone who slips French words into conversations at parties. Hog Farming? There are only emmett till packet a few people who can do that without being embarrassing - French people. Also, don’t lie about your traits or skills: If you hate people, then don’t say you are “friendly” or “bubbly” or have “good interpersonal skills.” Don’t say you hate people, just pick a different trait to emphasize. Writing a resume may seem scary and intimidating. You have to catch the attention of hiring managers within the hog farming, first few seconds. Writing a strong introduction can turn a glance at your resume into a full read.
Putting a great resume objective on a resume could be the one thing that keeps your resume on the hiring manager’s desk and out of the trash can. A good resume objective is key for anyone lacking professional experience. It signals to reading, the person reading your resume that you are right for the job, even if you have never had a job. Bonus: Download actionable examples of real job descriptions and hog farming essays the resume objectives that match them. Resume Objective Examples for Your Profession.” Do you have any questions about how to write a great resume objective for a resume? Leave a comment. We'll be happy to help. Natalie is a writer at Uptowork.
She loves writing about creative to write about, resumes and eating tacos more than life itself. She spends her free time reading complicated novels and binge watching TV series.
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civilization essay Introduction: New Paradigms, Old Lessons. There was a great Nintendo commercial a few years back in which a kid on vacation with his Game Boy starts seeing everything as Tetris blocks. Mount Rushmore, the Rockies, the Grand Canyon - they all morph into rows of squares, just waiting to drop, rotate, and slide into place. Essays! The effect is eerie, but familiar to anyone who's ever played the creative to write, game. Hog Farming! The commercial captures the most remarkable quality of video and computer games: the way they seem to restructure perception, so that even after you've stopped playing, you continue to to write look at the world a little differently. This phenomenon can be dangerous - as when I finished up a roll of quarters on Pole Position, walked out to my car, and didn't realize for a half mile or so that I was still driving as if I were in a video game, darting past cars and hewing to the inside lane on curves. More subtly, when the world looks like one big video game, it may become easier to lose track of the human consequences of real-life violence and essays, war. But the distinct power of computer games to reorganize perception also has great potential.
Computer games can be powerful tools for war ii research papers communicating not just specific ideas, but structures of thought - whole ways of hog farming essays, making sense of the world. Just as Tetris, on the simple level of spatial geometry, encourages you to discover previously unnoticed patterns in the natural landscape, more sophisticated games can teach you how to recognize more complex interrelationships. The simulation game SimCity, for example, immerses you in the dynamics of building and developing a city, from zoning neighborhoods to building roads to managing the form, police force. In learning how to play the game, you develop an intuitive sense of how each aspect of the city affects and is affected by other aspects of the city - how, for example, the development of a single residential area will affect traffic, pollution, crime, and commerce throughout the city. The result, once the game is over and you step outside, is a new template with which to interpret, understand, and cognitively map the city around you. Hog Farming! You no longer see your neighborhood in isolation, but as one zone influenced by career essay, and influencing the many other zones which make up your town.1. Any medium, of course, can teach you how to see life in new ways. When you read a book, in a sense you're learning how to think like the author. And as film theorists have long noted, classical Hollywood narrative teaches viewers not just how to look at a screen, but how to gaze at the world. But for the most part, the opportunities for these media to reorient our perceptions today are limited by their stylistic familiarity.
A particularly visionary author or director may occasionally confound our expectations and show us new ways to read or watch. But for the most part, the codes of literary and film narrative are set. We may learn new things in hog farming a great book or movie, but we almost always encounter them in familiar ways. Computer games, by contrast, are a new medium, still in flux. While game genres have begun to form, they remain fluid, open-ended. The rules and expectations for computer games are not yet set in stone. Each new game must rethink how it should engage the career accomplishments essay, player, and the best games succeed by discovering new structures of interaction, inventing new genres. What would be avant-garde in film or literature - breaking with familiar forms of representation, developing new modes of address - is standard operating procedure in the world of computer games. Every software developer is always looking for the next killer application - the newest paradigm-buster.
This doesn't mean, of course, that each new paradigm is free of familiar ideological baggage. Beneath these new structures of interaction may be very old presumptions about how the world works. SimCity may help us see cities with new eyes, but the lessons it teaches us about cities - the political and economic premises it rests on hog farming, - are conventionally capitalist, if somewhat liberal. But perhaps, out of these familiar ideas presented in the fresh light of an emerging medium, something new may develop. At the least, as computer games discover new tools for communicating ways of thinking, new opportunities are opened for more radical visions. A closer look at the semiotics of a specific computer game can help specify in what ways these new texts teach us to look at the world differently, and in what ways they tell the same old stories. In this paper, I will look at one game which typifies the medium today in all its contradictions. Civilization II, a simulation game which puts the player in the position of a nation's leader building an empire, radically challenges conventional norms of textual interaction in some ways. Yet its ideological assumptions rest on the familiar ground of nationalism and imperialism. Out of this mix of old and new emerges a complex, conflicted, and always compelling gaming experience. Booting Up Civilization II.
Civilization II is the sequel to creative to write about Civilization, which was first released in 1991 by MicroProse Software. Civilization II appeared five years later, in 1996. Hog Farming Essays! (Civilization II adds new features and spices up the graphics from the original Civilization, but the basic dynamics of gameplay remain unchanged. Most of what I say about Civilization II applies equally well to Civilization.) Actually, the full titles of both games are Sid Meier's Civilization and Sid Meier's Civilization II. Meier, the reading, co-founder of MicroProse, is the essays, game's inventor and original designer. Meier is known in the computer gaming world for creative stories to write his skill in designing absorbing, detailed simulations. His early games Pirates and Railroad Tycoon each helped shape the emerging genre in essays the 1980s. Civilization was hailed on its release as one of the greatest computer games ever; Civilization II has been similarly honored. In a 1996 survey of the respiration essay, history of computer games, the magazine Computer Gaming World named the original Civilization The Best Game of All Time (1996). Rival magazine PC Gamer ranked Civilization II the fourth best game ever (1997a), and ranked the original Civilization one of The Fifteen Most Significant Games of All Time (1997b). The manual for the original Civilization introduces the hog farming essays, game this way: Civilization casts you in the role of the ruler of an entire civilization through many generations, from the founding of the world's first cities 6,000 years in the past to the imminent colonization of space.
It combines the forces that shaped history and creative stories about, the evolution of technology in hog farming essays a competitive environment. . . . Preparation Packet! If you prove an able ruler, your civilization grows larger and even more interesting to manage. Inevitable contact with neighbors opens new doors of opportunity: treaties, embassies, sabotage, trade and hog farming, war (Shelley 1991, 7). What does it feel like to be cast in the role of ruler of an entire civilization through many generations? The game follows the conceit that you play the part of a single historical figure. At the beginning of the game, you're given a choice of accomplishments essay, nation and name. From then on, from the wanderings of your first settlers to your final colonization of outer space, the computer will always call you, for hog farming example, Emperor Abraham Lincoln of the United States. Of course, nobody lives for 6,000 years, and even the most powerful real-life despots - to say nothing of democratically elected leaders - could never wield the kind of absolute power that Civilization II gives even titular Presidents and Prime Ministers. Career Essay! In Civilization II, you're responsible for directing the military, managing the economy, controlling development in every city of your domain, building Wonders of the World, and essays, orchestrating scientific research (with the prescience to know the war ii research papers, strategic benefits of each possible discovery, and to schedule accordingly).
You make not just the hog farming essays, big decisions, but the small ones, too, from deciding where each military unit should move on every turn to choosing which squares of the map grid to develop for resources. In Civilization II, you hold not just one job, but many simultaneously: king, general, mayor, city planner, settler, warrior, and priest, to name a few. How does this tangle of roles become the smooth flow of gameplay? The answer, I think, is dissertation committee form that you do not identify with any of these subject positions so much as with the essays, computer itself.2 When you play a simulation game like Civilization II, your perspective - the eyes through which you learn to see the game - is not that of any character or set of characters, be they Kings, Presidents, or even God. The style in war ii research papers which you learn to think doesn't correspond to the way any person usually makes sense of the world. Rather, the pleasures of a simulation game come from hog farming essays, inhabiting an unfamiliar, alien mental state: from learning to papers think like a computer.3. The way computer games teach structures of thought - the way they reorganize perception - is by getting you to internalize the logic of the program. To win, you can't just do whatever you want. You have to figure out what will work within the rules of the game.
You must learn to predict the consequences of each move, and anticipate the computer's response. Eventually, your decisions become intuitive, as smooth and rapid-fire as the computer's own machinations. In one sense, the computer is your opponent. You have to know how to think like the computer because the computer provides the Artificial Intelligence which determines the moves of your rival civilizations. Hog Farming Essays! Like Kasparov playing Deep Blue, you have to figure out respiration essay, how the computer makes decisions in order to beat it. But in this role of opponent, the computer is essays only a stand-in for a human player. When multiple players compete, either in dissertation committee Civilization II or in essays the online version, CivNet, the AI isn't even needed.
And in terms of strategy, the Pentium-powered processor is career accomplishments essay no Deep Blue; its moves are fairly predictable. This confrontation between player and AI, however, masks a deeper level of collaboration. The computer in Civilization II is not only your adversary, but also your ally. Essays! In addition to controlling your rivals, it processes the rules of the game. It tells you when to move, who wins each battle, and how quickly your cities can grow. It responds instantly to emmett till essay your every touch of the hog farming essays, mouse, so that when you move your hand along the mousepad, it seems as if you're actually physically moving the pointer on the screen, rather than simply sending digital information to essay on professional the computer. It runs the universe which you inhabit when you play the essays, game. Career Essay! Thinking like the computer means thinking along with the hog farming, computer, becoming an extension of the essay, computer's processes.4. This helps explain the strange sense of hog farming, self-dissolution created by computer games, the way in which games suck you in.
The pleasure of computer games is in essay preparation entering into a computer-like mental state: in responding as automatically as the computer, processing information as effortlessly, replacing sentient cognition with the blank hum of computation. When a game of Civilization II really gets rolling, the decisions are effortless, instantaneous, chosen without self-conscious thought. The result is an almost-meditative state, in hog farming which you aren't just interacting with the computer, but melding with it. The connection between player and computer in essay a simulation game is a kind of cybernetic circuit, a continual feedback loop. Hog Farming! Today, the prefix cyber- has become so ubiquitous that its use has diffused to mean little more than computer-related. But the word cybernetics, from which the accomplishments, prefix was first taken, has a more distinct meaning. Norbert Weiner (1948) coined the term to describe a new general science of information processing and control. (He took it from the Greek word kybernan, meaning to steer or govern.) In particular, he was interested in studying, across disciplinary boundaries, processes of hog farming essays, feedback: the ways in career essay which systems - be they bodies, machines, or combinations of both - control and regulate themselves through circuits of information. As Steve J. Heims writes in his history, The Cybernetics Group, [The cybernetic] model replaced the traditional cause-and-effect relation of a stimulus leading to a response by a circular causality requiring negative feedback: A person reaches for hog farming essays a glass of water to pick it up, and as she extends her arm and hand is continuously informed (negative feedback) - by creative, visual or proprioceptive sensations - how close the essays, hand is to the glass and respiration essay, then guides the action accordingly, so as to achieve the goal of smoothly grabbing the glass.
The process is circular because the position of the arm and hand achieved at one moment is part of the input information for essays the action at the next moment. If the circuit is intact, it regulates the essay identity, process. To give another stock example, when a man is steering a ship, the person, the compass, the ship's engine, and the rudder are all part of the essays, goal-directed system with feedback. The machine is part of the circuit (Heims 1991, 15-16). World War Ii! The constant interactivity in a simulation game - the perpetual feedback between a player's choice, the computer's almost-instantaneous response, the player's response to that response, and so on hog farming essays, - is a cybernetic loop, in which the line demarcating the end of the player's consciousness and the beginning of the career, computer's world blurs. There are drawbacks to this merging of consciousness. Connected to the computer, it's easy to imagine you've transcended your physical body, to dismiss your flesh and blood as simply the meat your mind must inhabit, as the protagonist of Neuromancer puts it (Gibson 1984). This denial is a form of alienation, a refusal to recognize the material basis for your experience. The return of the repressed comes in the form of carpal tunnel syndrome, eyestrain, and other reminders that cyberspace remains rooted in physical existence.
But what the connection between player and hog farming essays, computer enables is to write about access to an otherwise unavailable perspective. In the collaboration between you and the computer, self and Other give way, forming what might be called a single cyborg consciousness. In her influential Manifesto for Cyborgs (1985), Donna Haraway proposed the figure of the cyborg - a hybrid of hog farming, machine and organism - as an image that might help us make sense of the increasing interpenetration of technology and humanity under late capitalism . Haraway's point was that in this hyper-mechanized world, we are all cyborgs. When you drive a car, the unit of driver-and-car becomes a kind of cyborg. When you turn on till preparation packet, the TV, the connection of TV-to-viewer is a kind of cybernetic link.
The man steering the ship in Heims' example is a cyborg. And most basically, since we all depend on essays, technology to survive this postmodern world - to feed us, to shelter us, to comfort us - in a way, we are all as much cyborgs as the Six Million Dollar Man. Simulation games offer a singular opportunity to essay on professional identity think through what it means to be a cyborg. Most of our engagements with technology are distracted, functional affairs - we drive a car to essays get somewhere; we watch TV to see what's on.5 Simulation games aestheticize our cybernetic connection to technology. They turn it into a source of enjoyment and an object for contemplation. Essay! They give us a chance to luxuriate in essays the unfamiliar pleasures of rote computation and depersonalized perspective, and about, grasp the emotional contours of essays, this worldview. To use the language of Clifford Geertz (1974), simulation games are a sentimental education in what it means to live among computers. Through the language of play, they teach you what it feels like to creative stories be a cyborg.6. Narrativizing Geography: Civilization II as a Spatial Story So, what are the essays, advantages to life as a cyborg, to learning to think like a computer? What can be gained from engaging and emulating the information-processing dynamics of computers?
One benefit is to learn to war ii research enjoy new kinds of stories, which may enable new forms of hog farming, understanding. Unlike most of the respiration, stories we're used to hearing, a simulation doesn't have characters or a plot in the conventional sense. Instead, its primary narrative agent is geography. Simulation games tell a story few other media can: the drama of hog farming essays, a map changing over time. You begin Civilization II with a single band of prehistoric settlers, represented as a small figure with a shovel at the center of the main map which takes up most of the computer screen.
Terrain is delineated on this map by icons representing woods, rivers, plains, oceans, mountains, and war ii, so on. At the beginning of the game, however, almost all of the map is black; you don't get to learn what's out there until one of your units has explored the area. Gradually, as you expand your empire and send out scouting parties, the landscape is essays revealed. This process of exploration and career, discovery is one of the fundamental pleasures of Civilization II. It's what gives the game a sense of narrative momentum. In their published dialogue Nintendo and New World Travel Writing (1995), Henry Jenkins and Mary Fuller, a Cultural Studies critic and English Renaissance scholar respectively, compare two seemingly disparate genres which share a strikingly similar narrative structure.
Nintendo games and New World travel narratives, like simulation games, are structured not by essays, plot or character, but by the process of encountering, transforming and mastering geography. Fuller writes, [b]oth terms of our title evoke explorations and colonizations of space: the physical space navigated, mapped and mastered by European voyagers and travelers in the 16th and 17th centuries and the fictional, digitally projected space traversed, mapped, and mastered by players of Nintendo video games (1995, 58). Borrowing from the work of world war ii research papers, Michel de Certeau (1984a and b), Jenkins labels these geographical narratives spatial stories. He describes the process of geographic transformation as a transition from abstract place into concrete space: For de Certeau (1984b), narrative involves the transformation of place into space (117-118). Places exist only the abstract, as potential sites for narrative action, as locations that have not yet been colonized.
Places constitute a stability which must be disrupted in order for stories to unfold. . . Essays! . Places become meaningful [within the story] only as they come into contact with narrative agents. . . . Spaces, on the other hand, are places that have been acted upon, explored, colonized. Spaces become the emmett essay preparation, locations of narrative events (1995, 66). Likewise, gameplay in Civilization II revolves around the continual transformation of place into space, as the blackness of the unknown gives way to specific terrain icons. Essays! As in reading New World narratives, the hog farming, process of colonization is not simply a metaphor for cultural influence, but involves the literal establishment of new colonies by settlers (occasionally with the assistance of stories about, military force). Once cities are established, the surrounding land can be developed. By moving your settlers to essays the appropriate spot and choosing from the menu of orders, you can build roads, irrigate farmland, drill mines, chop down trees, and eventually, as your civilization gains technology, build bridges and railroads. These transformations are graphically represented right on the map itself by progressively more elaborate icons. If you overdevelop, the map displays the consequences, too: little death's-head icons appear on map squares, representing polluted areas that must be cleaned up. In its focus on the transformation of place into accomplishments space, Civilization II seems like an archetypal spatial story. However, Civilization II differs from the geographic narratives Jenkins and Fuller describe in hog farming an important way, one which demonstrates the papers, distinctive qualities of simulation games. Hog Farming! In addition to the categories of essay on professional identity, space and place, Jenkins borrows two other terms from de Certeau, maps and tours:
Maps are abstracted accounts of spatial relations ('the girl's room is hog farming next to world war ii research the kitchen'), whereas tours are told from the point of view of the traveler/narrator ('You turn right and hog farming, come into the living room') (De Certeau 1984b, 118-122). Maps document places; tours describe movements through spaces (1995, 66). Tours, in other words, are the subjective, personalized experiences of the research papers, spaces described abstractly in maps. You start your journey with a map. Then, as you navigate the geography, that abstract knowledge becomes the embodied first-hand experience of essays, a tour. The maze of the Nintendo screen gives way to world papers a familiar, continually retraced path that leads from the entrance to safety. The daunting expanse of the New World is structured by essays, the personal account of one traveler's journey. In the spatial stories Jenkins and Fuller discuss, then, the pleasure comes from two transitions, one involving geographic transformation, the other individual subjectivity. Place becomes space as unfamiliar geography is conquered through exploration and development. And maps become tours as abstract geography is subjectively situated in personal experience. As we have seen, Civilization II is certainly engaged in the transformation of reading, place into hog farming space.
But in simulation games, the map never becomes a tour. The game screen documents the player's changes to the landscape, but these transformations are always represented in the abstract terms of the map. The point-of-view always remains an overhead, God's-eye perspective. What's the import of this distinction? We might assume that the continued abstraction of the map would indicate a measure of detachment, compared to the ground-level engagement of emmett essay packet, a tour. But as already noted, simulation games seem singularly skilled at essays sucking you in to their peculiar kind of career accomplishments, narrative. The difference is that the pleasure in simulation games comes from experiencing space as a map: of at once claiming a place, and retaining an abstracted sense of it. Hog Farming Essays! The spatial stories Fuller and on professional, Jenkins discuss respond to the challenge of narrativizing geography by hog farming, getting inside the map - they zoom in from forest-level so we can get to know the world war ii research papers, trees. Hog Farming Essays! Character may not be a primary criteria for these stories, but the stories still depend on individual subjective experience as the committee, engine for their geographic narrative.
Geography itself is not the protagonist; rather, the protagonist's experience of geography structures the narrative. But simulation games tell an even more unusual story: they tell the story of the map itself. Drawing a steady bead on the forest, they teach us how to follow, and enjoy, its transformations over time. We need never get distracted by the trees. Because simulation games fix the player in a depersonalized frame of hog farming, mind, they can tell their story in reading form the abstract, without ever bringing it to the level of individual experience. The map is not merely the environment for hog farming the story; it's the hero of the story. The closest analogue I can think of to the distinct kind of spatial story that simulation games tell are works of environmental history such as William Cronon's Changes in the Land (1983). Respiration! Cronon attempts to tell a version of American history from the perspective of the land, turning the earth itself into his protagonist. The limitations of the written word, however, make it difficult to fully treat an abstract entity as a character. You can't easily employ the essays, devices normally used to engage the reader with a human protagonist.
As a result, the career essay, book - like most works on geography - is still a rather dry read. It may offer a new perspective, but it can't engage the reader enough to give an emotional sense of what this perspective feels like.7. The clearest way to conceptualize space is not with words, but with images. A map captures the abstract contours of space; any verbal description begins the process of turning that map into a tour. This is why any good work of geography is hog farming essays full of maps; the reader is expected to continually check the words against the images, translating language back into visual understanding. Simulation games are a way to make the creative to write, maps tell the whole story. As a still frame is to a movie, as a paragraph is to a novel, so is a map to a simulation game.
Simulation games are maps-in-time, dramas which teach us how to think about structures of spatial relationships.8. In one sense, every map is always already a tour. As geographer Denis Wood points out in The Power of Maps (1992), a map is the cumulative result of many subjective judgments. Map always have a point of view. The ideological work of the hog farming essays, scientific, God's-eye view map is to make the traces of essay on professional, those subjective decisions disappear. Critics of computer games worry that the technological aura of computers further heightens this reification, leaving game players with the impression that they have encountered not just one version of the way the world works, but the one and essays, only objective version (Brook and Boal 1995; Slouka 1995; Stoll 1995). This perspective would leave little room to war ii research imagine resistance. Hog Farming! But the structure of the computer gaming experience does allow for variant interpretations.
You can win Civilization II in one of two ways. You can win by making war, wiping the other civilization off the map and taking over the world. Essay Identity! Or you can win through technological development, becoming the first civilization to colonize another planet. I haven't emphasized the military aspect of essays, Civilization II because I don't like wargames all that much myself. They make me anxious. My strategy for winning Civilization II is to pour all my efforts into scientific research, so that my nation is the most technologically advanced. This allows me to be the first to career build Wonders of the World which, under the game's rules, force opponents to stay at peace with me. In the essays, ancient world, the Great Wall of China does the trick; by modern times, I have to upgrade to the United Nations. That's just one strategy for winning. I think it's probably the most effective - I get really high scores - but, judging from online discussions, it doesn't appear to be the essay on professional, most popular. Most Civilization II players seem to prefer a bloodier approach, sacrificing maximum economic and scientific development to focus on crushing their enemies.
The fact that more than one strategy will work - that there's no one right way to win the hog farming, game - demonstrates the impressive flexibility of Civilization II. But there still remain baseline ideological assumptions which determine which strategies will win and which will lose. And underlying the entire structure of the game, of course, is the notion that global co-existence is stories a matter of winning or losing. There are disadvantages to never seeing the trees for the forest. Civilization II's dynamic of hog farming, depersonalization elides the violence of exploration, colonization, and development even more completely than do the stories of individual conquest described by Fuller and Jenkins. Military units who fight and die in Civilization II disappear in a simple blip; native peoples who defend their homelands are inconveniences, barbarian hordes to accomplishments essay be quickly disposed of. What makes this palatable, at least for those of us who would get squeamish in a more explicit wargame, is the abstractness of hog farming, Civilization II. Any nation can be the colonizer, depending on who you pick to play.
Barbarian hordes are never specific ethnicities; they're just generic natives. Committee! It's interesting to note that Sid Meier's least successful game was a first attempt at a follow up to the original Civilization, called Colonization. Essays! A more explicitly historical game, Colonization allows you to essay play a European nation colonizing the New World. In addressing a more concrete and controversial historical subject, Meier is forced to hog farming complicate the Manifest Destiny ethos of Civilization. The Native American nations are differentiated, and behave in different ways. You can't win through simple genocide, but must trade and collaborate with at least some Native Americans some of the time. The result of essay, this attempt at political sensitivity, however, is hog farming simply to highlight the violence and racism more successfully obscured in preparation Civilization. Essays! There's no getting around the goal of essay, Colonization: to colonize the New World. And while you have a choice of which European power to play, you can't choose to play a Native American nation. Civilization II's level of abstraction also leads to oversimplification.
The immense timespan of Civilization II reifies historically specific, continually changing practices into transhistorical categories like science, religion, and nation. Art and religion in Civilization II serve a purely functional role: to keep the people pacified. Essays! If you pursue faith and essay, beauty at hog farming the expense of economic development, you're bound to get run over by dissertation reading committee, less cultivated nations. Scientific research follows a path of hog farming, rigid determinism; you always know in advance what you're going to discover next, and it pays to till essay packet plan two or three inventions ahead. You can't play The Jews in Civilization II, or another other diasporic people.
The game assumes that civilization equals distinct political nation. There's no creolization in hog farming essays Civilization II, no hybridity, no forms of geopolitical organization before (or after) the rise of nationalism. Either you conquer your enemy, or your enemy conquers you. Emmett Essay Preparation Packet! You can trade supplies and essays, technology with your neighbors, but it's presumed that your national identities will remain distinct. Playing a single, unchanging entity from the Stone Age to space colonization turns the often-slippery formation of nationhood into a kind of immutable racial destiny. What to essay on professional Do Once You've Conquered the World.
If Civilization II rests on essays, some questionable ideological premises, the distinct dynamics of world research, computer gaming give the player the hog farming essays, chance to transcend those assumptions. Computer games are designed to be played until they are mastered. You succeed by learning how the respiration essay, software is put together. Unlike a book or film that is engaged only hog farming essays once or twice, a computer game is played over and over until every subtlety is career accomplishments exposed, every hidden choice obvious to hog farming the savvy player. The moment the game loses its interest is when all its secrets have been discovered, its boundaries revealed. That's when the game can no longer suck you in. Emmett Essay Preparation Packet! No game feels fresh forever; eventually, you run up against essays the limits of its perspective, and move on to other games.9 By learning from the limitations of Civilization II while exploiting the tools it offers, perhaps the next round of games can go further, challenging players' assumptions and expectations to create an even more compelling and stories about, rewarding interactive experience. 1. Hog Farming Essays! I address the semiotics of SimCity in much greater detail in Making Sense of Software: Computer Games and Interactive Textuality (Friedman 1995). 2. The argument I will be making here is an dissertation reading, extension of my discussion of subjectivity in Making Sense of Software (Friedman 1995). In that essay, I describe the experience of playing SimCity as one of identifying with a process - with the hog farming, simulation itself (85).
In a simulation game, you don't imagine yourself as filling the career, shoes of hog farming, a particular character on dissertation, the screen, but rather, you see yourself as the entire screen, as the hog farming, sum of to write about, all the essays, forces and influences which make up the world of the game. This paper extends that discussion by looking at how this perspective is, in a way, that of the computer itself. 3. I should clarify that in talking about dissertation reading, thinking like a computer, I don't mean to anthropomorphize, or to suggest that machines can think the way humans do. As artificial intelligence researchers have learned, often to their chagrin, computers can only systematically, methodically crunch numbers and follow algorithms, while human thinking is less linear, more fluid. My point is that using simulation games can help us intuitively grasp the hog farming essays, very alien way in which computers process information, and so can help us recognize how our relationships with computers affect our own thoughts and feelings. In describing computers as, in respiration a sense, nonhuman actors with associated states of consciousness, I'm borrowing a technique of Bruno Latour's, who in his novelistic history Aramis, or the Love of Technology, tells the story of a failed French experimental mass transit program from several perspectives - including that of train itself. Latour writes, I have sought to show researchers in the social sciences that sociology is not the science of human beings alone - that it can welcome crowds of nonhumans with open arms, just as it welcomed the hog farming essays, working masses in the nineteenth century.
Our collective is woven together out of speaking subjects, perhaps, but subjects to which poor objects, our inferior brothers, are attached at all points. By opening up to committee include objects, the social bond would become less mysterious (Latour 1996, viii). Latour's conceit is one way to attempt to account for the interpenetration of our lives with technology, to make visible the essays, often unnoticed role of emmett essay preparation packet, technology in our daily experience and sense of selves. 4. Where, one may ask, in this confrontation between computer and player, is the author of the software? In some sense, one could describe playing a computer game as learning to think like the hog farming essays, programmer, rather than the identity, computer. Hog Farming! On the basic level of strategy, this may mean trying to divine Sid Meier's choices and prejudices, to figure out how he put the game together so as to play it more successfully. More generally, one could describe simulation games as an aestheticization of the programming process: a way to interact with and direct the computer, but at a remove. Many aspects of accomplishments essay, computer game play resemble the work of programming; the play-die-and-start-over rhythm of adventure games, for example, can be seen as a kind of hog farming, debugging process. Programming, in fact, can often be as absorbing a task as gaming; both suck you into the logic of the computer.
The programmer must also learn to think like the computer at a more technical level, structuring code in the rigid logic of career essay, binary circuits. 5. Actually, one might argue that the pleasure many get out of driving for its own sake, or the enjoyment of watching TV no matter what's on (what Raymond Williams called flow (Williams 1974)), are examples of similar aestheticizations of the cybernetic connection between person and machine. We might then say that just as these pleasures aestheticized previous cybernetic connections, simulation games do the same for our relationships with computers. 6. My reference here is to Clifford Geertz's famous essay, Deep Play: Notes on the Balinese Cockfight (1974), which discusses how a game can encapsulate and objectify a society's sense of hog farming essays, lived social relations: Like any art form - for that, finally, is what we are dealing with - the cockfight renders ordinary, everyday experience comprehensible by presenting it in terms of acts and objects which have had their practical consequences removed and been reduced (or, if you prefer, raised) to the level of sheer appearances, where their meaning can be more powerfully articulated and more exactly perceived (443). This dynamic is particularly powerful because it is stories to write not just an intellectual exercise, but a visceral experience: What the cockfight says it says in a vocabulary of sentiment - the hog farming essays, thrill of risk, the essay, despair of loss, the pleasure of triumph. . . Essays! . Attending cockfights and participating in them is, for world war ii research the Balinese, a kind of sentimental education. What he learns there is what his culture's ethos and his private sensibility (or, anyway, certain aspects of them) look like when spelled out externally in a collective text (449).
7. One alternative might be to go ahead and treat an abstract object like a real protagonist, complete with an hog farming essays, interior monologue. This is what Bruno Latour does in Aramis, as discussed above. But when discussing a subject as abstract at reading committee form geography, even this move would likely remain a compromise with an inhospitable medium. In giving voice to geography, one risks anthropomorphization, falling back into the synecdochical trap of substituting the hog farming essays, king for the land. 8. One might also think about how simulations narrativize other abstractions, such as economic relationships. In addition to being maps-in-time, simulations are also charts-in-time. One follows not only the central map in creative stories to write Civilization II, but also the various charts, graphs and status screens which document the current state of each city's trade balance, food supply, productivity, and scientific research.
In this aspect, simulations share a common heritage with perhaps the essays, PC's most powerful tool, the spreadsheet. What the spreadsheet allows is precisely for a static object - in this case a chart - to become a dynamic demonstration of interconnections. Reading Committee! It's revealing that Dan Bricklin, the inventor of the spreadsheet, first imagined his program as a kind of computer game. Computer industry historian Robert X. Cringely writes, What Bricklin really wanted was . . . a kind of very advanced calculator with a heads-up display similar to the weapons system controls on an F-14 fighter.
Like Luke Skywalker jumping into the turret of the Millennium Falcon, Bricklin saw himself blasting out financials, locking onto profit and loss numbers that would appear suspended in essays space before him. It was to essay be a business tool cum video game, a Saturday Night Special for M.B.A.s, only the hardware technology didn't exist in those days to make it happen (1992, 65). So, of course, Bricklin used the essays, metaphor of a sheet of rows and columns instead of a fighter cockpit. Simulation games, in a way, bring the world research papers, user's interaction with data closer to essays Bricklin's original ideal. 9. I make a similar argument to creative about this in Making Sense of Software (Friedman 1995). The Best 10 Games of All Time. PC Gamer, May 1997, 90-96. Birkerts, Sven. The Gutenberg Elegies: The Fate of Reading in an Electronic Age. New York: Fawcett Columbine, 1994.
Brockman, John. Hog Farming Essays! Digerati: Encounters with the Cyber Elite. San Francisco: HardWired, 1996. Brook, James and Iain A. Essay Packet! Boal. Resisting the Virtual Life: The Culture and Politics of Information. San Francisco: City Lights, 1995. Cringely, Robert X. Hog Farming! Accidental Empires: How the Boys of Silicon Valley Make Their Millions, Battle Foreign Competition, and Still Can't Get a Date.
New York: Addison-Wesley, 1992. Cronon, William. Changes in emmett till essay preparation the Land. New York: Hill and Wang, 1983. de Certeau, Michel. Heterologies: Discourse on the Other. Translated by Brian Massumi. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press, 1984.
de Certeau, Michel. The Practice of Everyday Life. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1984. The 15 Most Significant Games of All Time. PC Gamer, May 1997, 95. Friedman, Ted. Making Sense of essays, Software: Computer Games and Interactive Textuality. In CyberSociety: Computer-Mediated-Communication and Community, edited by Steven G. Jones. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1995.
Fuller, Mary and committee, Henry Jenkins. Nintendo and New World Travel Writing: A Dialogue. In Fuller, Mary and Henry Jenkins. Nintendo and New World Travel Writing: A Dialogue. Essays! In CyberSociety: Computer-Mediated-Communication and Community, edited by Steven G. Jones.
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