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ase Study 2: Application Architecture You have been tasked with build

ase Study 2: Application Architecture You have been tasked with building a payroll program for a large organization with offices

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Payroll research paper

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Best Resume Formats 47+ Free Samples, Examples, Format Download! A Resume Template is an extremely important document which is research, used in middle the case when a person or an applicant is paper, applying for a job, a volunteership, an internship, an educational course or any other thing. The resume lists down the truman scholarship essay questions, various details about the candidate such as his/her name, address, phone number, email address, academic details, work experience, skills and research paper qualities etc. Unlock A Great Career Ahead With A Perfect Resume. Your resume is your primary representative in the career world. Whether you are about to kick-start your career fresh out of your grad or planning a job change, a resume is always needed when you are applying for employment.

It’s the first thing that your prospective employer will see about you and hence your CV has this duty to present you in twain the best possible light. 44 Modern Resume Templates Bundle for $69. Stunning Resume Template Bundle for Job seekers $30. Modern Resume / CV Templates Bundle. Latest Chartered Accountant Resume Word Format Free Download. Payroll! This resume template is one of the essay, best options which you can easily download and research customize to recreate an Accountant’s resume. If you’re a job-applicant for an accountancy job position, this easily customizable resume template is your best bet! Regardless of whether you’re experienced or a fresher, this template has ample space available to let accommodate all details.

It’s an edgy sample professional resume template that could be customized for holocaust survivor, any profession. Payroll Research Paper! The column structure helps you to separate the work related details from the contact data in a precise manner. This booklet style sample professional portfolio resume format renders a state of the art appeal that is sure to catch the essay survivor, fancy of your potential employers. You will love the payroll paper, customizable columns. Professional Portfolio Resume Format Template Download. If you are looking for a true professional resume format, this portfolio template would be right for you with its neat clean segregation of all the written, major pointers of your resume.

If you are looking for a minimalist cv format, this Swiss style resume would be handy with its sleek contemporary design- offering a simple yet smart look for all the major sections in your CV. There are two Resume optional pages. Sample Resume Format Template Download. You are getting a bright editable resume format here with beautiful distribution of colors against payroll research paper a white background. The scale graph for the skills surely offers an gp essays on education heightens edgy touch to the overall resume. If you need ideas on a resume cover letter format, this art director resume cover letter would provide some idea on the arrangement. You are also getting a resume and portfolio template here. Creative Resume Format Download Free. Payroll Research! The most interesting bit of the on education heightens inequality, downloadable resume is the “Quick Facts” section that offers a sneak peek on your great abilities as soon as one starts with your resume. It follows a neat format overall with separate sections for education, experience, skills interests. Professional Graphic Designer Resume Format.

If you are looking for a curriculum vitae format that will you to detail on payroll, the profile section, this one would be handy for essay holocaust, you. The right side is about your career summary and major projects handled while the space below is for payroll research paper, your skills. Truman Questions! InfoGraphic Style Resume Format Download. If you are looking for cutting edge resume format examples, this Infographic-style resume would be a grand one for you to detail your profile. It has also used funky scale-o-meters for your skills. Swiss Resume PSD Format Template Download. Payroll Research! When you need ideas on experience resume format, this resume here would be great with its elaborate space to note your prolonged career summary. The right side is about your personal information and skills. Modern Resume Format Free Download. Holocaust Survivor! If you are planning a contemporary resume format download, this modern resume template has got the answer for research paper, you. It allows you to detail about space homework, your profile at paper, left followed by contact information while the right side is about skills, experiences achievements.

Business Format Resume Template Download. Here comes a basic resume format for any business or freelancing activities that you are in. It begins with your picture, profile and essays twain personal information at the left while the right is about your education, work experience skills. 4 Set Creative #038; Professional Resume Formats. Research Paper! You are getting a set of essay holocaust survivor as many 4 true professional and creative resume models where you can include a pie-chart instead of text to talk about payroll research, your skills. The overall template follows a very urbane feel. The red white combination looks classy and the printable resume here does a smart job by creating enclosed box-headings for scholarship essay, each of the payroll research, sections. It allows you to include several fields to ensure a comprehensive view on your abilities. Designer Resume Photoshop Format Template Download. You have here a catchy resume format free download for designer resumes where you have both cover letter and portfolio along with the resume. All of space homework them have followed a neat contemporary look.

SAP FI Module Resume Format Template. This mba resume format follows a simple yet functional approach without much ornamentation and speaks right to the point- with highlights on research, only the major pointers like SAP skills professional experience. Sample Designer Resume Format Template. If you are looking for a simple resume format for scholarship questions, your designer resume, this minimalist resume here would be handy for you. It just states your profile and research paper the prolonged career summary- the most important thing of your resume. Btech Freshers Resume Format Template. Truman! Banking Investment Resume Format Template. Construction Project Manager Resume Format. BPO Call Centre Resume Template Format. SAP Consultant Resume Template Word Format Free Download. Payroll Research Paper! Administrative Assistant Resume Format Free Download.

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Full Biodata Resume Format Download. 1 Year Experience Resume Format free Download. Resume or Curriculum Vitae Writing Proforma Format. Example of cheat Student Resume Format Download. Payroll! A resume format is usually chronological but over definition school time functional and combination resume formats have emerged as well. Here is a brief on all the 3 formats. It’s the traditional resume format where employment history is listed in the reverse order- commencing with the current one to the oldest or first job. The tried tested format is payroll research, a favorite of the HR professionals hiring managers all around. The chronological format will allow the candidate to showcase his upward mobility in the career. It would be useful for specialist mid-level applicants.

You must follow the chronological resume when. You have to portray a vertical progression in your career You more or less had a consistent career with no such big work-experience gaps in between You are planning a change of company but in similar trade. The functional resume format focuses mostly on truman scholarship questions, the skills of the applicant rather than his work experiences. Unlike the conventional chronological format, this one ignores when where the applicant performed or learned those skills. It’s the payroll paper, fact that the on education, candidate holds those skills relevant to the specific job opening, is paper, highlighted in the functional format.

The functional format would be useful for gp essays on education inequality, you when- You need to create a Fresher Resume Format Templates with no previous work experience but when you are confident about your skills You have big gaps in your career history You are looking forward to promote a particular skill set. As the payroll paper, name suggests, combination resume focuses on a fusion of the traditional chronological functional resumes. Such a resume would usually start with professional profile/summary of qualifications which will include your skills, abilities achievements that are pertinent to the specific job opening you are applying for- it’s for space homework, the functional side. The introductory section would be followed by payroll paper job experience, education (B.E) additional related sections in the reverse chronological format. Such a resume would be great when- You are looking forward to highlight a well-developed relevant skill set You have mastered your art You are planning a switch to another industry. For example, let’s say you are working as an investment banker but you are really good at cartoons or conceptual sketching- such artistic skills would be a wealth for advertising industry in case you are planning to turn your hobbies into your profession. Formatting a resume is no rocket science but you have to be really strategic with the overall planning. As mentioned earlier, the traditional chronological approach is relevant when you are proud of the essays written by mark, upward mobility that you have attained in your career. If you are a person with huge or at paper, least some professional experience in your industry- the chronological style would be the proper resume format for you.

The best resume format for a functional resume strategically groups the key skills abilities of the candidate in various categories to explain his eligibility expertise for some particular job. The skill-based focus will enable you to pull the prospective employer’s attention on your strength which would in turn divert the focus from your absent or flawed employment record. For example, let’s say you are applying for the position of a sales manager in a MNC with an international market- and in such a case your functional resume would stress on categories with headings like “team building leadership expertise”, “fluency in foreign languages” etc. In some of cases, the functional resume is completely devoid of the employment history. Even if it is mentioned, it appears at the very bottom of the resume or in the next page to de-stress on gp essays on education, its importance. Payroll! When you are planning a combination resume , you have to commence with your key qualifications skills. You can include your career objective, expertise, accomplishments pertinent training relevant to the job application here. The strategy here is to fill up 80-85% of your resume with your skills talents and the rest 15-20 percent would be about your career history.

Unlike the functional resume, you cannot omit your career history here. Make sure it’s easy to scholarship essay questions, read Use bullet points and research adequate spacing- single spacing when you are writing about space homework, your skills under same category and double-spacing before the start of research another category. Use contextual keywords relevant to on your, your job position industry. Research Paper! Use formal fonts and the font size should be 14 for headings and 12 for the rest. You must use strong verbs such as “managed”, “handled”, “led”, “administered”, “charted” etc. Begin the resume with summary sentence so that the hiring manager can have a blue-print of your skills abilities at essays, a glance.

Include personal accomplishments if they are pertinent to the relevant job opening. Payroll Paper! Focus on quantifiable accomplishments include facts figures. No grammar mistake or typo error is allowed in your resume. Don’t use generic words like hardworking or confident- rather use “efficient at handling big teams for crucial projects”. Don’t use informal email ids in thesis definition school contact details. Don’t use chronological resume when you have big gaps in your career. Don’t include irrelevant personal hobbies. Research! No lengthy resume. Scholarship Essay Questions! Don’t lie in your resume and research be honest. When you are looking for best resume format examples, we at on your, are ready to help you with your expert-designed resumes- whether you need a chronological one or a functional one or a combination resume.

Ceative Resume Templates must be drafted using a formal format and research paper a professional tone but it may not be possible for everyone to get it right. Thus one can make use of a resume format. Statement Definition Middle! A resume format is a detailed layout and format of paper a resume which can be used by those who are confused about the format of such a formal document. A resume format is divided into sections and truman scholarship categories in research the exact same way as needed in a resume. It gives the holocaust, users a reference point of view and payroll paper idea of how a professional Resume Templates must look like. Resume formats may also be provided with the holocaust survivor, main headings like personal details, academic details, professional experience etc. for payroll paper, better use and reference of the users. What makes a resume format the best resume format is the manner in which it is scholarship essay, drafted or framed and how much convenience it offers to the user. It must be time saving for the user to use and customize and should also be self-explanatory. The following are some of the contents of a resume format which truly make it ‘best’: What is the payroll paper, format of a CV?(100 Words) When it comes to space homework, CV, it has to be professional. There are different types of CV possible depending on the purpose of its use and the expectation of the targeted audiences. Similarly, different types of CVs will have different formats.

For example, CV for applying in an IT firm would be different from a CV to payroll research paper, apply for a marketing company. On Your! Instead of research taking the space homework, risk of designing CV format yourself, it is better to payroll paper, download for sample CV collection. For example, if you download marketing resume collection, you will get a lot of Marketing Resume Format Templates and you can choose the space homework, best one that appeals to you and fill in payroll research the details to send it out. What kind of Resume Should I use?(100 Words) Basically, there are four types of essay resume available. They are chronological, functional, combinational and targeted. Chronological resumes are most commonly used as it represents the data sequentially for the employers to find them easily at the very first glance. In case you have some lapse in your work and payroll research paper study, then it is better to use a functional resume to cover it up skillfully. Combinational resume must be used when you are very experienced and your work history matters more than basic data. Targeted resumes are most effective and essay survivor you need to spend more time preparing it. Download some Basic Resume Format Templates and some samples to make a perfect resume yourself. Which Format do Most Employers Prefer for Resumes?

Depending on the job requirement, different employers prefer different resume formats. If the job requirement is for freshers only, employers would like to receive chronological resumes as the data and information about the candidate would be sequentially and it would be easy to locate required information easily. But in the case of hiring experienced professionals, employers prefer to payroll research, have functional resumes where experience and twain skills get the payroll research, priority. But in general, employers prefer chronological resume format. Therefore, you need to download different formats like IT Resume Format Templates to apply in IT firm and then based on the job requirements, you have to form the resume that the employers would prefer the gp essays on education, most.

To write a resume, you have to collect all the required data and information about you in one place. Then you have to download some sample resumes and payroll paper resume templates as per the purpose of the resume. Definition Middle School! For example, if you are applying in an IT firm, you should download IT resumes or if you are applying for a post of HR, you should download HR Resume Format Templates. After downloading them, open them and start filling the details. If there are any unnecessary headings that do not match your profile, you have to omit and delete them.

You should refer to sample resume for checking out how exactly to fill the data and information to look impressive. what are two of the Most Popular Resume Formats. Out of the paper, four different types of resumes we listed above, chronological and truman scholarship essay questions functional are the most popular resume formats. Research Paper! Chronological resume formats are popular among freshers or those who have light experience of a couple of years. On the other hand, functional resumes are popular among experienced professionals with at least experience of working in two and more companies. Freshers can also use it in case the candidate has diverse skills and has done many internships in the past. There are multiple formats available in these two categories and one should download freshers and how to on your Experienced Resume Format Templates to payroll research, have different variations to twain, choose from.

A chronological resume is the most used resumes in the world. In a chronological resume, everything is paper, listed from the recent to holocaust, the earliest format. For example, in academic background, your university degree would come first, followed by the college degree and then at last school qualification. Similarly, in work experience, your recent work would be listed and in the end, you can have your internships. This is the most preferred Writer Resumes format by research paper the employers as it is easy for essay, them to get a snapshot of everything very quickly in their mind.

There are various types of chronological formats available and you should download freshers resume format templates to get all the variations and choose the best.

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HSC Ancient History Part 1: Core Study – Cities of Vesuvius – Pompeii and Herculaneum. Situated in the Gulf of Naples in the Campania region and located between the payroll paper ports of Misenum and Stabiae. Was a seaside town located north of Vesuvius. Fresco from a household shrine in the House of the Centenary entitled “Bacchus and how to on your Mt Vesuvius” Vesuvius a symbolises fertility (fertile land) and wine (as evidenced by the grapes) as Bacchus is the god of fertility and wine. Snake is a further symbol of research, fertility as we can view it as a phallic symbol The olive leaves symbolise agriculture The bird symbolises nature Thus, the fresco reveals information about the geographical resources of Pompeii and thesis statement school Herculaneum as well as giving a brief insight into some religious views.

Pliny the Elder, Natural History. “A region blessed by fortune” “warm springs” “shellfish” “Gods of wine and grain” “fine harvest” “nowhere do olives produce more oil” “shaded with green vines” “famed grapes filled the dripping vats” “[Herculaneum] was made glorious by payroll research the name of Hercules” b. Plans and streetscapes of Pompeii and Herculaneum. The town of Pompeii covered an how to on your, area of research paper, 66 ha surrounded by defensive walls. It is irregularly shaped and built on terrain that slopes from 10 meters up to 40 meters above sea level. Over time, four main areas were developed that were heavily influenced by space homework the Greek principles of urban planning: The forum The insulae or blocks fronting the Via Stabiana Region VI The eastern area The earlier areas were those developed around the Forum and Via Stabiana insulae The grid pattern, developed in paper other Roman towns, was not precisely applied to Pompeii. The Greek influence can be seen in the regular layout of the streets and roads and divided the towns into insulae The blocks varied in how to cheat on your size from 850 – 5500 m 2 Some contained only one house while others contained a dozen or more. Herculaneum followed the classical layout of research, Greek towns with narrow straight streets that divide the town into insulae. Walls The fortifications of Pompeii are its walls that surround and enclose the city with a perimeter of 3.2 kms.

The walls have been restored a nd reconstructed on numerous occasions due to the effect of homework, military battles that effected the city. Seven gates open in the walls and many speculate the existence of an eighth “Porta Capua”. Herculaneum had a sea wall, with large vaulted chambers for boats. The oldest circle of wall dates back to the 6th Century BC and was made from blacks of lava and a malleable volcanic stone. By the first half of the payroll research paper 5th century BC a new town had replaced the old one. Thesis Statement! The new fortification (possibly due to Greek influence) was constructed by a double parallel ring of walls.

Around the paper end of the homework 4th century BC,. Payroll Research! The old fortifications were partially replaced by thesis statement a new one built on approximately the same line as the previous one and made of square blocks of sarno limestone. The main reason for the restructuring of the fortifications was the need to prepare the city against the incursions of the Carthaginans led by payroll research paper Hannibal (218-201 BC) The single ring of walls was replaced by a double ring with a new wall in tuff from Norcea, built on the embankment, while the external ring was increased in height. Between the two rings of scholarship, wall, a communication patrol trench was created, accessible by means of special ‘sloping steps’ , still partially visible in the section of fortifications near the Porta Ercolano Gate. The last intervention on the walls was undertaken around the period of the Social Wars (late 2nd regular intervals, and payroll research paper covered in fake marble blocks of essays by mark, plaster as in the early style. The quadrangular towers had two access points: one from the base on the inside of the ring of walls and one from above the patrol trench. Payroll Paper! Gates City gates were positioned at the end of the main thoroughfares The most impressive examples of Gates at holocaust survivor, Pompeii are the Marine Gate and the Herculaneum Gate Streets Streets in Pompeii are extremely varied, some built with solid Roman engineering and underlain with water conduits; some dirt paths; some wide enough for two carts to pass; some alleys barely wide enough for payroll paper, pedestrian traffic. There are many different names for the dissimilar types of streets in both Herculaneum and Pompeii.

The main highway that leads from Pompeii’s main gate is call the Via dell’Abbandanza. The Via dell’Abbandanza is one of the main Decumani running the essay holocaust length of the town, east to research paper, west. The Cardines run north to south, both meet at right angles. Roads The Pompeian road network is- in itself- a reflection of the nascent origins and development of the city. Emanating from the forum, the streets of early Pompeii are not geometrically aligned , however later Pompeian districts have a more organized infrastructural road system containing main axial highways “decumani” which are perpendicularly crossed by minor streets known as “cardini” giving rise to isolated blocks “insulae”- such are occupied by more than one house, or in some circumstances a single house or public building. Pompeian roads are comprised by a carriage way, paved with large, polygonal blocks of basalt, edged by pavement generally higher than the road itself. The roads were reinforced by kerbs made of thesis statement middle, lava, limestone or tuff – some of which preserve the marks of Oscan stonecutters. Another observation that can be made from payroll research paper Pompeian roads is the logically placed holes on the edge of definition, pavements, thought to hold posts which support street stalls or sunblinds, and in some instances are hypothesized to transport animals.

In order to facilitate pedestrian crossing and to protect their feet from rainwater and research paper sewage which flow through the carriageway, there are ovoid shaped stepping stones placed between two pavements which were made from the same materials as the road surface, and were generally needed in areas close to entrances of buildings. Traffic Situation There are deep grooved marks in essays twain the streets of Pompeii due to the heavy volume of traffic that use the streets, both pedestrians and wheeled carts. Payroll! Herculaneum- the traffic is essentially non-existent. Thesis Statement Middle School! Drainage With the exception of the forum- Pompeii has no drainage network, causing the dirty runoff and sewage to run into the streets. However, the streets are built on an incline and the water flows out of the city towards open outlets at payroll paper, the foot of the how to homework city walls. There are large slabs of larva on the streets allowing pedestrians to cross the payroll paper road in a civilized manner and not step in how to sewage or run off from rain. Herculaneum has a more advanced and adequate sewage system.

Street Wolves The streets of Pompeii are sometimes a dangerous place for the youth. Street wolves are notorious in Pompeii, they were predators who sometimes molester the pedestrians. The youth to wear a purple stripe on their robes to identify those too young for incarceration. Payroll Research Paper! Lighting at written twain, Night The Pompeians used lamps of terracotta, bronze, iron, glass or even gold for lighting the most common type being a container of oil which was lit with fire, with a neck from which the payroll research wick emerged for essays written by mark, the light, a hike for the fuel and a handle for holding the lamp. Payroll Research Paper! The lamps are often decorated various planets, gladiatorial contests, horse races, erotic scenes, theatrical masks, animals and plants. Candle sticks are also a popular form of lighting often bronze with a long neck. Because of the cost of definition school, bronze the candle sticks were are an important element of the home, used on payroll research mental pieces and in the dining room. The lamps are used in all forms of life, streets, theatres and public baths.

Fountains The public water fountains- nymphea- flow day and night for by mark twain, the consumption of the public, however some do have taps to payroll research paper, regulate the flow. Survivor! Public water fountains are conveniently located at research paper, many street corners – meeting the needs of the population. The fountains have been strategically placed about 70 meters apart so that the citizens can always count on space homework a supply of water near their homes. There are roughly 40 fountains in research paper Pompeii and essay holocaust survivor they vary little in form. The fountains they have a rectangular basin made of four stone slabs usually lava, joined by iron cramps. Paper! Water is transported by a lead pipe and gushes out of cheat on your homework, a decorative spout. The town’s water supply is brought from the springs of the Acquaro River by payroll research paper the Serinum aqueduct and the water is then distributed from the castellum aquae (water tower) situated at the highest point in the town near the Vesuvian Gate. The water pressure is made through a downward flow through the underground pipe leading all through town, the public bath houses are a prime example. The water supply also allows more wealthy patrons to access a private water supply. 2. The nature of sources and evidence.

Pliny the how to cheat on your homework Younger: Two letters , written 25 yrs after the eruption, to Historian Tacitus, describing the events that took place, his Uncle’s death, and his personal reaction to the eruption. Geological evidence supports his account as well as its corroboration with modern historians. However accounts are limited to Misenum and Stabiae rather than Pompeii and Herculaneum He himself acknowledges his limitations as he states “for it is one thing to paper, write a letter, another to gp essays on education inequality, write history.” Vitruvius 1 st Century Architect, Manual on Architecture “Of Architecture” Limitations: 27 AD, his depiction of Greek and Roman houses did not always correspond to archeological evidence Bias towards some paintings as he didn’t like the contemporary styles Writes mostly about houses: “the houses of bankers and farmers of the revenue should be more spacious and imposing and safe from burglars” “Advocates and professors of rhetoric should be housed with distinction, and in sufficient space to paper, accommodate their audiences” Pliny the Elder 37 books in his “Natural History” He is gp essays heightens inequality, deemed reliable as he is the only ancient writer to cite his sources Limitations: his work is known to be contradictory, uncritical and payroll paper uneven. Scholarship Questions! Writes descriptions of the payroll research Campania region: “A region bessed by fortune” “warm springs” “shellfish” “Gods of wine and grain” “fine harvest” “nowhere do olives produce more oil” Cassius Dio Writes in his “History of Rome” Details of the eruption: “all the while an inconceivable quantity of ash was being blown out; it covered both sea and land and filled all the air” “people fled, some from essay questions their houses into the streets, others from outside indoors” Martial A poet, writes in his “Epigram” Details the effects of the eruption: “It all lies buried by payroll research paper flames and essay holocaust mournful ash” Strabo Writes about Geographical issues in his “Geography” “This area appears to have been on research paper fire” Seneca Writes in his “Naturales Questiones” Describes the Earthquake in 62 AD “That devastated Campania” and “a flock of 600 sheep perished” Mostly archaeological evidence Herculaneum was skeletons (preserved under 20 meters of ash) At Pompeii, plaster casts were found from hollows left by organic material which rotted. Carbonisation is the process of organic material transforming into carbon (coal) Archaological based evidence means a greater reliability- less bias Limitations lie within the excavation process which entails both the disruption of evidence and the loss of evidence; thus not providing a full picture. Human Remains House of Meander 3 Children, hoe and thesis statement pick found on one side 10, mainly adult, bodies intertwined on the other side Demonstrates the force of the pyroclastic surge. Bronze lantern indicates the material available Ring Lady Found on the beach in Herculaneum apossible attempted escapee from the eruption 46 years old Gave birth to approximately 2-3 children Questioning over the rings and payroll research paper jewelry that it possibly had not originated from there Useful to understand how victims died from asphyxiation as extrapolated from the cowering body position Also useful to understand that most people ran to the beach Soldier 36 year old male found in Herculaneum 175cm a very tall for on education, the time Stab wound in research thigh ademonstrates occupation as a soldier Every bone broken except for gp essays heightens, inner ear a demonstrates strength of pyroclastic surges Animal Remains Dog Found in paper Pompeii Body position that is convulsing shows the strength of the pyroclastic flow Demonstrates security in Pompeii a people had dogs as guards a corroborated by a mosaic on the floor of the House of the Tragic Poet with the inscription “cave canem” or “ beware of the dog” Fish Found in Herculaneum latrine pit Show the prevalence of seafood and the fishing industry Mule Found in written twain a Pompeian bakery Suggests their use for labour in daily tasks such as winding a mill Thus allows one to extrapolate the payroll research contextual technology (or lack thereof) Horse Found in the Villa of Papyri in Herculaneum Horses used as domestic animals for people of high status Plant Remains Identified plants from plaster casts of definition, roots Carbonised materials of 26 plants Grapes 2400 vine root holes found Presence of research, grapes is essays written twain, corroborated by ancient writings and multiple frescoes Olives Carbonised whole fruit found within walls a importance within daily life Presence of olive presses- method of extracting the oil Gardens Different types of plants indicate social status Able to recreate gardens and vegetables used in everyday life. Incidental writings including: Graffiti An art form or a way of communication, as opposed to the contemporary view that it is defacement It was engraved using “stylus, iron nail, wooden splinter or tooth pick” M. Grant “Cheers! We drink like wineskins” “Sauvis demands full wine jars please, his thirst is enormous” Useful in showing Historians the opinions and thoughts of people of all classes as well as detailing information about the mundane It is highly reliable as it is spontaneously written by citizens and not intended for historiographical purposes.

Shopping lists Written on the walls of households, mainly in research paper the culina Useful for showing everyday life as well as the resources/food available and thesis middle school consumed by families Political Campaigning Written on the walls and gates of Pompeii in support of citizens who were either running in the election or the payroll paper current politicians Shows local aristocracy of the city, democracy, need for power Gladiatorial programs or edicta munerum Talk of essays written, favourite gladiators and comments on important battles Gladiatorial programs could also be found throughout the payroll research streets of Pompeii and Herculaneum Reveal the entertainment and leisure activities of the city One example, contains a victory carved on a city wall This suggests that the essays by mark culture was not only interested in the sport of the game but actively invested themselves into the promotion and support of the game It is useful to research paper, reveal daily activities of Pompeians; specifically to truman questions, a historian studying cultural values and anthropology Tombstone Inscriptions People who could not afford cremation would be buried with a tombstone displaying their funerary inscriptions Useful for showing religious customs and burial practices. Advertisements Inscribed on the city walls throughout Pompeii and Herculaneum; essentially anyone could select a random location and illustrate their ad for the community to research, see, however it was unlikely that advertising would be found on the facades of private housing An example includes “In the property of Julia Felix, daughter of Spurius, elegant thermal baths for refined people, shop with lodgings above and apartments on the first floor to let for inequality, five years” Inscriptions Writing on research the city walls was a prominent form of written communication Wallace-Hadrill “The vibrating humanity of the city still echoes with a thousand voices in every corner that is disinterred” Decorative Arts: Mosaics and Frescoes. Frescoes , as derived from the great Hellenistic pictorial schools, are paintings on either wet or dry fresh lime plaster so that the pigments are absorbed into the layers of the plaster. Usually frescos appeared on space homework internal or external walls and incorporated pictures and designs. Due to their detail, mystery and payroll beauty they have become prominent sources from Pompeii and Herculaneum and are categorised according to statement middle school, the four Pompeian styles (A system coined by August Mau in 1882) Structural Architectural Fantastic Ornamental Mosaics, are pictures or decorations made of different coloured pieces of research paper, stone, glass or other material, inlaid to form a simply or elaborate design. Usually mosaics appeared on gp essays heightens inequality the floor either inside or outside. Due to payroll paper, their intricate design and written by mark twain beauty they have become famous sources from Pompeii and Herculaneum. Cicero “Generally speaking, one tries to research, imitate the ways of the illustrious people” Wallace Hadrill “the decoration allowed the holocaust visitor a social orientation. It helped steer them within the house guiding them round the internal hierarchies of social space” Lessing “veritable outdoor art galleries” Mosaic on the entrance of the payroll paper House of the Tragic Poet with the inscription “cave canem” or “beware of the dog”. The mosaic depicts an interpretation of Cerberus, the fierce 3 headed dog that guards the gates of Hell in Greek mythology.

Many Roman Arts had a Greek, Hellenistic influence indicating trade, social class as well as education. Fresco Praedia of space homework, Julia Felix, is one of a unique set that depicts the busy daily life of payroll paper, Pompeii, including market stalls, an how to, open air school, conversation, and a beggar receiving alms from a lady with her maid. Julia Felix was a very wealthy Roman woman; a very successful and well known businesswoman, property owner and public figure in Pompeii. One of the reasons she may have had artworks of the middle class life in her extravagant villa is research paper, due to on your, her familial connections to Imperial freedmen, or her frequent dealings with middle class citizens. Mosaic, found in the triclinium in the House of the Faun, depicts the Greek God Dionysus (Roman counterpart Bacchus) as a child, riding a tiger. Research Paper! This enforces the Hellenistic influence on Roman religion and definition middle school artwork. The masks depicted in the border around echo from Greek theatre, and payroll research paper the tiled waves are of a very Greek structure, and imply the importance of the sea to the Pompeians; combined with a depiction of the truman scholarship essay questions god of fertility, serve to purport how big and valuable the fishing industry was to them. This mosaic, along with the many other Dionysian depictions found in the House of the Faun, also serve to suggest the owner being a strong adherent to payroll paper, the Dionysus/Bacchus cult. Fresco found in essays twain the Villa of the Mysteries, depicts the payroll paper reading of the rituals of the bridal mysteries, to middle school, gain entry into research the cult.

The Villa of the Mysteries is named after the frescoes found in the Triclinium of the house; of by mark, which the subjects are hotly debated; one interpretation h suggests that the room was the headquarters for a secret Dionysian cult, for payroll, women, that required specific rites and rituals in essays written by mark order to research, gain entry. Another interpretation is that of Paul Veyne, who believes it to by mark, depict the bridal rites for young Pompeian women. Despite confirmation of the real interpretation, we can extrapolate the importance and most possible presence of religious rites and its significance in Pompeian life. Ampitheatre- open circular or oval building with a central space for the presentation of payroll research paper, dramatic or sporting events surrounded by tiers of seats for spectators. An inscription reveals that it was built by two local officials Quinctius Valgus and Marcius Porcius at a private expense The ampitheatre was used for gladiatorial games Tacitus “The people of Pompeii, where the show was held, came off best” as they enjoyed witnessing such games A riot occurred in 59AD, destroying much evidence, as spectators from Pompeii and the nearby town of scholarship essay questions, Nuceria fought with each other, with the result that the research Emperor Nero banned games at Pompeii for 10 years Tacitus “The senate debarred Pompeii from holding any similar gathering for ten years” “The amphitheater was located in the eastern part of town, positioned against the embankment that filled this corner of the city wall, the towers of which can be seen in the background. A section of the awnings (velarium) that protected against the sun also is essays by mark, visible, the masts of paper, which were fitted through stone corbels attached to the rear wall of the summa cavea” Ada Gabucci Palaestra- wrestling school or gymnasium Palaestra is highly valued by the Romans as it is cheat homework, a significant part of the Greek athletic tradition. A small palaestra was built in the 2 nd Century BC, however later more than a ha was cleared to build a larger palaestra near the ampitheatre. According to Zanker it was “140 by 130 meters in area, 100 Iconic- Corinthian columns in a three sided portico, shaded by a row of trees and used to practice athletics and excersise” It also contained a “large swimming pool that must have certainly been welcome in the summer” (Zanker) Graffiti also evidences the variety of games that existed there Palaestra also served a political purpose as according to Cassius Dio the collegia juvenum were paid for by state to teach youth military discipline and loyalty to emperor in the Palaestra Temples- a building devoted to the worship of deities Temple of Isis Part of the notorious cult of Isis Egyptian influence The building consists of a large rectangular space marked off by payroll walls, within which is the space homework cella of the god raised up on payroll research a pedestal and standing in a splendid niche.

Of interest and great elegance is the small temple – with its plaster decorations – situated in the peristyle and scholarship questions used for the preservation of the Nile water considered to be holy by the members of the cult of the Egyptian goddess Isis. Adjacent to the temple there is also a space to payroll research, accommodate the written by mark twain priests’ houses and for the meeting of the faithful. Temple of Jupiter or Capitolium Centre of Religious life in payroll research paper Pompeii and heightens dates back to the 2 nd Century BC Situated on the northern side of the Forum, it is dedicated to the highest divinity of ancient times – actually it was built in honour of the Jupter, Juno and Minerva triad – and towers above a wide staircase with two large arches either side which have remained virtually intact. In a spectacular manner it closed off the fourth side of the square where there was no colonnade Temple of Apollo Integral part of the Forum even though it predates it It goes back to the Samnite period of the 6 th Century The building shows architectural features of both italic and Greek derivation and has a rectangular plan with the perimeter being surrounded by an astonishing 48 columns. The inner cella, raised on a podium, was reached by means of a long flight of steps. Opposite these was the sacrificial altar. The central part, which contains the altar to the god, is also surrounded by columns.

It is adorned with two statues depicting “Apollo shooting arrows” and “Diana” (the originals are housed in the National Archaeological Museum in payroll research paper Naples). On one of the space homework columns which mark off the cella of the god there was a sundial. b. The limitations, reliability and evaluation of payroll paper, sources. No content – all skills section. c. Middle School! The evidence provided by the sources from payroll Pompeii and essays written Herculaneum. 62 AD earthquake: killed 600 Sheep, only warning sign. 79 AD eruption of Mount Vesuvius. Pliny the Younger’s Account of the Eruption and the Death of his Uncle. At the time of the eruption, Pliny the Elder was with Pliny the Younger were at Misenum, however, Pliny the Elder commanded a fleet that sailed to Stabiae to assist with the damage Pliny the Younger recounts the payroll research early stage of the eruption, later known as the space homework ‘Plinean stage’ Pliny the Younger in his letters to payroll research, Tacitus writes that the how to on your homework only warning signs were tremors in the days prior to the eruption, however this was seen “less alarming because frequent in payroll research Campania” (Pliny the Younger) The first sign was “a cloud of unusual size and form” Pliny the Younger Limitations of Pliny the Younger’s account include the truman scholarship essay questions fact that he wrote 25 years after the payroll research paper eruption in the form of two letters to his friend Tacitus.

Some events are also exaggerated as well as the significant omission of the date of the eruption. However, Pliny the Younger acknowledges these limitations as he states “it is one thing to write a letter, another to heightens inequality, write history” recognising that his work is “not worthy of paper, serious history”. He also refers to school, the Campania region as a whole rather than specifying Pompeii or Herculaneum. Despite these limitations, Pliny the Younger was an eyewitness of the events and payroll research thus he can still be deemed a reliable source as his account provides a personal account which can be corroborated with Volcanologists. Pliny the Younger compared the cloud to an “umbrella pine” that reached great heights and essay holocaust survivor spread into payroll research “various branches” Upon his route, Pliny the Elder’s boat was stuck at space homework, the Stabiae shore due to what Seutonius described as “adverse winds” which caused him to be “overcome by the force of dust and ashes” (Ibid), The reliability of Seutonius is however limited, as he was a gossip columnist who even speculated that Pliny the Elder was “killed by a slave” Pliny the research paper Younger recounts the death of his uncle at statement definition, Stabiae, commemorating and idolising his Uncle, stating that he was “pretending to be cheerful” in order to research paper, maintain composure among his troops. Pliny the Younger describes the eruption as a “terrifying black cloud, split by twisted blasts of fire shooting in different directions, gaped to reveal long fiery shapes, similar to flashes of lightening, only truman scholarship essay questions, bigger” The eruption of 79 AD has been analysed and chronologically categorised through stratigraphic analysis of the layers or strata of payroll paper, volcanic ash. Pyroclastic surge: evidenced by thin black layers; a low density turbulent cloud of hot ash and questions rock that billows over terrain, barely touching the ground. A pyroclastic surge travels at incredibly high speeds of up to 300 km/h. The eruption at Vesuvius was unique as there was six layers in payroll research the strata indicating there were six pyroclastic surges. Pyroclastic flow: a much denser, hotter, dry avalanche of ground hugging molten rock, pumice and gasses.

It moves a lot slower than a surge- only up to space homework, 50 km/h Sequence of events: Day one (midday): An initial explosion thrusts a “terrifying black cloud” that resembled an “umbrella pine” that reached 20 kilometers into the air and spread out into “various branches” (Pliny the Younger). Pumice is formed from hot magma that has cooled so quickly that it is payroll research, still full of volcanic gasses and is like a hard foamy sponge. Day one (midday) – day two (4-6am): Pumice fallout all over Pompeii begins, ranging from pebble size called lapilli (about 1cm) to rock size (up to 20cm), according to [1] Cassius Dio “enourmous stones were thrown up to reach the height of the mountain-tops themselves”. The buildup causes roofs to collapse under the weight. Travel around Pompeii becomes difficult. Pumice fallout at Herculaneum is less. (Day two (4-6 am): The collapse of the column of hot gas and pumice in the quasi initial explosion, caused a series of pyroclastic surges and flows of ash and hot gases, which race to the south and west at an estimated speed of up to 100 kilometers an hour. The first surge covers Herculaneum in 3 m of hot ash while, in accordance with Cassius Dio, “all the while an inconceivable quantity of ash was being blown out; it covered both sea and land and essay holocaust filled all the air” Day two (5-7 am): A second surge deposits another 1.5 m of ash on Herculaneum Day 2 (around 6:30 am): a third surge in the direction of Pompeii stops at the Herculaneum gate. Day 2 (7:30-8 am): Three more successive surges, reaching temperatures between 100? and 400? bury Pompeii to a depth of up to research, 4 m, as corroborated by Eusebius in his Chronicle stating that the surges “consumed the surrounding countryside”. Essay Survivor! The final surge reaches Misenum. NOTE: 2 stages: The first or the Plinean Stage, that lasted eighteen to twenty hours and produced a rain of pumice southward of the cone that built up to depths of 4m at Pompeii, followed by a pyroclastic flow in the second, Pelean phase that reached as far as Misenum but was concentrated to the west and northwest. Research! Herculaneum lay directly under Mt Vesuvius, only twain, 7km from its peak, it suffered a different although even more horrific fate than Pompeii.

The people of Herculaneum would certainly have been terrified by research paper the initial explosion, shock waves and earth tremours in the Plinean stage of the eruption, as according to Cassius Dio “people fled, some from their houses into the streets, others from space homework outside indoors”. In an article published in 2002 Sigurdsson and research paper Casey elaborate on the stratigraphic evidence, asserting that as Herculaneum was upwind of the fallout, the pumice fall in the first few hours was moderately light. However, in the next and more destructive phase of the essays by mark eruption, the Pelean phase, Herculaneum bore the full brunt of the paper succession of pyroclastic surges. The first, reaching temperatures of over space homework 400?, would have killed the inhabitants, and subsequent surges and flows destroyed buildings and carbonised organic matter. In this final phase, the city was buried up to a depth of 20m compared with the 4m at Pompeii. Research Paper! Differences in holocaust survivor the destruction of Pompeii and Herculaneum: Further away from the peak More pumice fallout but less surges Buried under 4m of ash. Closer to research, the peak (only 7km away) – suffered more damage Less pumice fallout but more surges, and before Pompeii received surges. Buried under 20m of ash. Roman response: Modern Historian Diess, recounts in his work “Herculaneum, Italy’s Buried Treasure” that “news of the eruption was flashed to Rome by signal towers” where it was dealt with in the “most efficient Roman manner” and “the popular emperor Titus dispensed emergency aid with his own funds in addition to the funds of the state” corroborated by Seutonius who stated that Titus “displayed not merely the concern of an emperor but also the deep love of a father”. Moreover, Diess states that the senate decreed that “the assets of extinct families should be divided among all survivors yet no aid could compensate for such a loss” again congruent with Cassius Dio who stated Titus “restored all damage from essay survivor his resources”.

How people died: Herculaneum was hit by a pyroclastic flow travelling at 300 km/h The high temperatures caused brains to boil and skulls to payroll, explode Bodies vapourised and the soft tissue disappeared, replaced by ash and they immediately became skeletons. Lack of oxygen caused items to be carbonised and thus preserved. Bread a basic staple food of Romans Baking ovens only rarely found in essays written by mark houses. Almost all people went to a bakery for their bread. Bakers were highly respected and payroll paper could become wealthy. Made and sold bread on bakery premises and sold either on premises or from stalls.

Bakery of gp essays heightens, Modestus had 3 small mills for grinding flour and one large baking oven.· 81 Loaves of bread were found in the Bakery of Modestus – carbonised To date, 33 bakeries have been found in Pompeii. Small mills were turned by donkeys. Two donkey skeletons were found still harnessed to mills in Herculaneum. Research Paper! Evidence of at least 10 different bread products, including offellae, and a kind of dog biscuit for their pets. Standard loaves were flat, about 5 cms thick. Bakers shop in how to cheat on your Herculaneum. A seal in shop reads ‘Sextus Patulcus felix’, possibly the research baker himself. 25 different baking pans of various sizes found in this shop – he specialized in cakes. Workers trod the cloth in essays written a mixture of payroll, fuller’s earth, potash, carbonate of how to cheat on your, soda and urine. Fullers rinsed, dried and brushed the cloth.

It was then bleached with sulfar and died Wool was also used in the processing of felt a slippers, hats, blankets, coats The Guild of payroll research paper, Fullers a powerful organisation a headquarters are interpreted controversially to be in the Eumachia Building. The large number of fulleries and dye-shops far exceeded local demand and could be interpreted as evidence of an important export trade a physical remains easily identified due to essays twain, fixed facilities a vats, tanks for washing, cauldrons for heating water 4 Fulleries are large – Fullery of Stephanus is research paper, one Fullery of Stephanus – typical fullery – clothes press, a large balcony, one large basin for washing, 5 small foot-basins and three large interconnecting basins for rinsing. Stephanus hung the wet clothes over space homework cans on payroll the upper floor and in the courtyard whilst Lucius Veranius Hypsaeus dried the fabric on brick pillars between the Corinthian columns of a large atrium. A clothes press was discovered in a shop attached to the House of the Wooden Partition in Herculaenum. Statue of Eumachia – patron of cloth makers and dyers – found in the building. Made from different types of fish that were left to ferment for approx. 1-3 months Used to flavour meat, vegetables, fish, fruit and medicine. Most fish fermenting facilities were found outside the town – some form of Garum processing did take place in town in a house in Region I. Hundreds of labeled garum containers of a distinctive shapes, known as urcei, found at Pompeii demonstrate its popularity. Pliny the Elder “ no other liquid excep unguents has come to be more highly valued” Garume was a potent mix, made from “the guts of on education inequality, fish and research paper other parts that would otherwise refuse” Ponsich and Tarradell Aulus Umbricius Scaurus – owned at least 6 workshops producing garum – 30% of Garum containers in on education heightens Campania carry his name or that of his extended family. E.g. epigraphic evidence states “The best liquamen of A. Umbricius Scaurus” Mosaic of payroll paper, a garum urceus, from the House of Umbricius Scaurus, the definition middle school inscription reads ‘flower or liquamen’– stopper is when it is used for trade, the stopper preserves it.

Vineyards are found in research paper town and in the country Mostly grapes were pressed with a wine press but some were pressed by foot. Generally wine appears to have been brought in from the survivor countryside when needed· Wine Villas in the country had rooms for pressing the grapes (tocularia), for fermentation (cella vinariae) and storage. Wine jars were buried completely or partially in the ground for protection for weather – storage. Wine was transported to town in large leather wineskins (cullei) Most famous local wines: Vesuvinum and Pompianum. 2014 vine-root cavities of a large commercial vineyard near the Pompeian Ampitheatre a on site was a room set up for wine pressing and payroll research a shed with embedded dolia which could each fill 40 amphorae. Smaller vineyards adjoining the Inn of Euxinus and the Inn of the Gladiators have been found; grapes were pressed on the premises. Villas of Boscoreale- Villa of Pisanella and Villa Regina – Pisanella had an internal courtyard of 120 dolia that could hold up to 50,000 litres| Regina had 18 dolia holding 10,000 litres. Survivor! Large variety- Herculaneum: epigraphic evidence of a sign on a wine bar inviting patrons to ‘Come to the Sign of the Bowls’ advertised half a dozen types of research, wine and their vintages.

Large variety – Pompeii: Tavern advertisement “drink here for just one as; for two you can drink better, and for four have some really good Falernian wine” Martial stated in his Epigram: “famed grapes filled the dripping vats” Pliny the Elder discusses the potency of Pompeian wines stating that “Pompeian wines are rather dangerous” and can “cause a headache” Strabo describes Pompeii as a “fortified trading post” Imports More imports than exportsa indicates that Pompeian society was wealthy in space homework that they had the luxury to try exotic things at their own expense. Also indicates developed international relations and trading schemes. Tableware- terra sigillata- from Puteoli Such as red-slipped table vessels found in most houses. Terra sigillata from northern Italy, Southern Gaul and Cyprus One specific example is a chest found in 1881containing 90 carefully packed and unused south gaulish bowls and payroll research 37 earthenware lamps.

An extrapolation that can be made from the discovery of heightens inequality, these items is that they are representative of a recently received consignment to a Pompeian wholesaler of such wares. Wine from Kos, Crete, Rhodes, Turkey, Sicily, Palestine and central Ital.y Olive oil from Libya and Spain Garum from Spain Exports Garum A mosaic from the House of Umbricius Scaurus depicts a bottle of garum with the inscription ‘flower of liquament’ and a stopper on research paper the lid. The presence of a stopper indicates that garum was intended for cheat homework, trade. Pliny the paper Elder “ no other liquid excep unguents has come to be more highly valued” Wine Amphorae from Pompeii has been found as far afield as Middlesex in the UK Bronzes and metal work From literary sources, we know Campania (more pointedly the town of Capua) was famous for its bronze vessels, thus it is on your homework, possible that such metal work was also exported from Pompeii. While a marble relief was found depicting metal workers, its findspot was not recorded, only one metal working premises can be securely identified outside the Vesuvian Gate due to payroll paper, the presence of hammers and anvils. The fact that the thesis statement school metal workshop was found outside the gates brings historians to the collective extrapolations regarding the concept of avoiding taxes, positioning workshops close to resources, as well as having a highly developed scheme of specialized labour. Industry was central to the economies of paper, Pompeii and Herculaneum- agriculture, wine, garum and olive oil production being the most prominent industires.

Bread a basic staple food of written by mark, Romans Baking ovens only payroll, rarely found in houses. Almost all people went to a bakery for how to cheat on your, their bread. Bakers were highly respected and could become wealthy. Made and sold bread on research bakery premises and written twain sold either on premises or from stalls. Bakery of Modestus has 3 small mills for payroll, grinding flour and one large baking oven.

81 Loaves of space homework, bread were found in the Bakery of Modestus. (carbonised) To date, 33 bakeries have been found in Pompeii. Small mills were turned by research donkeys. Two donkey skeletons were found still harnessed to mills in Herculaneum. Essay! Evidence of at least 10 different bread products, including offellae , and a kind of payroll, dog biscuit for survivor, their pets. Standard loaves were flat, about 5 cms thick. Bakers shop in research paper Herculaneum. Essay Holocaust! A seal in shop reads ‘Sextus Patulcus felix’, possibly the payroll research paper baker himself. Specialised in cakes for “twenty-five bronze baking pans of various sizes, from about four inches to essay survivor, a foot and a half” (Deiss. Principal sources of research, income for Vesuvians; generally, the profitable cultivation of both vineyards and olive groves could only essay holocaust, be undertaken by the wealthy, because of the cost of the long wait between planting anf the first harvest, and the cost of olive and payroll research wine presses. Many of the landowners who had estates in the countryside lived in the city, visiting their villa irregularly and leaving it to be run by space homework trusted dependents e.g. the payroll research paper rich Pompeian banker Lucius Caecilius Jucundus is space homework, believed to have owned the payroll research paper Villa of Pisanella.

Excavation by Jashemski revealed 2014 vine-root cavities from a large commercial vineyard near the Pompeian amphitheatre; on the site was a torcularium, and a shed with embedded dolia which could each fill 40 amphorae. Smalled vineyards adjoining the Inn of thesis statement definition school, Euxinus and Inn of the Gladiators have been found, with torculas; in other places, grapes were pressed by foot Generally, wine doesn’t seem to payroll research paper, have been stored in large quantities in taverns or bars, but brought in from the countryside when needed. Villas had torculariums (pressing), cellae viniariae (fermentation), and storage. The torcula “consisted of gp essays on education heightens, a solid wooden crossbar fixed at one end and pushed downwards by means of a winch with an arm lever.” Pliny the Elder said “districts with a mild climate store their wine in payroll research jars and bury them completely or partially in the ground thus protecting them from the weather…spaces must be left between jars to prevent anything likely to affect the wine from passing from one to the other, as the wine very soon becomes tainted.”. The viticultural villas at Boscoreale, Regina and Pisanella, possessed a huge storage capacity – pisanella:120 dolia with 50 000 L capacity, Regina: 18 dolia with 10 000L. A wide variety of essay holocaust survivor, wines were produced in the Vesuvian area: a sign on a Herculaneum wine bar inviting patrons to “ Come to the Sign of the research paper Bowls” advertised half a dozen types of wine and their vintages. Another tavern in written by mark Pompeii advertisement confirms that there was a wide range of wines sold in paper Pompeii: “…drink here for just one as; for written twain, two you can drink better, and for four have some really good Falernian wine.” From Pliny’s Natural History and payroll evidence from labelled wine jars, it seems the two most famous local wines were Vesuvinum and Pompeianum.

Of the latter, Pliny said “Wines from Pompeii are at their best within ten years and gain nothing from greater maturity”, but he maintained that they were “injurious because of the hangover they cause, which persists until noon the following day.” Judging from a scrawl on the wall of a Pompeian bar, the quality of wine varied considerably: “Inn – keeper of the devil, die drowned in your own piss-wine. Essays By Mark Twain! You sell the inferior stuff but you keep for yourself, you swine, the good bottles.” The same estates that produced wine produced olives and oil The Villa of Pisanella held enough storage for payroll research, 5910 L of olive oil According to Pliny, more skill was “needed to produce olive oil than wine, because the same tree produces different kinds of space homework, oil…the green olive, which has not yet begun to ripen, gives the payroll first oil and this has an thesis definition middle school, outstanding taste…the riper the berry the more greasy and less pleasant is the paper flavour of the oil”. Scholarship Questions! The oil from the green olive was also used in the manufacture of perfume which Pliny believed was “the most pointless of all luxuries.” Most of the payroll research pressing was done on estates even though oil presses were found in truman scholarship Pompeian houses and in payroll paper the Forum granary. Because “The cause of middle, oil is warmth” (Pliny), presses and store rooms had to be warmed by large fires. Cato, in his Agriculture, recorded that Pompeian presses made from lava stone were the best. These trapeta were for the first pressing, to separate the flesh from the pip so as to avoid the oil gaining a bitter taste. The second pressing was done with the grape press torcula . “The first oil from the press is the richest, and payroll paper the quality diminishes with each successive pressing … age imparts an unpleasant taste to oil and after a year it is old.” (Pliny) Within Pompeii, officinae oleariae retailed oil and it is believed that there may have been an olive market near or in the Forum olitorium . Oil was not only cheat homework, used as the basic ingredient in perfume, but also for payroll, cooking, particularly in the thermopolia which provided a service to those who had limited cooking facilities in their homes, and for holocaust, lighting. Oil was used in the thermae and palaestra for payroll paper, rubbing into bodies. Space Homework! Pliny disapproved of this practice which he blamed on the Greeks ‘the Greeks, progenitors of all vices, have diverted the use of olive oil to serve the ends of luxury by making it available in gymnasia.’

Pompeii was renowned for research paper, its garum, a fish sauce which was one of the main condiments used for space homework, flavouring roman cuisine. According to Pliny, “no other liquid except unguents has come to be more highly valued.” They were various flavours depending on the type and paper quality of the fish used and it’s method of preparation. Apparently the valuable red mullet made the space homework best garum, followed by tuna, mackerel and sardines, while anchovies were used four less refined sauces. Payroll Paper! The fisherman from Pompeii and Herculaneum sold their catches, both fresh and salted, in the market in the forum but prominent garam manufacturers such as Marcus Umbricius Scaurus may have obtained his fish more directly. The wealthiest families had a monopoly on its manufacture which they then sold to street retailers. Garum was a potent mix, made from ‘the guts of fish and other parts that would otherwise be considered refuse’, probably gills, intestines and blood, and on your the smell must have pervaded Pompeii. Although it was popular with most some like seneca, hated the foul smell. The following gives a more detailed description of its manufacture: “The entrails of sprats or sardines, the parts that could not be used for payroll, sailting were mixed with finely chopped portions of fish and with roe and eggs and then pounded crushed and stirred.

The mixture was left in the sun or a warm room and how to cheat on your homework beaten into a homogenous pulp until it fewrmented. When this Liquamen, as it was called, had been much reduced over a period of six weeks by evaporation. It was placed in a basket with perforated bottom through which the residue filtered slowly into payroll research a receptacle. The end product decanted into jars was the famous garum; the dregs levft over were also regarded as edible and known as Allec” (M. Ponsich M. Tarradell) A product indispensable to the production of garum was salt. Truman Scholarship Essay! The Pompeians skilfully exploited a depression near the coastal road to Herculaneum to make a salt plant. Saltwater, washed up by the high tides, entered a channel into large shallow basins where it evaporated in the sun. Research! As its concentration increased, it was allowed to overflow into progressively concentrated pools.

Eventually, the pure crystallised salt was collected with spades from the final basin. Wool was the basis of one of the most important industries in Pompeii, the washing and dyeing of wool and the manufacture of on education inequality, cloth. Associated with this laundering, bleaching and re-colouring of clothes. Both these activities were carried out in workshops and research fullonicae or laundries. The raw wool was first sent to an officina lanifricariaae where is was degreased by boiling in essays by mark twain leaden boiler.

Once carded it was taken to the spinners and weavers, in private homes or in offic nae The cloth was next sent to officinae tinctoriae for dyeing, often in paper bright colours such as purple or saffron. The finished product was distributed to cloth merchants. Laundries or fullonicae were scattered all over Pompeii – 18, of thesis definition, which four, like the Fullery of Staphanus, were large. Some occupied the rooms of private houses (possibly rented) and payroll research were identified by a number of interconnected basins or tanks with built-in steps for washing and rinsigi. Workers trod the cloth in a mixture of fuller’s earthpotash, carbonate of gp essays heightens, sode and urine (because of its ammonia content). Payroll Research Paper! Although camel urine was the most prized, laundries usually hadd to make do with human urine and male passers-by were urged to truman essay questions, supply their urine by filling the jugs hanging outside. There were special areas set aside for paper, urine collection. The fullers then rinsed, dried and brushed the cloth. Lucius Veranius Hypsaeus dried his fabric on brick pillars between the Corinthian columns of large atrium, while another fuller, Stephanus, hung the wet clothes over canes on the upper floor and in the courtyard.

Once dried, the cloth was bleached with sulphur and then dyed. Igh, and over truman scholarship essay half a metre tle under two metrres high, and over half a metre wide, was discovered in a shop attached to the House of the Wooden Partition in Herculaneum, and a painted sign over `the Pompeian workshop of M. Vecilius Verecundus, an eminent mill owner and cloth merchant, showed the various processes involved in cloth manufacture. Wool was used also in payroll paper the processing of felt to make slippers, hats, blankets and cloaks. It was impregnated with heated vinegar, creating a matted effect, and then pushed and pressed until it reached the right consistency. The Guild of Fullers was a powerful organisation within the city.

Its headquarters, as well as a possible wool market, were located in the Eumachia building on the eastern side of the Forum. This magnificent building, with the cheat on your dimensions and layout of a temple, was paid for by the priestess/business woman Eumachia, who has married a wealthy owner of pastures and flocks of sheep and became the patron of the cloth – makers and dyers. Payroll Research Paper! She dedicated it in her own name that of thesis definition school, her son, Numistaeius Fronto, to paper, the imperial family. Within the essays twain building was a statue of herself. The thirty or so bakeries that have been identified in Pompeii saved householders from buying the grain , milling it into payroll flour and truman essay baking their own bread, which was a basic foodstuff. Because of the poor quality of the flour, the research bread was very hard, and due to how to cheat on your, the lack of yeast, deteriorated quickly. Bakeries did their own refining of the grazing in lava stone mills, usually three or four, set in a paved courtyard with a table for kneading the dough, and a brick oven. A mill was composed of payroll paper, three parts: a fixed conical block called a meta , a mosnry base with a lamina for collecting glour, and a hollow cylinder, catillus, into which was inserted a pole, turned by mules or donkeys. The ovens were heated by burning vine faggots, and, once hot enough, they were cleaned out in readiness for baking small round loaves of bread. These, marked off in eight sections for cheat on your, easy breaking, were dispatched to payroll research, the various small shops and essays written twain stalls in surrounding streets.

A few bakeries had an adjoining area for research, selling their own bread, but most did not. 4 copper assus = 1 bronze sestertius. 4 bronze sestertii = 1 silver denarius. 25 denarii = 1 gold aureus. Roman prices tended to fluctuate according to local conditions, thus historians are unable to determine exact values and make concretised observations. For example, epigraphic evidence engraved on truman scholarship essay questions uneven columns in the atrium walls of a house states that “7 days before the Ides” bread was worth 8 copper asses or 2 sestertii wheras “3 days before the ides” the price of bread went down to only 2 copper asses.

Copper asses were the most common form of currency as people did not trust their slaves with the research paper likes of denarii let alone the precious gold aureus. A collection of cheat on your homework, 1600 coins was found in the dolium of counter in the Inn of Lucius Vetutius Placidus, indicating that Pompeians had an ancient form of cash registers! Pompeian society placed a significant emphasis on commercial life and commercial success The forum as well as the via del’ abbadanza (the main thoroughfare of Pompeii) was crowded with shops Identified shops include a mason’s shop, extrapolated from a fresco depicting masonry tools as well as the owner’s name- Diogenes. A carpenters shop was also excavated, and research identified according to a similar fresco depicting carpenter’s tools. Seen in the frieze in heightens inequality the Praedia of Julia Felix where scenes reveal the busy markets in the forum. The emphasis on research commercial life is evidenced by essay the fact some shops advertised their commercial interests as well as the strong desire for profit The mosaic on the entrance near the porta antica of the House of payroll research, Umbricius Scaurus showed a amphorae or vessel of garum a pictures were the universal language as not all were literatea people sent their slaves out to do the shopping Epigraphic evidence proclaimed “profit is joy” found inscribed on the mosaic entrance way of two wealthy men, Siricus and well as another “welcome gain” inscribed around the impluvium of the house of a carpentera Pompeian society was concerned with wealth and almost was capitalist! Images of Mercury, the essays by mark god of commerce, were also displayed in numerous places to fain blessings: on a sign outside a shop; on a sale counter; as part of research paper, a set of scales; or on essay survivor the wall of a workshop. Payroll Research Paper! Over 600 privately owned shops, workshops and inns have been excavated. Herculaneum was known to be a quieter fishing/ resort tow than the bustling and commercial Pompeii. NB: Herculaneum was the port town and thus their commercial interests primarily revolved around fishing. Markets, or macellum, were another prominent aspect of the economy.

Seen in the frieze in the Praedia of Julia Felix where scenes reveal the essays by mark busy markets in the forum- more specifically the paper meat and fish market. The existence of essays by mark, these is verified by fish bones found scattered in the forum. Research! Temporary markets were also common, these too are represented in the Frieze from the Praedia of Julia Felix which portrays scenes of a mules and carts carrying merchandise; a man displaying shoes; cloth merchants showing their wares to two women; a man selling bread and essay holocaust a fruit and vegetable stall, indicating stalls were set up for vendors to sell goods such as shoes, cloth, metal vessels, fruit and vegetables. As well as stalls situated in the surrounds of the ampitheatre, established to sell refreshments to patrons. Payroll! Markets were set up on specific days, as reinforced by epigraphic evidence on the facade of the Shop of the Potter Zosimus that Pompeian market day was “Saturn’s day”

Full legal rights Could hold political office Wealthy landowners and cheat businessmen Controlled public finances, spaces and religion Privileged seats in the ampitheatre and theatre Received honorary statues and payroll tombs. Could not hold public office. Were under legal control of fathers or husbands. Could own property Conducted businesses Constructed buildings and tombs Held priesthoods Supported electoral candidates Received honorary statues and tombs. Men and women freed from slavery Often worked for former masters Many became wealthy and essay holocaust survivor influential.

Voted in payroll paper elections Owned businesses Participated in essay holocaust some religious cults Could become an Augustalis (Priest of the Cult of the payroll Emperor – highest political position they could reach) Could not hold formal political office. Could not hold formal political office Some worked for former Masters. 40% of the population were slaves Little evidence of their lives remained Some slaves were owned by Pompeii’s town council. Few tombstones attributed to slaves Domestic work common Few houses had separate slave quarters There is a wide range of thesis definition middle school, slaves, from paper German’s who were commonly sent to the salt mines, to educated Italian’s who had simply fallen into debt. Middle School! Women: Hand maiden slaves – hair, clothes, jewellery Gladiators are slaves yet highly respected. The typical role of women in Roman society was to perform tasks such as running the household, bringing up the children and controlling finances; Rome is a military empire, and research paper the men had to be out training all day as soldiers, working as a politician for the empire, or be an external merchant; thus, Pompeian women had much more freedom than their Roman counterparts. The evidence of wall paintings (Julia Felix’s frieze) inscriptions and frescoes show Pompeian women actively engaged in space homework public life and moving freely about the city. Inscriptions about rich women Marcia and Rufina Metilia inform us of the ability of women to payroll paper, own property in how to homework their own right and to manage their affairs without supervision by a male relative. A prominent Pompeian woman was Poppaea Sabina. Her family owned the House of Menander and the House of the Gilded Cupids. She was married to the emperor Nero and owned her own villa in nearby Oplantis.

Another important businesswoman was Eumachia. Her family owned brickmaking works and vineyards, as suggested by amphorae discovered all over the Mediterranean. She constructed a large building in payroll paper the Forum that bears her name: the statement middle Eumachia building. A Latin inscription from the research 1st Century AD reads: “Eumachia, the public priestess (of Venus), daughter of Lucius, had the vestibule, the covered gallery, and gp essays heightens inequality the porticoes made with her own money and dedicated in her own name and in the name of payroll, her son Marcus Numistrius Fronto, in honour of the goddess Concord and Augustan Piety.” She married into another prominent family, her husband Marcus Numistrius Fronto, who either him or their identically named son held the office of duumvir in AD 3. Wooden and wax tablets detailing the financial transactions of the banker Caecilius Jucundus provide further information about women conducting business. There are at least fourteen women mentioned in these documents. One, Umbricia Januaria, was possibly a freed slave as suggested by her name.

She operated a business for her former master: “Umbricia Januaria hereby attests that she received from L. Caecilius Juncundus 11, 039 sestertii, less a percentage [1-2 per cent] as his commission, for essay holocaust, the auction of good on payroll paper her behalf.” Although women could not vote, they made public declarations supporting particular candidates for election. From the electoral campaign programmata from Pompeii, it seems it was quite acceptable and legitimate for women to do this. For example, Taedia Secunda canvassed votes for essays by mark, her grandson; Asellina scrawled electoral comments on the walls of her tavern. Women at Pompeii may have attended the contiones before candidates were chosen. The election programmata show that women did have a part in the public life even if they did not vote: “The programmata may be regarded as a collective activity in which women took part no only as members or clients of the family but also as members of the community and the electoral district.” (Sauvnen) From graffiti and inscriptions, we can gain otherwise limited knowledge into the lives of less wealthy women. Valeria Hedone and Asellina owned taverns; Statia and Petronia worked in bakeries; Amaryllis and Specula worked in the cloth trade. Other women worked as vegetable sellers, weavers, doctors and payroll research paper money lenders. “ Vettia accepted from Faustilla 15 denarii with eight assess in interest” . On Education! There were also the lower class poor women and slaves who worked as household servants, cooks, cleaners, wet nurses and prostitutes. Funerary monuments testify to payroll, the fact that some Pompeuan women were important enough to truman scholarship essay, have been honoured by a funeral at public expense.

One such woman was the priestess Mamia. Another woman. Veia Barchilla, erected and paid for a large tomb to commemorate the life of her husband. One feature of research paper, life that was common to all levels of society in Pompeii and Herculaneum was the relationship of client and patron. Elite freeborn families acted as patrons to those in the lower class. It was the responsibility of the client to support his patron at political elections and do any favours that might be required. In return, the patron might assist his client in legal matter or give him a small free gift or a free meal.

One example of the patron-client relationship at Pompeii was that between Eumachia and the guild of fullers. Space Homework! The statue of Eumachia was erected in her honour by the fullers guild. The inscription reads “The Fullers [dedicated this statue] to Eumachia, daughter of Lucius, public priestess.” Extract from “Pompeii and Herculaneum: Interpreting the Evidence” by Brian Brennan and Estelle Lazer: Political life at payroll research, Pompeii and Herculaneum was dominated by thesis definition school the patronage of poorer citizens and payroll of particular social and thesis school business groups by members of a powerful, wealthy and influential elite. In a way similar to Rome itself, where the great senatorial families had an payroll research paper, impressive tradition of office-holding and public service, powerful local Pompeians offered both protection and assistance to individuals. Gp Essays! They assisted those who sought advancement in political office or desired to make connections and alliances that would help them in business or in social life.

In return, the patrons expected support in elections and public recognition of their exalted status. The patron, patronus , could expect support from payroll research paper his clients, clients . Every patronus sought to truman scholarship essay, outdo his rivals in the size and extent of his supporters, clientela. The number of clients who came to your house in the morning, or who accompanied you to the forum, or who cheered you in the theatre, indicated your importance. Patronage might also be extended to separate groups within the community or to the whole populace, whose support was won by research paper offering benefits, beneficia. Benefits could include the provision of food, gladiatorial entertainments, public works or projects such as theatres, temples or public baths. Duumviri : ‘the two men’. They operated as co-mayors of Pompeii and could only serve one year.

Elections took place each year in the spring. They were also in charge of justice. Aediles: Two citizens were elected to this position each year. They were described as ‘ two men, for essays written, taking care of streets, buildings, temples and public buildings’. At its foundation in c. 80BC, the Colonia Cornelia Veneria Pompeianorum was given a lex (or charter), that set out the political and administrative structure still in use at the time of the eruption in payroll research paper 79AD. There were 3 political institutions at Pompeii: The comitium or ‘people’s assembly: Made up of all adult, male citizens of the town, including freedmen. It functioned to elect magistrates and to vote honours. The ordo decurionum: The legislative body of Pompeii, able to make decisions on any matter that concerned the middle school colony as a whole. Its members were called ‘decurions’ . New members were elected every five years – likely to have remained until death. Paper! The magistracy: Two duumvirs and on education heightens inequality two aediles (junior magistrates), who were responsible for the judicial system, administration, public works, and buildings, municipal cults and games-giving.

The magistrates presided over proceedings in the ordo and elections in the comitium. Every 5 years the paper duumvirs held a census to revise the list of ordo members and were given the title quinquennial duumvirs. A candidate for magistracy must be male, free-born, over 25, have a fortune above a certain level and have an survivor, unblemished reputation. To become duumvir a candidate first had to be elected aedile. Other honours: The most prestigious honour to research paper, be bestowed on questions a citizen was that of ‘patron’ of the town. A patron was formally selected by the town council to paper, represent and space homework protect the payroll interests of the community at Rome. E.G.

Marcus Holconius Rufus and Marcellus. Another rare, purely honorific title was that of ‘military tribune'; this was awarded to a citizen of popular demand, presumably in return for by mark twain, services to the community. Paper! E.G. Marcus Tullius and Marcus Holconius Rufus. Scholarship Essay! Herculaneum : Political set up similar to Pompeii, however it did not suffer the imposition of a colony after the Social War of 91-87BC. Surviving inscriptions demonstrate that Herculaneum was run by two annually elected duumvirs. Aediles, also attested, would have supervised the markets, roads and public buildings. The town’s finances may have been overseen by a third official, a quaestor, who is mention in a single inscription. Programmata Programmata are unique to Pompeii They are painted posters, usually red or black on a white background. They support particular candidates for political office.

It is thought that the research candidates often commissioned them themselves. They have been found on the facades of houses, particularly on major thoroughfares where many passers-by would have seen them. 131 candidates have been identified, 90% of them dating to election campaigns after 62AD. “I ask you to elect Gnaeus Helvius Sabinus and Marcus Samellius Modestus aediles, men worth of public office” “All the fruit-sellers with Helvius Vestalis call for Marcus Holconius Priscus as duumvir for lawsuits” The 79AD election campaign of Gnaeus Helvius Sabinus is particularly well documented. Programmata relating to his attempt to gp essays, become aedile have been found on major thoroughfares such as the Via dell’ Abbondanza. Monumental Inscriptions: On stone and bronze – found at both Pompeii and Herculaneum. Marble a more common Bronze a more important – more valuable Unlike programmata, monumental inscriptions were usually permanent. The inscriptions fall into categories of: Official declarations: Public pronouncements or decisions. Honorific inscriptions: Honours voted by the comitium to particular individiuals who had their statues set up at public expense.

In the Forum, 41 bases for standing statues along the poritcoed sides and 16 equestion bases can still be seen. Aulus Umbricius Scaurus was honoured with an equestrian statue. Dedications: Found on public buildings and record who or what the building is dedicate to and who paid for it. Gladiators were usually slaves or convicted criminals. They trained at the Palaestra and in the Gladiators’ Barracks.

Helmets, greaves and weapons were found in the gladiators’ barracks, due to poor recording much evidence was lost, 15 complete helmets, 6 single greaves, 5 pairs of greaves, 3 shoulder guards and a small round shield remain– lavish embossments imply they were used for ceremonial parades rather than actual fights. Samnite: Heavily armoured with a sword or lance, rectangular shield, metal helmet, protective armour on right arm and left leg. Thracian: Not as heavily armoured – short curved sword, small round shield, arm guard on his right arm, leg guards and highly decorated helmet. Myrmillo (fish man): Fish shaped crest on helmet, rectangular shield, arm and leg guards. Retiarius (the net wielder): trident, tried to trap his opponent in his net, an arm and shoulder guard. Payroll Research Paper! Specialists: fought using daggers and lances, chariot fighters (essedarii), cavalrymen (eques), and some who fought blindfolded. Gp Essays On Education Heightens Inequality! Gladiators are extremely popular, especially with girls: Thracian Celadus is referred to as the “heart throb of the girls”.

Wealthy members of society paid for payroll research, gladiatorial games, many of which are recorded in how to on your homework epigraphic evidence Marcus Tullius paid for a wild beast hunt and 20 pairs of gladiators. People gambled on payroll the outcome of cockfights. Mosaic showing a cockfight, on the table in definition the image is a purse full of money which will go to the owner of the winning cockerel. Appear to have a varied diet. Seeds and pips from foods such as dates, figs and olives have been preserved in the volcanic ash. Carbonised eggs, figs, loaves of bread and nuts including walnuts, hazelnuts and almonds have also been found.

Animal bones from research paper sheep, pigs and space homework cattle attest to the consumption of meat. Evidence for the presence of seafood in the population’s diet comes from fish bones and the shells of research, scallops, cockles, sea urchins and cuttlefish. A team from Oxford university has been investigating remains from latrine pits and statement middle sewers at Pompeii. Payroll! As latrines were usually in the kitchen they were used to dispose of essay survivor, both human excrement and food scraps. So far, mineralised seeds, small bones and marine shell fragments have been found. Further work is being carried out as part of the Herculaneum Conservation Project which should provide more dietary sources. Professor Wilhelmina Jashekski, an archarologist specialising in the gardens of Pompeii, discovered that many houses had spaces for the cultivation of figs, olives, cherries and other fruits and vegetables. Evidence for viticulture (grape growing) within Pompeii and hence for the drinking of wine came from her discovery of a vineyard within the walls.

Artworks including frescoes and mosaics that feature foods such as fruit, fish, poultry, and game also provide information about diet at Pompeii and Herculaneum. Made of a fermented mixture of small fish such as sprats and payroll anchovies combined with the entrails of a larger fish such as mackerel. Lighter, strained version was called liquamen Aulus Umbricius Scaurus made, exported and imported garum. Small terracotta jars that once held garum have been found in Pompeii and survivor Herculaneum; they have painted labels with info like contents, manufacturer, shipper and the recipient Excavators have uncovered stalls selling take away foods doused in this fish sauce. Wall paintings suggest banqueting is popular; depicting people eating and drinking, helped by slaves to remove outer clothing and vomiting An outdoor triclinium was found in the House of the Moralist at Pompeii, with three stone couches that were painted red and a marble topped table.

A bronze brazier and various serving and eating vessels were found nearby. “There was an absence of formal dishware sets but an abundance of small grilling vessels (like barbeques) found in the residences studied, indicating that people were eating-and-running on the go” (Penelope Allison) Most evidence for clothing in Pompeii and Herculaneum come from payroll research artistic representations – this is pragmatic as statues and frescoes may not depict what was actually worn. Men of rank and of equestrian class wore a knee-length belted tunic more commonly than the toga. The width of the purple stripes on the front and back indicate the rank of the wearer. Pompeians dressed as the Romans dressed. Males wore a tunic, the basic item of clothing, which was something like a long t-shirt. Middle School! It was worn under a toga. Status was distinguished by stripes and colours.

The tunica laticlavis or the senatorial tunic had broad stripes that extended from the shoulder to the hem. The toga praetexta of the curule magistrates was an off white toga with a broad purple border. Togas were worn for public and formal occasion s and usually in the Forum. The toga was the national dress of Rome. Paper! The toga was a large oval-shaped piece of cloth, usually wool, worn as the ‘standard’ Roman garment. Women did not wear togas, only when to essays twain, signify disgrace. Stola: A long, sleeveless tunic, usually suspended at the shoulders from short straps, worn on paper top of scholarship, another tunic. Worn by women of rank and as a symbol of marriage – enabled a woman to publicly proclaim her modesty and respect for tradition. Research Paper! Palla : Cloak worn over a woman’s head when outdoors. Vittae: Woollen headbands. A bronze statue in the villa of how to on your homework, Papyri at Herculaneum shows a woman wearing a tunic fastened in payroll research paper the style of a Greek peplos.

Painting in the lararium of the House of the Vettii, Pompeii, depicts both the tunica laticlavia and the toga praetexta worn by magistrates. Statue of space homework, Marcus Holconius Rufus depicted in military dress uniform and payroll cuirass (breastplate armour) to depict his role as the how to cheat on your Military Tribune – it is likely he never wore this. Social occasion -“opportunity to satisfy not only the payroll well-being of the body, but also of the spirit” Cantarella and Jacobelli. 4 Thermae discovered in Pompeii: The Stabian baths, the Forum baths, the Central baths (still under construction) and the Sarno baths. 2 thermae discovered in Herculaneum: The Suburban and on your Forum baths.

Divided into payroll research paper male and female sections or they were divided by time allocations. Decoration – often with a marine theme Visitors would also practice physical exercise and play sport, indulge in cheat on your homework a range of therapies such as a massage, stroll in the gardens, listen to music and paper poetry recitals and read in on education heightens inequality the library, conduct business and receive invitations. Pornographic graffiti – Masseur in Pompeii is “accused of taking liberties with women”. Graffito describes Apelles the waiter dining “most pleasantly with Dexter the slave of Caesar” and then both screwing “at the same time”. They found so many lamps in the Forum baths and the Stabian baths – implies they were open at night Slaves carried their masters or mistresses oil, soda and strigil Women wore a two-piece or more modest costume, men wore leather trunks or nothing. Oldest and largest in Pompeii – date from as early as the 4th century BC. Earliest known hypocaust, installed in the 1st century BC. Iulius and paper Annius refurbished the baths and added a laconium and on your a destrictarium. In the Augustan period a new was added, the payroll palaestra extended and a swimming pool added. Elaborate stucco decoration and space homework fourth style wall paintings, mosaic floors.

An inscription in the entrance courtyard states that they were financed by Marcus Nonius Balbus “architecturally notably vistibule” – Diess Waiting room = “one of the great finds of archaeology” -Deiss. It featured walls of varied – coloured marbles, framed white stucco panels containing bas-reliefs of naked warriors in payroll research paper various poses, winged cupids and a red spiral stucco frieze running around the room. A floor of black marble squares divided by cheat homework narrow bands of white marble. Magnificent wooden panelled doors. A vaulted roof with light coming through a glass-enclosed ceiling niche.

Thermae: Municipal or privately owned bath complexes. Apodyterium : Changing room with benches and shelves or niches for clothes. Laconium: A small round room useed as a sweat bath, usually with dry heat. The room was heated either by a fireplace, hot stones or a brazier placed at the centre of the room. Tepidarium: A vaulted chamber designed to acclimatize visitors passing from the payroll research apodyterium to the caldarium, with benches where people could sit to get used to the heat and/or wash themselves. Calidarium: The principal bath chamber for a hot-water or steam bath, containing a communal, rectangular pool and a basin. Frigidarium: A vaulted chamber for cold baths, containing one or more cold-water pools. Normally visited after the heated rooms. Hypocaust: Heating system, provided by a charcoal-burning furnace located at the back of the caldarium, hot air circulated through the interstices and under the marble floor which was raised about 70-90cm to brick pillars and through air ducts built behind the walls. Ceilings had grooves in the plaster which collected and thesis channelled the condensation down the payroll research paper walls. Palaestra: Wrestling school/ gymnasium – Seneca ” I hear grunts of space homework, musclemen exercising”

Natatio: Open air swimming pool. Praefurnium : Heating room. Destrictarium: Scraping-room, where oil and sweat were removed from the body with strigils. Early inhabitants relied on water from the Sarno river “for the payroll purposes of life, for pleasure, and for our daily use” (Vitruvius), deep wells and rain collecting cisterns for their water. NB: while they appear to be level, supply aqueducts decline 1-3m/km. At the time of Augustus, the imperial aqueduct at Misenum had a branch built to supply Pompeii (Sernium aqueduct) Water from this channel flowed into a main tank or water tower (castellum aquae) near the vesuvian gate. From the cheat on your castellum, it was siphoned off into 3 main pipes that fed different areas of the city. Vitruvius discusses this process in his “On Architecture” stating that “in the payroll reservoir are three pipes of equal sizes, and so connected that when the water overflows at the extremities, it is discharged into the middle one” The sloping terrain aided the water pressure that dispersed the truman scholarship essay water into various tanks all over Pompeii. Fourteen of these secondary tanks have been uncovered.

Many private homes were directly connected to this source of research paper, fresh, running water. One of the three pipes supplied the forty two public fountains (nymphaea) found all over Pompeii. We have evidence of three fountains at Herculaneum. They were usually located at crossroads- obviously the supply of water was more important than traffic movement, because, in some places, the fountains obstructed the roadway. Holocaust Survivor! It is likely that most people in payroll paper Pompeii lived within easy walking distance of a fountain. These public fountains provided a continuous supply of space homework, fresh water as there was an overflow system. Payroll Paper! The excess water ran down the streets and helped wash away the rubbish. The fountains were quadrangular stone basis often decorated with gargoyles. Water flowed through lead pipes but the Pompeians were unaware this was a health hazard.

Another feature was the installation of castellum plumbeum, a lead pillar that acted as a pressure tap and ensured equal water pressure throughout the town. Smaller houses still made use of cisterns At least 91 but probably more were connected by on education heightens inequality pipes to the main water supply In these houses, ornamental fountains, pools and other features became common Some houses even had private baths in payroll the Augustinian period, such as the House of the cheat homework Meander, the house of Paquius Proculus and the house of the Vestals. Pompeii was noisy, dirty, smelly and generally unhygienic with rubbish in the streets. The disposal of waste matter and rubbish constitutes a major problem for all societies whether ancient or modern. Like most Roman towns, Pompeii had public latrines To dispose of the waste matter from these, the Romans devised a system that involved water running continuously through a drainage channel that moved the waste matter along. A large public latrine with seating for payroll research, twenty has been found in the north-west corner of the how to on your homework Forum at Pompeii There was a small anteroom and then the main toilet area containing seats. Roman toilets were communal with no private cubicles People sat side by side on benches above the flowing channel. There was no toilet paper, only a sponge and a stick Public latrines were also located at the baths and the palaestra Some private homes in paper Pompeii and Herculaneum, such as the House of the Painted Capitals, had latrines. Gp Essays Heightens! These were often located near the kitchen area and were flushed by hand or connected to payroll research, the house’s water supply from the aqueduct. The waste matter drained away to truman questions, cesspits beneath the roadway or to the sewage system Private toilets were usually only for one or two people, however some houses in Herculaneum catered for up to six users.

Pompeians took pleasure out of research, toilet humour as epigraphic evidence of graffiti describes the latrines as “Martha’s banqueting room” Purpose or function of the Basilica. It is a place for legal proceedings and space homework business transactions Besides use for law the building would probably been used for payroll, other large gatherings such as auctions Exchange where businessmen or speculators met clients and signed contracts. What does the basilica reveal about how to cheat Pompeian life? It reveals that law and justice was carried out in everyday life and payroll research paper they had magistrates and a proper, lawful area to carry these duties out. Description and dimensions.

Standard plan of definition school, basilicas: Long rectangular central hall, flanked on either side by a colonnaded aisle and an apse at one end. Pompeii Basilica: Covers an area of almost 5000 sq. m Central hall was two stories with light filtering through the upper gallery Hellenistic-style building Five large doors (fitted with wooden shutters) that open onto a portico with four Ionic columns on the south-west corner of the forum and its interior space was designed to impress the visitor with the majesty of law Focus of interior= raised tribunal where the research paper chief magistrates, the duumviri sat as judges Herculaneum Basilica Many buildings still buried under debris and one building stripped of its decorations in the 18 th century could have been the basilica although it may in fact be a shrine to the imperial cult We know the towns basilica building was rebuilt at the expense of the thesis definition middle Proconsul Marcus Nonius Balbus, after the payroll paper earthquake of AD62 and his statue connects him to this so-called ‘basilica’ building Basilica itself 37m by 60m and centered stood a statue of the Emperor Vespanian This was flanked by niches which contained paintings depicting scenes from the life of Herakles or Hercules- the mythical founder of the town Interior space housed many bronze and marble statues of emperors and essays written by mark twain a series of paper, full length portrait statues of the Balbus family—serving a reminder to visitors of the Balbus family’s benefactions to their town. Location and location significance. Pompeii basilica—located at cheat on your, the southwest end of the Forum. Importance or significance as an Archaeological object. It is the oldest surviving Basilica in Italy- therefore it helps historians understand the area in which law enforcement was carried out as well as important business transactions. Key fact to payroll research, remember: The two duoviri (magistrates) made judgments about. Unworthy Decurion’s Electoral candidates without the required qualifications Inappropriate behavior during elections Misuse of gp essays on education inequality, public funds Robberies Murder. They were responsible for payroll paper, sentencing but could only give death penalty to written by mark, foreigners and slaves. Small covered theatre seating up to 1,300 people Possibly used for musical recitals and displays of payroll, oratory.

Also suitable for literary readings and possibly used for meetings of various kinds. Purpose or Function of the Roman Temples. Regarded as the homes for gods and goddesses Place were correct rituals were carried out by the priests to honour the gods. What does the essays by mark roman temples reveal about Pompeian life. Their dedication and belief in different gods and goddesses—religion. Description and dimensions. Consisted of a cella (chamber) to contain a statue of the deity, which stood before the altar. Location and location significance. Most temples were mainly located in paper or around the forum. Importance or significance as an Archaeological object.

Understanding of the worship for gods and goddesses- although their was little focus on definition middle school personal religious devotion rather on paper the loyalty to Rome. Key fact to remember. Most temples at Pompeii came from the Roman period of occupation and were dedicated to essays written, public cults, enabling the people to payroll paper, demonstrate their loyalty to on your, Rome. The temples were not places where regular services were held for large numbers of people little focus on personal religious devotion. Evidence (modern, ancient, written, epigraphical) 10 temples excavated in Pompeii, none in Herculaneum.

“Numerius Popidius Celsinus, son of Numerius, rebuilt at his own expense from research paper it’s foundations the Temple of Isis, which had collapsed in an earthquake; because of his generosity, although he was only 6 years old, the town councilors nominated him into truman scholarship their number free of charge.” Temple to the Egyptian Goddess Isis, built in the Theatre District around end of 2nd century, reflecting the trading links between Pomp and Alexandria. Unearthed in 1760, the unusual discovery of an payroll, Egyptian temple in Italy, as well as the vividness of the remains there sparked much excitement. Carbonised remains in pits and on the altar A dead body – presumed to be the priest Statuettes and well – preserved paintings A small structure (purgatorium) with steps leading down to a well was believed to have provided purifying water for ceremonies. Much of the sanctuary’s decoration was calculated to emphasize the foreignness of the goddess. Statement Middle School! A tablet inscribed with genuine hieroglyphs was discovered in fron of the the temple itself Paintings depicting Egyptian gods: Anubis, Bes, Osiris, Harpocrates and Isis; and Egyptian landscapes peopled with strange creatures such as crocodiles, ibis and payroll research paper pygmies. Essay! Further evidence of the cult has been found at Herc, as well as other surrounding sea-port towns such as Stabiae and payroll research Puteoli. The popularity of the cult is reflected in scholarship the discovery of paper, statuettes of Isis and several cult-rattles, sistra , found in private houses. Furthermore, some twenty lararia were decorated with images of Isis, and several individuals donated statuettes within the sanctuary enclosure: A marble statuette, executed in archaizing style, depicts the cheat homework goddess holding a sistrum in her right hand and the key of the Nile in her left.

Traces of gilding can still be seen on the marble. Inscription: “Lucius Caecilius Phoebus erected (this statue); space granted by decree of the town councillors.” An inscribed pilaster, which once supported a (now lost) statuette. Inscription: “T Augustan Isis. Manilia Chrysa [fulfilled] her vow [willingly to payroll research, the deserving deity.]” Statuette of Bacchus, as a version of the Egyptian god Osiris, depicts him with a panther and is displayed in a small niche in the rear wall of the temples, with ears in stucco on either side, symbolic of thesis statement, his responsiveness to prayer. Inscription on payroll research paper plinth:

Numerius Popidius Ampliatus, father, at his own expense.” (father of the child who nominally rebuilt the essays written twain temple) Actor Norbanus was honoured with a portrait bust in the sanctuary, perhaps in payroll paper connection with his appearances in essay questions the adjacent theatre. Research! The notion that the cult’s popularity was the result of some kind of religious crisis, with the ride of a belief based cult requiring initiation at the expense of ‘traditional’ religious cults, is statement school, no longer tenable, although the cult was regarded with suspiscion at Rome until the 1st century AD. The reference to “worshippers of Isis” in research electoral notices , however, certainly implies that at least some of her adherents had a sense of group identity not found with other cults. Both of these notices date from Pompeii’s last decade. Road outside the temple: “All the twain worshipppers of Isis call for Gnaeus Helvius Sabinus as aedile.” 50 metres from temple, Stabian Street: “Popidius Natalis, his client, with the worshippers of paper, Isis, call for Cuspius Pansa as aedile.” Temple of Jupiter.

Marble plaque One side, 3 BC in Greek: “Gaius Iulius Hephastion, son of Hephastion, priest of the gp essays heightens community of paper, Frigi, dedicated to Jupiter Frigio in statement definition school the 27th year of Caesar, in payroll research the month of Pharmouthi, on thesis statement the Emperor’s day. Buildings associated with administration, religion and commerce were clustered around or near the payroll research paper Forum which was the chief meeting and trading place in gp essays heightens the town. In Pompeii, the Forum was located were the main roads from Naples, Nola and Stabiae met “a confused jumble of shops, workshops, crafts, residential and horticultural plots and houses across the whole city, with no real attempt at paper, commercial segregation or concentration beyond the tendency of shops to line the main roads and horticulture to truman essay, cluster on the margins” A. Wallace- Hadrill “because our ancestors handed down to us the custom of holding gladiatorial combats there; the columns must therefore be more widely spaced to allow a good view…the width will be two-thirds of the length, the shape thus being rectangular, a more convenient proportion for payroll paper, shows” Vitruvius “under the poticoes, the money-changers’ stalls, and above, galleries…. [the dimensions had to] be proportionate to the size of the population, otherwise there will be a shortage of space, or the forum, too scantily filled, will look empty. The columns of the upper storey will be one-third less in height than those below, which being more heavily laden must be stronger” Vitruvius Rectangular paved area 40m wide and 150m long . Written By Mark! Features about 40 statues of leading citizens and paper the imperial family At time of eruption was undergoing a comprehensive, vigorous and ambitious post-earthquake restoration Closed to wheeled traffic Access barred by large rectangular blocks fitted solidly in the ground Also evidence that the area could be closed off by grilled gates during certain events Deep wheel ruts on space homework surrounding roads, attest to the amount of traffic focused on the Forum Network of payroll paper, drains in the forum- drainage water flowed down the streets to an outlet outside the walls Any day of the week the forum was busy—market day, however would have been filled with the lively bustle of shopkeepers and stall- holders, merchants, money-changers, customers, teachers and students and those attending the law courts of holding political office Frieze in the House of how to homework, Julia Felix- depicts aspects of paper, life in the Forum Forum buildings were roofed in red terracotta tiles Pompeian people covered the Forum walls, particularly the Basilica with painted notices “in vivid colors and large letter, the better to draw attention” M. Brion. Two theatres in Pompeii- essentially Greek in design Seating capacity in Pompeii largest theatre was 5000 Popular entertainment included comedies, tragedies and farces Horse shoe shaped auditorium- divided into three horizontal areas Section nearest to the stage (ima cavea) reserved for authorities and important visitors Highest section (summa cavea) appears to have been occupied by women Other members of the public were seated in the media cavea Proscenium- back drop for the performance was ornamented with columns and statues and connected by three doors to an are behind, possibly by actors’ change rooms Adjacent to the theatres was a spacious foyer (quadriporticus) where spectators could stroll between performances Herculaneum- theatre of Herculaneum could hold about 2500 people Proscenium decorated with red and yellow porphyry columns and cornices of green serpentine with niches for statuary. Often organized for religious festivities to celebrate the dedication of a monument or achievement Entry was free to cheat homework, all but admission could be gained to the theatre only by having a small pieve of hone or ivory as a token which indicated where the holder was to paper, sit “in the form of gish, birds, skulls or theatre masks” G. Capasso. Those with the image of the bird indicated the highest seats against the wall All classes attended the theatre although there is some doubt about slaves Theatres were noisy- audiences were farces, excitable and sometimes impatient Actors had a low social status but were popular Lucius Domitius Paris, a favourite of the threatre-loving emperor Nero was was called “Paris, the sweet darling” Grant Generally no female actors Women however, did seem to take part in mimes and pantomimes and there is scholarship essay questions, a graffito of an actress called Histrionica Rotica (erotica) perhaps a name inficative of research, what she did on stage Seems performances were infrequence and twain “tended to be put on for private groups” J.R. Green Wigs and masks were worn which amplified the research paper voice Trapdoors, methods of making thunder, lightning, rain and smoke which signaled the appearance of divine apparitions Most popular amoung the space homework people were the research paper Oscan farces (Atellanae)—type of theatre Crude dialogue Pantomime- short amusing plots, ludicrous actions and obscene gestures Did not wear masks Performed bare foot Women sometimes did some form of a striptease in response to the audience Actors accompanied by musicians Based loosely on mythological themes. Theatre complex at truman scholarship essay, Pompeii and the magnificent theatre at Herculaneum, the number of theatrical motifs used in the decoration of research paper, well-to-do houses and the graffitii written by fans about local and visiting actors. Pompeii- Palaestra in definition middle school Pompeii was opposite the amphitheatre and was a 107 by 141 metre rectangle, surrounded by a portico on three sides, shade trees and enclosed by a wall. In the centre was a large swimming pool Herculaneum- occupied a whole block with a street frontage of approximately 110m and research depth of truman scholarship, 70m with a swimming pool in the shape of a cross about 50m in length with its cross arm about 30m.

Surrounded by trees (the roots have been found) and the field itself outside the payroll research pool was large enough for practicing all the traditional sports of athletics, wrestling, javelin and discus throwing. Its main entrance was “like a majestic columned cella, or inner portion of a temple… all was spacious and imposing” Deiss. Deiss also suggests that in questions this room sacrafices were made before a competition and that there probably stood a magnificent statue of Hercules, patron of the town. In order to promote physical excellence, virtue and loyalthy to the state, Augustus formed associations of young people (collegia) who competed in athletic competitions or Youth games before their elders. Local unit in Poempii was known as Iuventus Pompeiana and payroll paper is believed to have comprised young men and women from the age of 11 to 17 This carefully inscribed travertine plaque was found in the Samnite Palaestra and probably commemorates it’s construction: “Vibius Atranus, son of Vibius, granted money in his will to heightens, the people of Pompeii; with this money, the Pompeian quaestor, Vibius Vinicius, son of payroll paper, Maras, by decree of the essays assembly, issued a contract for this to be built, and he himself approved it.” Buildings in research Pompeii associated with gladiatorial contests were: The amphitheatre built c.70 BC at the expense of the essay survivor duoviri quinquennali, C. Payroll Paper! Quintius Valgus and Marcus Porcius The barracks dated to 62AD The quadriporticus The schola armaturium, depository of gladiatorial armour but also thought to be a school for the “Pompeian Youth”

The great amphitheatre. Could hold 20 000 people- suggest people from towns and countryside around Pompeii regularly attended performances Built in the south-east of the city—to avoid congestion because south-east was not so densely populated Access to higher levels (summa cavea) via two double and two single stairways. This was were women were seated Middle sections (media cavea)- reached by space homework a covered gallery leading from the western side Ima cavea- reserved for research paper, city authorities and distinguished guests were divided from the rest of the cavea by a barrier 80cm high and the stone tiers in this area were larder and shallower to thesis statement definition middle, allow for the potable seats (bisella) of the elite who were protected from the activities in the area by a parapet 2.18m high. Access to payroll research, arena was via 2 paced vaulted tunnels Velarium were provided and part of the system by which the awning was anchored can still be seen at the top of the back wall. Types of gladiators. There were different types of space homework, gladiators, some of whom included: the Samnite who was heavily armed with a sword or lance and research a rectangular shield-he wore a metal helmet and protective armour on essays written his right arm and left leg the Thracian was not as heavily armed-he carried a short curved sword and payroll research a small round shield and gp essays on education heightens inequality wore an arm guard on his right arm, leg guards and a highly decorated helmet the myrmillo (fish man) had a fish-shaped crest on research his helmet, hence the name-he carried a rectangular shield and wore arm and statement school leg guards the payroll paper retiarius (the net wielder) used a trident (a three-pronged spear) and tried to trap his opponent in his net-he wore an arm and shoulder guard. On Your Homework! There were also specialist gladiators who fought using daggers and lances, chariot fighters (the essedarii), cavalrymen (eques) and even some who grappled with each other blindfolded. Staging a spectacle.

The games’ sponsors called editors munerum, were expected to fully or partly finance the production Possibly most famous was Cn. Alleius Nigidius Maius, described as ‘prince of the games’ Lanista- an entrepreneur who sold or rented his gladiators for the munus Going price for a gladiator depended on payroll his success in the arena Sometimes a lanista not only ran his own ludus (school) but was able to successfully negotiate for the performance of well-known gladiators from one of the essays written by mark twain imperial schools in Rome such as the Iuliani or Neroniani. Agents job was not easy as he had to be able to payroll, provide large numbers of gladiators, constantly recruit and train new members to space homework, replace those who died or retired, and payroll research paper deal with city authorities Advertising in form of edicta munerum was painted on holocaust survivor walls and distributed by pamphlets sold on street. Programs included Name of magistrate and his official position Reason for the spectacle Number of research, gladiators Other events such as beast hunts Date (usually held over one day) Provision of a velarium and sparsiones “Twenty pairs of gladiators of Decimus Lurcretius Satrius Valens… ten pairs of gladiators… will fight at Pompeii from April 8-14. Fight with wild beast according to normal standards: Velarium will be used.” Because spectacles lasted from on your dawn till dusk, the aediles gave permission for itinerant pedlars to set up food and drink stalls beneath the portico No remains of toilets—spectators probably used the latrines in the nearby Palaestra Spectacle began with a procession (pompa featuring musicians and all participants in ornate garments Morning session was often devoted to venationes (animal hunts) Venatores and bestiarii would fight against research paper wild exotic animals or animal would be pitted against animal Probably served to increase the bloodlust of the spectators Gladiators were subjected to a weapons check Tiro or T in the graffiti—gladiator was freeborn or involved in thesis statement definition school his first fight Missum or M in the graffiti—editor or emperor to grant mercy, usually took notice of wishes of paper, spectators Vicit or V in graffiti—victorious gladiators, they received a palm as a sign of victory and money, the amount decided on before the contest Gladiators were prisoners of how to homework, war, slaves, freedmen, criminals condemned to payroll paper, death and occasionally ingenui, fallen on hard times Majority were slaves References to free men in the inscriptions “six free men to twenty slaves appeared on one occasion in the area” “the same year witnessed gladiatorial displays on no less magnificent scale than before, but exceeding all precedent in the number of distinguished women and senators disgracing themselves in the area” Tacitus These instances should not be considered the essay survivor norm- women fighting “But then he was a gladiator! It is this that transforms these fellows into hyacinths!” Juvenal Discussing how they were adored by women- enough for them to leave their husbands and children Many gladiators finished their career and went on to become instructors or even lanista. A major archaeological find was the gladiatorial equipment such as helmets, greaves and weapons found in 1766-67 in the gladiators’ barracks. What remains are fifteen complete helmets, six single greaves, five pairs of greaves, three shoulder guards and a small round shield. Many of these items are lavishly embossed and it is thought that they were used in research the ceremonial parades rather than as fighting equipment.

Gladiators depicted on a tomb in Pompeii—enabling historians to thesis statement school, understand the different armour and payroll research outfits worn by gladiators The gladiatorial troupe of Aulus Suettius Certus will fight at Pompeii on 31 May. There will be a hunt and awnings. Thesis School! Good luck to all Neronian games (CILV IV.1190) This beast-fighting will be on 28 August and payroll Felix will fight the bears (ILS 5147) Wallace Hadrill describes the Pompeian houses as “an interlocking jigsaw of large, medium and small houses”Houses- Generic. Cicero asserted the importance of houses stating that “the most sacred, the most hallowed place on truman scholarship essay earth is the home” The House of the paper Faun was a 2 nd Century AD Roman house which is said to reflect the luxurious aristocracy of this Roman period more than any other house At an area of approximately 3,000 square meters, it is the largest Pompeian private house Decorations- elaborate floor mosaics and magnificent wall paintings. Mosaics made from tiny, cut and coloured stones called tesserae. One mosaic depicts a Nile River landscape. (Egyptian Influence?) Famous battle between Alexander the Great and Darius (Persian King) during the on education inequality conquest of Asia – This mosaic covered the floor of an exedra that opened onto the peristyle of the payroll research house Alexander is seen to the left and Darius stands on a chariot to the right, both are surrounded by their warring men. The mosaic measures slightly less than 20 m 2 It is thought that the mosaic is a copy of a painting featuring the same battle, as Pliny the Elder mentions a famous painting of the battle between Alexander and scholarship essay questions Darius Possible extrapolations from the mosaic include the fact that society was militaristic as well as that the owner of the house was a decedent of Alexander The mosaic of Bacchus riding a lion was found in one of the triclinia of the house. Bacchus is portrayed as a winged child drinking from a large cup This mosaic can be corroborated with a frescoe in the House of The Centenary: Bacchus and Mt Vesuvius which also portrays Bacchus is the god of fertility and wine.

Grand entrance hall. Pavement was written in traditional Latin greeting HAVE, which welcomed guests to the house. Shops at the front and research two atria. Named after the small bronze statue of the dancing faun found in the impluvium of the larger atrium. Questions! Fauns are spirits of untamed woodland, which literate and Hellenized Romans often connected to payroll research, Pan and Greek satyrs, or wild followers of the Greek god of wine and agriculture, Dionysus and his Roman counterpart Bacchus. It is purely decorative sculpture of a high order: “the pose is light and graceful,” Sir Kenneth Clark observed Two gardens, one average size and the other half the area of the truman scholarship essay house. Large peristyle had a spacious kitchen with high ceilings. Windows released cooking smoke and odours. Payroll Paper! Four rooms interpreted as summer and winter dining rooms Bath complex and stables also found. The House of the Tragic Poet is on your homework, a typical 2nd century BC Roman house in Pompeii, Italy famous for its elaborate mosaic floors and frescoes depicting scenes from Greek mythology, hence it is often also referred to as The Homeric Houseor The Iliadic House Vestibulum The vestubula floor near the porta antica – front door – contains a mosaic of a black dog spotted with white, represented on the pavement in research mosaic, collared and chained, and in the attitude of barking.

The collar is of red leather. Below the how to cheat on your homework animal is research paper, inscribed, in essay holocaust very legible characters, “cave canem” or “beaware of the dog”, a sentence, probably, not uncommonly placed at research, the entrance of Roman houses, as we can extrapolate from a Latin passage from Petronius Arbiter that guard dogs were common place. The mosaic also depicts an interpretation of Cerberus, the fierce 3 headed dog that guards the gates of Hell in Greek mythology a Greek, Hellenistic influence indicating trade, social class as well as education. The mosaic is timeless, as according to Beard, it “does still stand as a warning notice at the entrance to many a modern house” Greek Frescoes in the Atrium The atrium was the focal point of art in the House of the Tragic Poet, containing large scale mythological frescoes; each approximately four feet square, making figures slightly smaller than life-size. On the south wall of the atrium were two images—one ofZeus and Hera on Mount Ida and another of Aphrodite (now almost entirely destroyed). On Education! The image of Zeus and paper Hera celebrates a woman’s loss of virginity—a transition from youth to womanhood—as Hera’s veil is clearly removed from her head, symbolically exposing her face. The image of Aphrodite was most likely a nude, outdoor image with other figures.

The west wall of the atrium shows images ofAmphitrite and essay holocaust Poseidon and of Achilles and The first image, sometimes informally called the abduction of Amphitrite, shows Eros and Poseidon fighting, with multiple nymphs surrounding and nude. The second, known as the Wrath of Achilles, depicts the storyline of the Iliad, with Achilles angered from losing Briseis. From corroboration of the frescoes in the atrium of the House of the Tragic Poet, one can extrapolate the collective observation that international discourse between Greece and Rome was common through trade, and Roman society had a taste for the exotic as they often ‘borrowed’ aspects of Greek society such as religion. Pompeian society did hold an utmost admiration for paper, the Greeks, as according to Vitruvius, “the Greeks were more refined, and inequality possessed greater wealth” Cicero elaborates upon this with his anthropological observation that “Generally speaking, one tries to payroll paper, imitate the ways of the illustrious people” Tablinium The tablinium floor, was decorated with an elaborate mosaic image. Here, actors gather backstage preparing for a performance, as one character dresses and another plays a flute.

Other characters surround a box of masks to be used during the performance. Essays Written By Mark Twain! Because this mosaic is the centerpiece of the room and therefore seemingly important, modern archaeologists came up with the name “House of the Tragic Poet” to describe the entire villa. Next to this was a mosaic of Athena and Zeus, this was most likely supposed to portray Athena’s birth scene. Peristyle To the left of the paper peristylewas a fresco known as the Sacrifice of Iphigenia, in which Iphigenia is taken by Ulysses and essay holocaust survivor Achilles to be sacrificed just before Artemis delivers a deer to be sacrificed in her place. Observations/ Extrapolations Little is known about the owners of the House of the Tragic Poet, however one assertion- founded on payroll research the extensive evidence of Greek influence- was that they were indeed foreigners from Greece. NB: a praedia is a block of land. Scholarship Questions! The Praedia of Julia Felix was a private house divided into payroll paper insulae containing a bath system that was rented to truman scholarship essay questions, the public Epigraphic evidence of an inscription states: “To let, for the term of five years, from the thirteenth day of next August to the thirteenth day of the sixth August thereafter, the payroll research Venus bath, fitted up for the best people, shops, rooms over shops, and second-storey apartments in the property owned by Julia Felix, daughter of thesis definition middle school, Spurius” From this one can extrapolate that Julia Felix was a business woman, landlady, letter of the three baths, and paper a woman of high status; enabling an statement definition middle, historian to make the collective observation that women were able to hold high standing roles within Roman society such as owning and managing property, such assertion is payroll research, reinforced by the fact that the largest estate in how to homework Pompeii was in fact owned by a woman. The Praedia was one of the largest in research paper Pompeii, with orchards and gardens occupying most of the space; the house takes up 1/3 of the estate. It is essay, situated on payroll the Via dell’Abbadanza and definition appears to have been reconstructed after the earthquake of 62 ADa the imperative for reconstruction after the earthquake is a possible reason for Julia Felix to have to let out the baths (make sufficient funds for repairs) Wallace Hadrill asserts that without the payroll epigraphic evidence, one would not suspect that the elegantly decorated garden and nymphaeum attached to the baths were fore commercial use. Thesis Statement Middle! The private bathing facility was elaborate and intended for the “best people” (epigraphic inscription) Venus bath: Venus is a roman God, however her private lararium indicated veneration of the Egyptian god Isis. She does not publish her affiliation with the notorious “cult of paper, Isis” because, contextually, it was not socially acceptable.

Artwork in the Praedia of truman questions, Julia Felix Frescoes found generally depicted scenes of everyday life, generally shown in the forum. Frescoes/Friezes- difference is that a frieze circles the whole room like a boarder. Freizes found in payroll research paper the house depict aspects of the gp essays on education mundane. One is 70cm high and 31m long circulating the entire atrium It depicts commercial activities in the forum such as: Shop keepers selling their wares such as vegetables, cloth, bronze pans and shoes Male figures reading the latest news from a panel A woman accompanying a servant girl giving arms to research, an old man leaning on a stick A teacher whipping a student in front of his classmates The frieze is useful for historians studying daily Pompeian life as well as allowing one to middle, extrapolate the importance of the forum as the epicentre of daily Pompeian life. It contained a large grotto style triclinium completed with a private nymphaea The Praedia is research, peppered with Egyptian influence: Walls of the cheat homework grotto decorated with Nile scenes Peristyle which some scholars perceive to payroll research paper, represent a branch of the Nile delta. Garden – viridarium – contained a small lararium or shrine to Isis Her house is how to homework, useful to show Social structure Role of women Everyday life Leisure activities Egyptian influence The economy, commercial activity.

Overview The remains of about 100 villas have been excavated, some only a few hundred meters apart, scattered across the research paper Sarno plain. Villas varied in space homework scale, architectural features and luxury and unlike urban domus, they did not look inward but were designed to take the view of the sea or the rolling countryside They were built outside the walls of the city Villas built purely for research paper, leisure- otium Often built on different kevels with terraces and belvederes, a subterranean portico – cryptoporticus – expansive gardens, groves, grottoes, large water displays, thermal baths and large swimming pools Villa of the Papyri: Herculaneum On the coastal outskirts of Herculaneum was the epitome of a villa built for written, leisure. Believed to have belonged to the Pisones, a notable Roman aristocratic family, who loved to surround themselves with the most refined friends, philosophers and men of payroll, letters. Capasso stated that the villa “remains one of the greatest testaments to the cultural level reached by the romans during the Hellenistic age” This maritime villa was sheltered from the north winds by the woods of Vesuvius and cooled by the sea breezes in the heat of summer. According to Amadeo Maiuri it had “commanded all the freedom and breadth of a vista that its fortunate position could offer” Its dimensions were 245 by 137m A colonnade of essays written by mark twain, 36 columns circled the peristyle Extensive gardens – filled with statues and fountains – the water of payroll research, which supplied by a system of hydraulic pipes A terrace overlooking the sea ran the entire length of the villa and circular belvedere, giving a 360? view and paved with a fine mosaic A total of 87 marble and bronze sculptures from the Greek archaic period Some originals and essay holocaust survivor other superb copies were found in the garden and various rooms of the villa The sculptures included: Gods Nymphs Famous operators and philosophers Athletes Forrest animals It also contained the largest papyrus library (from where it got its name) containing 1800 rolls, almost entirely the payroll research paper writings of Epicurean philosophers and more specifically, the work of essay, Philodemus of Gadara. Their content covered such topics as poetry, ethics, music, love, madness and death. Other villas: suburban villas The two Pompeian suburban villas: The Villa of paper, Mysteries The Villa of Diomedes Were built on several levels providing the ideals of indoor/outdoor living. The villa of gp essays inequality, Diomedes had a series of terraces on payroll research several levels overlooking “the largest garden in the whole Pompeian region” (M. Grant) Both villas had their own bath suits with a succession of frigidarium, tepidarium and cadarium.

Main commercial thoroughfare in how to cheat on your homework Pompeii was the road that ran from the Forum past the payroll paper ampitheatre to the Sarnian gate: This was the essay Via dell’ Abbadanza Remains of shops can be recognized by the wide openings – designed to payroll research, entice potential customers – where a wooden shutter slid back during the space homework day Many had a mezzanine – accessed by internal stairs – this was the living quarters of the research shopkeeper. There was no order or collective to the shops, all interspersed with grand residences behind. Architectural evidence of a joint in the wall where a beam would have been attached for a sign that would have featured a picture of the product A collective observation that can be extrapolated from this is that: Literacy was not universal a people sent their slaves out to thesis school, buy food a also multiple foreigners, as Pompeii was a port town. Alas, there is no evidence of this painting and such is research, mere deduction. Essays! Food outlets About 200 public eating and drinking places have been identified in Pompeii Some were merely fast food snack bars, and are recognized by marble covered counters or thermapolia in which large dolia, holding hot food and drinks, were encased. Payroll Paper! In most places, food was taken away or eaten standing up a crude terracotta bowls; roughly made; not fired well; very brittle; only purpose is to be temporary vessels for food. Reused if intact, but lots of space homework, broken bowls found. One of the largest food outlets found in Herculaneum, opposite the palaestra had two spacious entrances.

Its counter was “faced with irregular pieces of polychrome marble and paper eight large jugs (inserted into the counter itself)… other jugs and amphorae may have been used for other types of truman essay, oil or for payroll paper, sauce. A stove behind the counter was in use: varied dishes were kept simmering in space homework terracotta casseroles over the charcoal fire” (Diess) Wine bars and taverns- cauponae/ popina/ hospitum / stabulum A popina sold food and drink, these were the ones which were generally associated with drunken violence. The term thermopolia is payroll, often associated with this type of inn/bar Caupona did not sell hot food- therefore no dolia Cauponae were scattered throughout both towns but in Pompeii they were more densely clustered near the entrance gates and around the ampitheatre. Indeed, places where people congregate – in this case, before gladiator fights or passing travelers – thus, geographical evidence reveals they were more abundant near concentrated areas of population. Moreover, the hot weather in summer called for the need for refreshment And indeed, Pompeians were heavy drinkers Hospitum was a guest house- drinks and accommodation – “we pissed in the bed” indicates it enabled accommodation Stabulum was an inn or tavern which housed people as well as their animals. Essays Written By Mark Twain! Bars contained amphorae, bronze cauldrons Epigraphic evidence reveals “cheers! We drink like wineskins” and payroll research paper “Sauvis demands full wine jars please, his thirst is enormous” “you sell water and essay survivor you drink the pure wine yourself” corroborative epigraphic evidence reveals two people fighting over payroll research a drink. Alas, most drank their wine diluted they mixed it with water and added other ingredients such as “honey, milk, ashes, lime, almonds and sea water” (M.

Grant) They also sweetened sour wine with “a sweet tasting lead acetate syrup made by boiling the dregs of wine in lead lined copper pans for several days” (M. Grant) Another Pompeian favourite was hot wine in winter. One of the better known establishments was a caupona owned by a woman named Asellina situated on the Via dell’Abbodanza who employed foreign waitresses called Smyrna, Maria and statement middle Argle as indicated by electoral posters giving their names (some believed they were prostitutes) Sums showing customer debts were scrawled on paper the inside wall of her inn while political slogans, painted on the outside walls revealed her interest in the forthcoming elections. Electoral posters can be corroborated by definition middle school others found in the city. An inscription found at payroll research, the entrance of essays written by mark twain, a bar states “Hedone says: drinks cost an as here, but you get a better drink if you spend two. If you hand over four asses, you can drink Falernian (Imported wine) Villa Regina was found with 18 dolia with a capacity of research paper, 10,00 litres.

Food Evidence of drink in Pompeii and Herculaneum is found both within and holocaust survivor outside the walls of the cities. Archaeological evidence enables us to identify the foods that were available to the population. It appears that they had a varied diet. Payroll Research! Seeds and essays by mark pops from foods such as dates, figs, and paper olives have been preserved in the volcanic ash Carbonised eggs, figs, loaves of bread and nuts including walnuts hazelnuts and space homework almonds have also been found. Animal bones from sheep, pigs and cattle asset to the consumption of meat. Payroll! Evidence for the presence of seafood in the populations diet comes from truman essay questions fish bones and the shells of scallops, cockles sea urchins and research paper cuttlefish. Essay Holocaust! A team from paper Oxford University has been investigating remains from latrine pits and sewers at Pompeii. As latrines were usually in the kitchen they were used to dispose of space homework, both human excretement and food scraps.

So far, mineralized seeds, small bones, and marine shell fragments have been found. Further work at Herculaneum is being carried out as part of the Herculaneum Conservation Project, which should provide more dietary evidence. Professor Wilhelmina Jashemski, an archaeologist specializing in research the gardens and horti of holocaust, Pompeii, discovered that many houses had spaces for research paper, the cultivation of figs, olives, cherries and other fruit and veg. Evidence for viticulture within Poompeii, and hence for the drinking of wine, came from her discovery of a vineyard within the how to cheat homework walls. Artworks including frescoes and mosaics that feature foods such as fruit, fish, poultry and game also provide information about diet at Pompeii and paper Herculaneum. However these sources are limited through people’s desire to holocaust survivor, portray a glamourized and exotic representation of food, such as Greek portrayals indicating influence. viii.

Influence of payroll research paper, Greek and holocaust Egyptian Cultures. Statues – many were copies of Greek originals (statues of Doryphoros, a cpy of the statue Polyclete) Mosaics (the Alexander Mosaic in The House of the Faun depicting Alexander the Great and a Persian King Darius at the Battle of Issus, a copy of a Hellenistic painting by Philoxenos of Eretria) Many murals depict characters and scenes from Greek myths. Theatre – features of the large theatre reflect Hellenistic design The horse shoed shaped terraces The colonnaded quadriporticus Doric columns Palaestrae – large open colonnaded spaces reflect Greek design Many buildings feature Greek architectural elements: Doric, Ionic and Corinthian columns Peristyle (e.g. the House of the payroll paper Faun) Colonnade. Herculaneum probably named for Greek hero Herakles, Roman Hercules. Images of Hercules found in Pompeii ( statuette in space homework temple of Isis) and Herculaneum (in a public fountain, house and wineshop) Demeter, Apollo – evidence of worship of Greek Gods Sanctuary to Dionysus found near amphitheatre; Villa of the Mysteries secret Dionysian cult. Nile scenes in mosaics (threshold mosaic from the House of the Faun depicting crocodiles, hippopotamus and ibis) Wall paintings with Egyptian motifs (The temple of Isis has Egyptians – style landscapes and scenes from payroll Egyptian mythology) Garden Art – the water feature in the Praedia of Julia Felix represents a Delta branch in the Nile, as does her grotto style dining room. The cult of Isis – temple Egyptian gods are dedicated in shrines (the household shrine to space homework, Isis from the House of the Golden Cupids features Anubis, Harpocrates, Isis and Sarapis) Cults of Isis and Sarapis popular because they offered ability of an afterlife. (NB: Primarily refer to public buildings)

Temples at Herculaneum are yet to payroll, be excavated, whereas there are a number of temples and sanctuaries in Pompeii. They were regarded as the homes for gods and goddesses and consisted of a cella to contain the statue of the deity which stood before an altar. Most temples at Pompeii came from the Roman period of occupation and by mark were dedicated to payroll, public cults, enabling the statement definition middle people to demonstrate their loyalty to Rome. There was little focus on personal religious devotion. The domestic hearth or fireplace was the centre of the household and it was here that the payroll paterfamilias celebrated the religious practices connected with the family and the household. The Roman goddess Vesta (Greek counterpart Hestia) was worshipped, along with three other deities: The lares: household deities that protected the family. They were headed by the family sporit, lar familiaris . They had their own shrine in essays written by mark twain a cupboard.

Any food dropped at a meal was offered to the Archaeological report shows evidence of lares offerings: “Small pits containing high concentrations of cremated bones and carbonised plant remains were found in the gardens of … and also the two peristyle gardens of …(House of Amarantus). The bones include parts of piglets and the heads and feet of cocks. The carbonised remains include stone – pine cones, figs, dates, grapes and hazel nuts. Other items include a piece of poppy seed bread or pastry. These remains have been interpreted as offerings to the Lares. Several classical authors refer to such offerigns and they are depicted on wall paintings at lararia in Pompeii but these are the first occasions such remains have been found in the ground. ” The genius : the god of the research paper male line of descent. The god was worshipped on the birthday of the paterfamilias; sometimes represented as a snake. The penates: the gods of the larder or food store. Their statuettes were placed on essays by mark twain the table at meal times. Every home also had its own shrine or lararium usually located in the atrium where the whole family carried out paper their daily worship. Prominent families kept wax mask-like images or portraits of their ancestors, and their family honoured these.

Excavations at Pompeii and holocaust Herculaneum have revealed a society that was tolerant of worship of payroll, foreign gods and the practices of imported cults. These tended to have a more personal focus with the essays written by mark twain promise of an afterlife. Research! The cult of Isis was very popular in Pompeii. Heightens Inequality! Another foreign cult was the worship of the Thracian fertility god Sabazius, who was equated with the Graeco-Roman god Dionysus/Bacchus. In 1954 a shrine to this god was unearthed. It consisted of a simple stone altar with two terracotta vases that probably contained offerings. Pompeian society was tolerant of the worship of foreign gods and the practices of payroll paper, imported cults. These tended to have a more personal focus as they provided the promise of an afterlife. Gp Essays Heightens Inequality! See the Temple of Isis. Another foreign cult was the payroll research paper worship of the Thracian fertility god Sabazius, who equated with the Graeco-Roman god Dionysus/ Bacchus. A shrine to this god was unearthed consisting of a simple stone altar with 2 terracotta vases that probably contained offerings.

Another discovery attesting to the diversity of foreign religious practices, was found by Maiuri in 1938 at how to cheat homework, the house of the Four Styles. Here he unearthed an ivory statuette of the Hindu goddess Lakshmi, goddess of beauty, fertility and research wealth. Her worship could have come to Pompeii through trade links. Small amount of space homework, evidence suggests the presence of Jews – biblical names of Mary and Martha found on walls and inscriptions on some amphorae. Our main sources of information about death and burial are the tombs and their inscriptions in the necropolis (Latin translation: city of death) or cemeteries located outside the city gates. No excavated tombs at Herculaneum. The majority of tombs in the streets that cluster Pompeii’s entrances are Roman, although a small number of Samnite burials have been excavated. Most of the funerary monuments are found on paper Sepulchre Street leading from the Herculaneum Gate and the Nucerian Way and near other gateways. The tombs are of various types, indicating that the rich and poor were interred close together.

The rich had imposing sepulchral monuments demonstrating their important place in the public life of Pompeii. For example: The tomb of Umbricius Scaurus shows scenes from gladiatorial games given in his honour. The tomb of Faustus and his wife Nevoleia Tyche was decorated with a scene of questions, a funeral ceremony and a ship lowering its sails. These tombs were decorated in a variety of Graeco – Hellenistic and Roman – Italic styles. Inscriptions on the monuments give us the name and research rank of the person and provide us with vital info about statement school their lives, public works and payroll research activities. It should be remembered though, that the inscriptions are evidence of homework, how tomb owners wanted to be remembered, not necessarily of what they were really like. Payroll! Another problem with evidence from the tombs is that very few children or slaves were represented, while there is much representation of freedmen and heightens inequality women. Selection of tomb inscriptions: To Septumia, daughter of Lucius. Granted by decree of the town councillors a burial place and 2000 sesterces for the funeral. Antistia Prima, daughter of Publius, her daughter, built (this monument.) To Marcus Obellius Firmus, son of Marcus, aedile, duumvir with judicial power. The town councillors decreed him a burial place and 5 000 sesterces for his funeral; the inhabitants of the research country district decreed him 30 pounds of frankincense, and a shield, and their attendants 1000 sesterces for perfumes and a shield.

To Gnaius Alleius Eros, freedman of Maius, appointed as Augustalia , free of space homework, charge, to whom Augustales and inhabitants of the country district decreed 1000 sesterces for his funeral rites. Lived 22 years. Helle, slave girl, lived 4 years. Research! Lucius Manlius Saturnius, son of Quartus, of the Romilian tribe, Ateste of space homework, his hometown, bodyguard, performed military service for 5 years, lived for 24 years. His brother set this up. Audia, daughter of Numerius, aged 112. 3. Investigating, reconstructing and preserving the past. a. Changing methods and contributions of nineteenth and twentieth century archaeologists to our understanding of Pompeii and Herculaneum. The Grandfather of modern archaeology; put a stop to previous destructive methods. In 1860, with the unification of Italy (the Kingdom of Naples was annexed to the Kingdom of Italy) and the demise of the Bourbon dynasty, a new era in Pompeian excavation began.

Giuseppe Fiorelli was appointed as inspector of the excavations and payroll research paper three years later was given direction of the Naples museum as well as the superintendency of Pompeii. “It is hard to exaggerate his impact on the history of Pompeii. Whether he was primarily a political pragmatist, administrator or arch innovator, Fiorelli arguably remains the individual who had the greatest impact upon essay holocaust the way in payroll which Pompeii has been both excavated and perceived.” (Cooley) To some extent, his innovations were the result of how to cheat on your homework, a gradual process which had begun ten years before. Fiorelli wanted to: Introduce a more cohesive and systematic approach to excavation as a whole Ensure more effective controls on research publication of the results of excavation Open the site up to more vistors Incorporate the essay site into the teaching program at naples university Set up an aquarium on the sit to house those more ordinary objects wanted at the Naples museum. He was responsible for introducing a uniform numbering and naming system by dividing the topography of the site – including those areas not yet excavated – into nine regions ( regiones ) each of 22 town blocks (insulae ) and entrances to shops and houses within each insula. He allocated a number to payroll paper, each, instead of the arbitrary naming of the that had been the practice. For example, the essay holocaust House of the Faun, which had eight different names, became VI – xii.

2, 5, 7. This system made it easier to draw up plans and to locate individuals structures. Although lay visitors to the site today still refer to houses by a name, as does this text, Fiorelli’s system, with some modifications, is still used by those working on the site and in their publications. He introdued a more systematic approach to excavation, unlike the haphazard digging of his predecessors who had excavated wherever the site seemed most promising. He organised a workforce of 500 people and, following the line of the payroll roads, connected different roads parts of the site. According to August Mau, ” he first set about essays by mark twain clearing the undisturbed places between the research paper excavated portions; and space homework hen in this way the payroll west part of the city had been laid bare, he commenced to work systematically from the excavated part to the east.” He realised that his predecessors had lost or overlooked a lot of precious information by digging straight down through the layers of debris and pumice to the ground level of AD 79, extracting anything of interest and shovelling the material aside. Artefacts had been documented with no understanding of their context, and information about collapsed upper storeys was lost. He imposed a system of slowly uncovering the houses rom the top down, collecting data to help restore the cheat homework ancient buildings and their interiors and gain a better understanding of the process of burial. (Descourdres) ” Although Fiorelli’s method was still a afar cry from modern statigraphioc digging techniques…it was a first step in the right direction.” Wherwever possible, he left paintings in situ, although the best continued to be cut from the wall and shipped off to Naples. Other objects were removed for paper, display to a small antiquarium built on the site.

He made a discovery that contributed more than anything else to his fame: his recognition of the significance of cavities in the deposits of hardened ash as impressions of the victims’ bodies. With the passage of time, the ash had solidified around the body contours as it decomposed, and an impression was left. He deviseda method of injecting liquid plaster into the cavities, enabling him to recover not only the gp essays on education heightens inequality shapes of humans and animals as they died, but other objects made of payroll research paper, perishable material. Today, a similar process of casting is how to, used, but plaster has been replaced with a semi-transparent epoxy resin. Vittorio Spinazzola, as director, was more interested in payroll research paper “the realities of town planning”(Etienne) than with the possibility of “extraordinary discoveries.” Between 1912 and essay 1914, he chose to move his investigations away from the northern quarters of the research paper town and focus on a 600 metre length of the gp essays on education heightens main commercial road – the Via dell’Abbondanza or the Street of payroll, Abundance – that ran west to east through Pompeii., linking the forum with the amphitheatre and the Sarnian gate. This resulted in a more unified approach, and these “New Excavations” as they came to essays written, be called, “revealed a Pompeii that had been scarcely dreamed of” (Etienne) with its election posters, popular paintings and research numerous shops and workshops, such as the Laundry of essays by mark twain, Stephanus and the Inn of Asellina, interspersed with fine houses. His meticulous excavation method showed how the buildings along the main east – west street had been buried, and allowed him to reconstruct their facades as fully as possible, particularly the upper floors, with their windows, balconies and roofs. Occasionally, when he found a building of particular interest, he would dig past the facade into the insula. In this way, he discovered houses such as that of the Cryptoporticsus and Octavio Quartio (or Loreius Tibertinus) with its extensive gardens and waterworks. However, criticisms can be made of Spinazzola’s work. By focussing on unearthing frontages only, he had to shore them up to prevent them collapsing from the earth behind.

Also, he could only guess at payroll, the exact function of many shops. Spinazzola’s directorship was caught up in the bureaucratic reorganisation and gp essays political changes associated with the rise of the Facist government of Mussolilni in Italy, and, in 1932 was forced to retire. However, by payroll research that time “the town’s most important business artery had been cleared over almost its entire length.” (Descourdres) It was left to his successor, Mauiri, to bring it to essays written by mark, the condition visitors enjoy today. Maiuri took over the directorship of Pompeii in 1924 and remained in charge until his retirement in 1961. He has often been described as the most productive, determined and controversial director in the history of payroll paper, excavations.

Piovene: “this prince among archaeologists”. By Mark! Wallace – Hadrill: “towering figure…endlessly energetic, learned and imaginative”; “his massive presence lies behind the payroll excavation, publication and interpretation of the majority of houses” His most productive period corresponded with the Fascist government of Mussolini – the heightens inequality twenties through to payroll research, the outbreak of World War II – when Italian archaeology as a whole benefited from an truman essay, injection of state funds. Payroll Research! Excavations ceased during the war, and Pompeii suffered serious damage from 160 bomb dropped by the allies in 1943. Digging was resumed in 1947, and 1951 until 1961 there was intensive activity at Pompeii with over ten insulae totally cleared. However, much of the latter work was hurried and how to cheat homework chronically underfunded. Despite his wide – ranging excavations, by payroll research paper the time he retired, 26 hectares of the total site of 66 hectares were still not excavated. Summary of Achievements. Continued work of statement definition school, Spinazzola along the Via dell’Abbondanza in an attempt to uncover the insulae on either side and gain a view of the paper whole Excavated the House of Menander with its famous silver treasure (118 pieces) Completed work on the Villa of the Mysteries outside the wall of Pompeii Studied the structure of the walls and towers Cleared and restored the area behind the Triangular Forum which revealed the terrace houses on the steep flank of the Pompeian mound. Essays Twain! Deepened the excavations at significant locations (Forum, tmeples and oldest houses) to investigate pre – Roman levels. Restored public buildings such as the tribunal of the basilica and the roofs of many houses Supervised the re-openings of the excavation at Herculanuem Discovered the house of the Bi-centenary in Herc – the payroll research towns largest and richest residence – containing 18 wax tablets Resumed excavations after WWII with the Villa Imperiale discovered under the antiquarian and a pre Roman to Dionysus found in holocaust a bomb crater Explored regions I and II and brougt to light the House of research, Ajulia Felix which had been originally uncovered in space homework 1775 and then reburied Cleared the necropolis outside the Nucerian Gate.

Influences on Maiuri’s interpretations of the paper finds. Mussolini and cheat the Fascist’s ruthlessly exploited the potential of Italy’s imperial past in research order “to create a model for a new imperialist Italy” (Wallace Hadrill) Archaeology and truman scholarship essay questions Mauriri benefited from the dictator’s financial support. Whether consciously or not, Maiuri followed the political line by payroll paper excavating glorious monuments such as the House of Menander and the Villa of Mysteries, which were a testament to the magnificence of gp essays on education, Italy’s past. When he excavated the House of Menander between 1927 and payroll paper 1933, the evidence, (wall paintings and silver treasure hoard) convinced him of ownership at the highest level of society, probably a member of the Poppaea gens to whom Poppaea Sabina, Nero’s second wife, belonged. How To Homework! Pliny the Elder had described how refined Romans collected the finest antique silver decorated with themes from classical Greek mythology and poetry. Painter: “In Maiuris interpretation the payroll House of Menander became an illustration of Pliny’s text.” After 1926, he became interested in gp essays the historical debate engendered by Michael Rostovtzeff’s The Social and Economic Hisotry of the Roman Empire in which he focused on the rise of the commercially and industrially based bourgeoisie in early imperial Italy.

Rostovtzeff was a Russian exile who became professor of payroll research paper, ancient history and archaeology at Yale University. For his history, he had drawn on his knowledge of Pompeii which he had visited several times. In fact, he had written his thesis years years before on ‘In the light of the New Excavations’. Heightens Inequality! It is research paper, believed that Maiuri drew on Rostovtzeff for his interpretation of the scholarship essay archaeological finds in P and Herc. Maiuri looked for physical evidence of economic and social change in both towns. Paper! To him the “often surprising juxtaposition of rich and poor, beautiful and commercial, luxurious and squalid, suggested patrician classes in decline”‘ with a “brutal invasion of the commerical world.” (Wallace Hadrill). He formulated a thesis of a major social and economic transformation of the early empire, which developed into a crisis after her earthquake of AD 62, when he believed patricians left the city and retreated to their country estates, leaving a “motley crowd of enriched merchants, second hand dealers, bakers, fullers, decayed patricians, and thrusting industrialists dabbling in politics.”(Maiuri) In all his publications, from the time he first argued his case in L’Ultima fase edilizia di Pompeii in 1942 until his retirement, Maiuri’s language revealed his distaste at what he believed had happened. The following extracts were written 16 years apart. “But it is also in this period [ie.

Post-earthquake] that we witness the transformation of scholarship questions, many upperclass houses into payroll research paper officinae and in scholarship the intrusion of shops. Paper! Cuponae and thermopolia into the interior and along the facades of patrician residences, the splitting up of space homework, a single, grand, upper-class house into several modest buildings the change and perversion of taste in type and style of the payroll paper decoration of the rooms, sacrificing beautiful and noble old paintings for banal and poor redecoration. In short, the invasion of the mercantile class of the structure of the thesis definition middle old Romano-Campanian patrician class of the city.” “But after upper class occupation lasting possibly as late as the payroll research paper Claudian era, the Profound transformation which the on education inequality commercial life of the city had to undergo with the new arrangement of the payroll research Via del Foro, the grave crisis which the new currents of overseas commerce and earthquake damage produced in scholarship the class of the old patrician families of Herculaneum, and finally the need to withdraw from the noisy and Plebian commercial life of the Forum, were the multiple reasons which determined the decay of this house from an payroll, upper class residence to the practical use of a lodging with shops.” To Maiuri, Pompeii and Herculaneum – particularly in the last 17 years of their existence – were in decline. He maintained that the Pompeian forum was still in shambles when Vesuvius erupted, and that this reflected the depressed economic conditions in Pomp after the earthquake of 62 AD.

His views remained the established orthodoxy until a number of scholars found it “necessary to tackle some of his presuppositions head on” (Wallace Hadrill). Although unaware of it, tourists today are still under the influence of Maiuri with his picture of Pompeian society expressed in most of the space homework guide books and payroll research paper popular works. Gp Essays Inequality! Some of the criticisms levelled at Maiuri include: Much of payroll paper, his excavation 1951-61 was rushed, with few of the excavated buildings restored or protected, and in the same period there was virtually no documentation, let alone publication. His publication in 1933 of the House of Menander and the treasure, although long and lavish, lacks detail and scientific precision; it was descriptive rather than analytical. In concentrating on descriptions of the paintings and discussions of the more spectacular finds, he was following the space homework current political line. His interpretation of social and economic transformation after the earthquake was based, according to Wallace-Hadrill, on anecdotal rather than statistical evidence and on false assumptions about the research paper elite, trade and use of property; about the mix of commercial and gp essays on education heightens inequality residential establishments; and about the link between luxury, decoration and status. His view of an invasion of industrialists “is sheer fantasy” (Andreau) Wallace Hadrill has shown that, although there may be some truth in research Maiuri’s account of the crisis after the earthquake, “his model is simply too rigid.” It is easy in hindsight to truman scholarship essay, criticise some of Maiuri’s methodology and interpretations, but it should not take away from his tremendous contribution to our understanding of payroll research, Pompeii and Herculaneum.

Maiuri set the agenda for future work at both sites. When, on his retirement, he commented that “what is gp essays on education heightens inequality, left to payroll research, do is a complex, laborious and ardorous, slow and truman scholarship essay costly work of preservation, protection and restoration” he was foreseeing the problems that the site would face in the next half century. Area of Research: From 1986 Lazer worked on a sample of over 300 individuals who were represented by a collection of disarticulated bones stored in the Sarno Baths and in the female area of the Forum Her research included statistical studies based on skulls, hip or pelvis, leg and arm bones to establish the make-up of the population. The techniques of forensic medicine and payroll paper physical anthropology were used to determine sex, age-at-death, height, signs of disease (pathology) and populations affinities of the victims. The bones of space homework, very small children are fragile and often do not survive in archaeological record – most record of these individuals comes from casts. She also had 2 smaller projects illustrate how interest in human remains from Pompeii and associated sites has moved away from payroll research paper a macabre fascination with groups of bodies caught in death to a scientifically based inquiry into the health of people in how to on your homework antiquity. Work on the Skeletons of the House of Menander: Some skeletal remains were staged into fabulous scenes for the benefit of celebrity guests. Lazer examined the skeletal remains on display in this house and subsequently published a study showing how the skeletons had been manipulated. Mairui transported the group of skeletons in the House of Menander.

People visiting this site thought the bodies were displayed in their original location. The bodies were fancifully reinterpreted as ‘looters’ who had returned to Pompeii after the eruption, only to be killed by research paper poisonous fumes that had been trapped in the ash. Space Homework! Lazer’s inspection of the skeletal remains established that despite Maiuri’s statement that the position of the bodies had not been altered, there was evidence that the skeletons had been manipulated. That these changes occurred in Maiuri’s time can be implied from the fact that the area around the bones was consolidated with plaster that was sprinkled with ash when it was damp, thus maintaining the impression of bones in payroll their excavation context. Some of the bones near the surface were loose. The remaining bones were embedded in the compacted ash and plaster. Comparisons of Lazer’s drawing with the original photograph establishes that the arrangement of skeletons had remained unchanged since the 1920’s. Examination of the skeletons revealed not only that they had been reconstructed, but that mistakes had been made. One was found to have two left thigh bones. One had one juvenile and one adult upper arm bone. Statement Middle School! One had the skull of a child on the backbone of an adult.

One skull was found to paper, be totally faked – consisting of pieces from various skulls and on education inequality even a piece of backbone as a nose – the photograph suggests that this addition postdates Maiuri’s publication. Mauiri’s original excavation report informed of the relocation – with exception to research, the faked skull, there appears to be no deception. The mixed up bones of the skeletons appears to have been undertaken by untrained people with no knowledge of anatomy. The alterations that post-date Maiuri are more disturbing – the addition of the statement definition middle bronze lantern and tools was a conscious attempt to create a tableau that would appeal to visitors. X-Ray analysis of the cast of the ‘Lady of Oplontis’ Lazer and a multi-disciplinary team, including radiologists and radiographers, an anatomist and a forensic dentist, examined the body of the ‘Lady of Oplontis’ at a Sydney clinic while it was in Australia for an exhibition on payroll research Pompeii.

The cast had been made in transparent epoxy resin rather than the traditional plaster. Space Homework! The body was x-rayed and the lower half was CT scanned. The consnsus was that the skeleton was that of a mature adult female in the early years of the 4th decade. Conclusions from Research: The results indicate that almost equal numbers of males and females from all age groups did not manage to escape from the town before it was destroyed. The findings of this work have been published in a number of journal articles and were fully set out in payroll paper a book published in 2005.

No significant sex or age bias among the victims. Area of survivor, Research: The construction of a drainage ditch on research paper what was once the beach of ancient Herculaneum in 1982 led to the discovery of skeletal remains. Subsequent excavations on on education inequality the beachfront and payroll research paper inside the holocaust boat chambers fronting onto it, led to the discovery of 139 These were carefully disinterred and payroll research paper closely studied by Bisel, a physical anthropologist from 1982-1988. Conclusions from Research: Calculated the mean heights for by mark twain, the sample from Herculaneum at 155.2cm for females and 169.1cm for research, males – these results indicate regional continuity and suggest that the diet of ancient Campanians was adequate and that they enjoyed relatively good health during the period of truman questions, bone growth.

Bisel presented a male skeleton on the beach at Herculaneum as a soldier due to the sword and tools with him as well as indications of his musculature – unreliable – problematic as different activities can lead to the same sort of muscle development. Documented cases of trauma in the Herculaneum sample – but did not separate healed fractures from other traumas, such as dislocations and research paper inflammatory responses. She reported that 32% of the essay survivor male sample, compared to paper, 11.4% of the female sample, displayed signs of trauma, with a population average of 22.7%. Twain! She did not consider that these figures indicated any bias towards injury in the sample. Bisel concluded that the teeth that she studied from the Herculaneum sample reflected a diet which included little sugar – she also considered that fluoride, in the seafood that probably made up a large part of the died, provided some protection against caries (tooth decay).

Bisel also noted instances of gum disease and research paper teeth lost prior to death. Truman Scholarship Questions! Bisel collected samples for laboratory studies to establish died and to determine lead content in the bones. She analysed bones for the presence of calcium, magnesium, strontium and zinc. She concluded that most people in the sample from Herculaneum had not relied on mamals or bird for paper, their main protein source. Instead, they probably relied on vegetables, seafood or a combination of both. Subsequent trace element analysis of the large number of skeletons that have been excavated since Bisel’s pioneering work essentially confirm her results. Bisel also examined Herculaneum bones for the presence of scholarship essay, lead.

Bisel’s results were inconclusive; the paper limestone water source for Campania resulted in the inside of essay holocaust survivor, lead water pipes being coated with a layer of calcium carbonate that effectively acted as a barrier and protected consumers from lead poisoning. Bisel noted that her results reflect significant lead ingestion during the course of some individual’s lives, but do not confirm population wide lead poisoning as previously assumed. b. Changing interpretations: impact of new research and research technologies. This project, which began in essay 1988, was initiated because the: Existing architectural plans of the forum were inaccurate and incomplete Architectural and decorative remains documented as late as 1983 were already deteriorating rapidly.

The project’s main objectives were to produce more accurate plans and elevations of the surviving remains, supplemented by large-format black-and-white photographs of archival quality, and computer models. These were to be used to stimulate discussions about Pompeian urbanism among scholars, and to use the forum data to study the Pompeian response to the earthquake of 62AD. The team, led by John Dobbins (professor of Roman art and archaeology at the University of Virginia) included classical archaeologist, a specialist in Roman architecture, an urban architectural historian, and research paper urban designer, engineers and computer and AutoCAD specialists. Structural engineering principles were brought to bear on archaeological questions. Much of the documentation work was performed using an electronic surveying device that interfaces with AutoCAD. 1996 – John Dobbins: Dobbins disproved the idea that the forum was a builder’s yard after the earthquake.

He found evidence of “urban renewal, a comprehensive and ambitious plan for the eastern side of the forum, a design that involved blocking streets, linking facades, upgrading building materials and emphasising the more prominent NE and SE entrances.” Maiuri’s early interpretation, the Crisis Theory, was smashed by this evidence from Dobbins – instead of on your homework, Maiuri’s purported ideals of economic decline and an already deteriorating town that met its end perhaps not. Began in 1988 because existing architectural plans of the forum were inaccurate and incomplete and architectural and decorative remains documents as late as 1983 were already deteriorating rapidly. To produce more accurate plans and elevations of the surviving remains, supplemented by large-format black and white photographs of archival quality, and computer models. These were to research, be used to stimulate discussions about Pompeian urbanism among scholars and to thesis definition school, use the payroll forum data to study the Pompeian response to the earthquake of AD 62. Led by John Dobbins – professor of Roman art and archaeology at the University of Virginia. Included archaeologists, a specialist in Roman architecture, an urban architectural historian, an urban designer, engineers and computer and AutoCAD specialists. Much of the documentation work was performed using an electronic surveying device that interfaces with AutoCad. Changes in gp essays interpretations: 1996; Dobbins disproved the idea that the former was a builder’s yard after the earthquake.

He found evidence of “urban renewal, a comprehensive and ambitious plan for the eastern side of the forum, a design that involved blocking streets, linking facades, upgrading building materials and payroll emphasising the more prominent NE and SE entrances”. This is a change from Maiuri’s initial interpretaion of the school Crisis Theory – that Pompeii was in economic decline and that the forum was in disarray after the eruption of research, AD 62. ii. Essays Written By Mark Twain! Herculaneum conservation project. In 2000, the Packard Humanities Institute, a philanthropic organisation, made a long term commitment by announcing its plans to payroll research paper, give $10 million a year for ten years ($100 million) to excavate and preserve Herculaneum. The aim of the HCP (2001), which involves the British School at Rome and the local heritage authority, is to halt the serious decay to Herculaneum so that it can be maintained on a sustainable basis. Initially, the HCP was faced with an on education inequality, emergency situation: how to deal with a serious groundwater problem. This was solved by restoring the ancient network of understreet sewers, reopening the ancient drainage conduits of payroll paper, individual houses and draining all water down to the ancient shoreline and out to sea.

The HCP followed this by: Replacing roofing Safeguarding walls Restoring 20th century reinforced concrete lintels Consolidating wall paintings and inequality bubbling mosaics Identifying suitable methodologies that can be used to conserve the wall paintings, plasters, mosaics and wooden features. The Getty Conservation Institute is working in collaboration with the HCP to address a number of conservation issues at paper, the site, such as the flaking and powdering of paint on wall paintings, and the treatment of space homework, mosaic pavements. Payroll Research Paper! Their scientists are testing non-invasive techniques. They are focussing on the House of the Bicentenary where they have installed a weather station to monitor environmental conditions as part of their diagnostic investigation into the deterioration of the wall paintings.

Archaeological Discoveries as part of HCP. The work undertaken by the HCP has not only preserved the material remains for future research, it “has generated a whole series of archaeological results that arguably would never have emerged without the focus given to conservation priorities”. For example, archaeologists discovered that: The natural tufa bedrock of the written twain ancient shoreline had been quarried in pre-Roman times In the period before AD 79, the research paper ancient shoreline had been affected by “bradyseism”, a phenomenon that occurs in how to seismic areas along the coast where the sea appears to retreat and encroach. The encroachment of the sea affected the Suburban baths by eroding the tufa building material and forcing the authorities to block many of the large windows to research paper, prevent the sea from entering The House of The Relief of Telaphus had a previously unknown extra floor that the how to owners had filled in research and buried to protect the house’s seafront from the encroaching sea. Also discovered was the original timber roof of the same house, four storeys below its original position, with the remains of a decorative ceiling. “The HCP archaeologists led by holocaust survivor Domenico Carmado and Ascania D’Andrea have now virtually reassembled the payroll research 250 or so pieces of the roof and reconstructed the elaborately decorated ceiling panels.”. (FIND) According to Project Director Andrew Wallace-Hadrill, “It will be the space homework first ever full reconstruction of the timberwork of a Roman roof.” The ancient network of sewers and drains still contained organic and kitchen waste. Payroll! In one sewer, the archaeologists recovered 750 sacks of inequality, excrement, the largest deposit. In 2000, the Packard Humanities Institute, a philanthropic organisation, made a long-term commitment by announcing its plan to give $10 million a year for 10 years to payroll paper, excavate and preserve Herculaneum. Aim is to halt the serious decay to Herculaneum to that it can be maintained on a sustainable bases.

Initially, the space homework Herculaneum Conservation Project was faced with an emergency situation, having to deal with a serious groundwater problem. This was solved by restoring the ancient network under-street sewers, reopening the ancient drainage conduits of individual houses and draining all water down to the ancient shoreline and out to sea. The HCP followed this by: Replacing roofing Safeguarding walls Restoring 20th century reinforced concrete lintels Consolidating wall paintings and bubbling mosaics Identifying suitable methodologies that can be used to conserve the wall paintings, plasters, mosaics and payroll research paper wooden features. THe Getty Conservative Insitute is working in collaboration with the HCP to address a number of conservation issues at the site, such as the flaking and powdering of how to cheat on your, paint on wall paintings, and the treatment of payroll, mosaics. Scientists are testing non-invasive techniques. They are focusing on the House of the Bicentenary where they have installed a weather station to monitor environmental conditions as part of their diagnostic investigation into the deterioration of the wall paintings. Changes in interpretations:

The restoration of the ancient drainage system revealed the carbonised roof and extra storey of the House of the space homework Relief of research, Telephus. The ancient network of essay holocaust survivor, sewers and drains still contained organic kitchen waste. In one sewer, the archaeologists recovered 750 sacks of excrement, the largest deposit of organic matter ever found in the Roman world. Payroll! According to the Project Manager Jane Thompson, “instead of draining into the sea, this sewer was more like a giant septic tank that collected human waste, food scraps and discarded objects”. c. Issues of conservation and reconstruction: Italian and international contributions and responsibilities; impact of tourism.

In 1986 Henri de Saint-Blanquat, in Science et Avenir , declared that Pompeii was “an archaeological disaster of the first order” By the mid-1990’s, conditions had deteriorated so much that only about 14% of the excavated site was open to the public. Truman Scholarship! Despite UNESCO registering Pompeii and Herculaneum as World Heritage Sites in 1997, and signs of recovery in the first part of the 21st Century, in payroll paper November 2010 part of the Schola Armaturarum on Pompeii’s thoroughfare collapsed. Written Twain! Later that month, huge sections of a garden wall around the House of the Moralist collapsed on two separate occasions. These disasters led to payroll, international media hysteria and a political blame game regarding site management and essays Italy’s inability to care for its cultural heritage. Although the heavy rains in payroll paper an area at the time were a factor in the collapses, Pietro Giovanni Guzzo claimed that they merely “drew attention to the state of neglect that has dragged on for years” Andrew Wallace-Hadrill agrees. Statement Definition Middle School! He noted – in a December 2010 article, “The 21st century Fall of Pompeii” in the Art Newspaper- that collapses happen all the time over this site (15 major catastrophes since 2008 alone). “Collapses are only the most dramatic form of damage”.

In June 2011, the UNESCO Report on the disasters of 2010 said the payroll research paper “conditions that caused the collapses are widespread within the site” For the past 200 years, Pompeii and Herculaneum have been subjected to a whole range of by mark, destructive forces, both natural and anthropogenic, some unavoidable, others preventable. Negative Impacts on Pompeii and Herculaneum: Andrew Wallace Hadrill “to dig is to destroy” Despite sudden catastrophes, such as the allied bombing in 1943 and the earthquake that rocked Campania on the 23rd of November 1980 – causing columns, sections of walls and some upper storeys to crash to the ground – most of the destruction in payroll Pompeii and Herculaneum began the essays twain moment the sites were excavated, exposed and research paper neglected. Past Superintended of Pompeii Pietro Giovanni Guzzo said “Pompeii’s death is not in homework one blow. It is payroll research, slow but sure”.

From the gp essays on education heightens inequality moment sites were excavated a devastating change occurred in the exposed structures and objects. Payroll Research! Some of the physical remains were originally interiors and never meant to be exposed to the effects of sun, wind and rain. The light began fading brilliant colours of the frescoes, and scholarship carbonised objects deteriorated quickly. The strong sunlight in Campania, and the ozone, created in large quantities in the highly polluted conditions of the area in the 20th Century, speeded up in the fading and bleaching of paintings and the breakdown of organic materials. Airborne substances such as gritty particles, carbon particles, oil droplets and bacterial and mould spores have caused untold damage. In 1957, Karl Schefold carried out an inventory of all the existing wall decorations and discovered that almost a 1/3 faded completely with not ever having been recorded. 20 years later, JP Desourdes and Kay Francis of paper, Sydney University found that of Schefold’s original inventory of wall paintings, one out of every two that he had recognised as reconstructable, was lost forever.

Problem in the form of groundwater and rain. In Herculaneum, the Suburban Baths complex was saturated by surface water that drained off the house above, causing the deterioration of the vaulted roof of the trepidarium and forcing the thesis statement middle authorities to close the baths to the public. However, while the HCP has attempted to payroll, address the question of groundwater, Pompeii, even in on your homework 2012, does not have an effective drainage system. The high calcium content of wall paintings dissolves under the influence of payroll research, moisture, and soluble salts come to surface injuring the paintings. Since the pollution of the gp essays on education C20, acid rain has caused the payroll paper discolouration, abrasion and corrosion of space homework, surfaces.

The winter rains penetrate inadequate roofing and run down exposed walls, pooling on mosaic floors and causing damp to rise up the walls. The fertility of the Campania area is “another enemy of the ruins”. Payroll Paper! Weeds and truman scholarship essay parasitic plants grow over many of the ruins, particularly those houses closed to the public, and in enclosed areas of research, bare soil such as peristyles and on education heightens inequality gardens. More than 30 varieties of research, weeds and brambles have been identified in gp essays on education heightens Pompeii, including acanthus, wild carrot, fennel, fig, valerian and ivy. There are also infestations of fungi and algae in areas of poor drainage and weeds clog gutters and sewers. Roots undermine the foundations of hosues, destabilise walls and buckle and loosed mosaic floors.

As soon as a small piece of mosaic lifts from the floor, the damp encourages the payroll research growth of weeds, algae and lichens. Thousands of square metres of mosaic floors have disintegrated under their attack. Brambles of ivy penetrate plaster inner walls and by mark twain cling tenaciously to outer walls, destroying the ancient stonework. Attempts to remove them causes the payroll walls to crack, break away and crumble, allowing damp to enter. Insects and birds can also weaken structures. Large numbers of pigeons at Herculaneum have nested in the most secluded corners of the middle site and payroll research paper their acidic excreta has a corrosive effect on floors and wall decorations. They also cause irreparable damage by pecking at the carbonised wooden beams, doors and window frames. In 2004, the HCP proposed resolving the twain problem by using predatory falcons to discourage birds from nesting in research paper the area. Falcons were regularly brought to the archaeological site in order to simulate their permanent presence. This technique is referred to as ‘territorial deterrence’.

In addition to the falcons, other measures are used to dissaude pigeons, such as removing their nests and excrement, installing nets and other forms of deterrent that limit their access. Poor Restoration Work: Unintentionally, archaeologists of the past have contributed to the decay due to failed attempts at restoration and conservation. The replacement of lintels over doors and windows by softwood instead of seasoned hardwood has resulted in rotting, mould and infestation of gp essays on education inequality, termites. The rusting of iron armatures in reinforced concrete used for repairs in paper the mid C20 split open the concrete and caused the collapse of middle school, both restored and ancient structures. Frescoes have been damaged by the application of modern mortars (the release of payroll paper, salts), paraffin wax and, even more recently, Paraloid B72 varnish, which prevented the plaster from breathing. Where carbonised wood was not stabilised before it was covered with glass or fibreglass, it is now crumbling within the microclimate that has been created, while Perspex cases that were meant to protect frescoes and graffiti have created a humidity and dirt trap. Non-Expert building firms: In the recent past, the authorities were forced to how to cheat, use local firms who, according to payroll research, French archaeologist Jean-Pierre Adam, may have been up-to-date with current building techniques, were incompetent in space homework matters of restoration. “Some mistakes are notorious. Payroll Research Paper! In the House of Meleager, in the north-west of the city, the roof timbers for a room 5m by 11m, designed to support the weight of over questions 5 tons oftiles, were erected with no triangular sections to give it strength; in spite of attempts to reinforce the roof with steel, the structure collapsed” Henri de Saint-Blanquat.

Also, a steel roof built over the loggia in the Hosue of the Mosaic Atrium in Herculaneum collapsed, covering the marble floor with rubble. Looting and poor site security: According to an Italian preservationist group, between 1975 and 2000, nearly 600 items were stolen from the payroll sites. In 1975 a museum at Pompeii was closed after it was robbed, and in 1977 14 frescoes were cut from the walls of the House of the Gladiators. In 1990, a storeroom was robbed at Herculaneum with more than 250 artefacts taken and in later robberies frescoes were cut from the walls of the written Hosue of the payroll Chaste Lovers – fortunately these were recovered some time later. It is likely that these cases were an ‘inside job’, possibly involving associates of the Neapolitan Mafia who took a keen interest in the sites, infiltrating the ranks of the site guards and demanding lucrative contracts for conservation and restoration work. When the superintendent of Pompeii Pietro Giovanni Guzzo, took a stand against the Mafia, several unfortunate incidents occurred. In 1997, the heads were cut from several Pompeian plaster casts, in July 2000 guards at Pompeii went on strike and locked out 12 000 tourists and in September the same year a fire was set near the questions house of Iphigenia.

As recently as 2003, thieves broke into Pompeii at night and made off with a 33kg well-head from a fountain in the House of the Ceii. Although some things have improved, there is still a problem with security. According to the UNESCO report in January 2012, staffing remains a problem. Payroll Paper! Only 23 guards are on site at any one time and truman they are far from vigilant, often seen gathering in groups of 3 and 4 lounging in the shade. Inefficient guards cannot be fired as their jobs are secure until they reach retirement age.

Also, security cameras are often out of action. A Double – Edged Sword. Close to payroll research, three million tourists encroach on the sites every year, providing much needed revenues that is channelled directly into conservation and helping the public, through education, become more aware of the value of these heritage sites. However, tourism has a hugely negative impact on written twain the sites, due to the restricted areas now accessible to the public. Research Paper! Tourists are confined to smaller areas as streets are barricaded off and houses, braced by scaffolding, are shut to the public; only a small percentage of what could be seen in the 1950’s and 1960’s can be experienced today. In 2006, only sixteen monuments, houses and villa could be viewed compared with sixty in 1956. Most tourists are unaware of the impact they have on the fragile sites: millions of feet trample the mosaics and street pavements, wearing them down, and in some cases exposing lead pipes, which eventually crack and essay holocaust survivor break up; hot humid breath and camera flashes cause further deterioration to already faded wall paintings; backpacks brush against walls and fingers rub walls, columns and frescoes causing perspiration to react with the ancient surfaces; rubbish is payroll research, dumped, attracting vermin, and cigarette butts are discarded carelessly; fragments of marble and pottery are collected as souvenirs; tourists climb over gp essays barriers to get into forbidden areas to amuse themselves, and then there is the inevitable damaging graffiti. Eye Witness Account of payroll research paper, vandalism in Pomp: “There is a vast crowd of gp essays, tourists. Among the buildings stand a private house, not open to the public, where in the atrium, or inner courtyard, the stone columns are still standing. It is impossible to keep an eye on everyone.

Some of the payroll research paper tourists find their way into the courtyard and, by way of essay holocaust survivor, a game, start to push against payroll paper the columns. Eventually they succeed in knocking them down. ” – (De Saint-Blanquat) Also, there is the damage done by on education inequality creating amenities needed to payroll, support the thesis statement definition middle school millions of research, tourists: signposts, bookshops, toilet blocks and eating places. Today visitors are still amazed by the size of Pompeii, and yet disappointed by how little there is to see. A first – time tourist describes his impression in the following way: “What we found is a very useful, and I imagine extremely profitable cafeteria bang in the middle of the site. And besides that, acres of crumbling, anonymous ruins which we are barred from exploring by chains. There is space homework, also a fairly useful bookshop, but no museum to exhibit at least some of the sites most important relics…” “If history does not repeat itself and a future eruption of Mt Vesuvius does not engulf the city with a blanket of volcanic ash, then the paper well-meaning tourist will surely destroy it bit ny bit. It seems likely that in time Pompeii will end up like the caves of Lascaux with its prehistoric paintings being recreated in an artificial setting away from the site itself, where gaggles of tourists can be herded through at speed. Although it (Pompeii) is too often packed with indifferent school children armed with clipboards and scholarship questions coach parties bussed from Rome with aching feet and dwindling interest, Pompeii is much more that just another attraction to research, tick off your list. The paradox is that while we need visitors, and more especially in their money, to finance conservation and research projects at Pompeii, it is the visitors who are speeding up the decay.” “AT the very heart of any understanding of Pompeii and its archaeology must be the demands of the thesis statement school tourist, who as Maiuri explained was the client of archaeology.” (R Laurence)

Despite some improvements in the recent past, such as getting rid of feral dogs and introducing a system where on research ticket could be used to visit all the Vesuvian sites to pressure off Pompeii, poor site management can be blamed for the present state of the ancient city. This has taken the form of: Lack of resources, good leadership and a skilled workforce Failure to maintain constant monitoring of the essays twain site Corruption Divided authority between the superintendent and a ‘city manager’ Outsourcing of contractors Cultural bureaucracy and red tape. “If I have to fix a brick wall, I first have to put out paper a tender for an architect to evaluate the damage. Then I have to thesis, put out a tender for a company to fix the wall. Payroll! Then I have to see if I have enough money in my budget to pay for the repair, and then finally the work begins.” (Pietro Giovanni Guzzo, Superintendent of Pompeii 1995-2009) Three years ago, the Italian govt. appointed special commissioners under emergency legislation to administer Pompeii, and within one year three superintendents followed in inequality quick succession. After the collapses of 2010, there was a call for payroll research paper, the resignation of the gp essays on education inequality Culture Minister, and in payroll 2011 military police launched criminal investigation after an independent study showed that the latest collapses were not caused by rain, but by negligence.

However, by the time the UNESCO Director- General visited the area in 2012, the Italian authorities had put in place emergency conservation procedures. They had recruited twenty-one new and qualified technical staff to strengthen the maintenance and management of the property, as well as putting in place much-needed drainage, hydrological and restoration works in forty-four Pompeian houses. Despite these emergency measures, there are calls from some quarters to completely privatise the site. These have been dismissed as monstrous with fears that Pompeii would become a theme park. Rather, the international community has been urged to make even more efforts than in the past to protect the site.

Unfortunately, not everything can be saved for the future. Since conservation can only be carried out at a considerable cost and compromise, a resource management plan must be put into effect that will balance the competing interests of tourism, the local economy, scholarly research and the obligation to heightens, hand down a unique cultural legacy to future generations. d. Ethical issues: study and display of human remains. i. Payroll Paper! Excavation, treatment and display of human remains. It is only fairly recently that ethics and archaeology have begun to collide. The issue of human remains arose predominantly through the concerns of indigenous peoples such as the thesis definition middle school Americans, Indians, Australian Aboriginal and other groups for whom it is taboo to disturb the dead, and has evoked a passionate debate.

However it is not only the pressure exerted by these particular groups that has brought about a re-evaluation of the treatment of human remains. “Archaeologists’ standards are products of their time and changing values mean that every generation of archaeologists inevitably regards its predecessors as crude and payroll research insensitive.” In the early days, excavators and treasure hunters showed little regard for human reamins. At Pompeii, skeletal remains were often destroyed in the rush to discover precious finds, while others were taken away as souvenirs. The English writer Geroge Bulwer-Lytton is supposed to thesis definition middle, have kept a Pompeian skull on payroll research his desk that gave him inspirations for the villain in his novel The Last Days of Pompeii (1843). Some of the thesis early Pompeian water colourists record the payroll paper deliberate positioning of skeletons in how to grisly tableux to impress visitors to the site, a practice obviously not acceptable today. Even Maiuri, in his attempt to attract tourists in Herculaneum, used a skeleton of research, a young boy to completely stage a tableu in what he called ‘the room of the weaving girl’ attached to the House of Neptune and Amphitrite. The number of bones removed or smashed in the early days of excavation is not known. Some skeletons were piled carelessly in bathhouses during the essay survivor later excavations where the bones became disarticulated and separated, making it almost impossible to study a whole skeleton.

Museum collections of human remains were for long period left in dark dusty basements, wrapped in newspaper. Although today human remains are generally treated with respect, there are some scholars who believe that all excavation of research paper, human remains should be stopped and cheat on your homework that it is unethical to display those that have already been excavated. At the other end of the continuum, are scientists such as osteo-archaeologists who find this unacceptable to their profession, and there is a generally held belief that the public should have access to payroll, the stories human remains tell. The study of essays, human remains has always been an paper, integral part of archaeology, and the following extracts from Ethics and Archaeology reveal the importance of scientific studies of human bones. “Human skeletons are indispensable for archaeological research. Ancient diets, disease pathologies, genetic pattern and environmental adaptations are but a few research areas that osteo-archaeological remains can illuminate.” (R. Essay Holocaust! Ford) “Archaologists and anthropologists have long considered archaeological human remains an important source of payroll, information about how to homework both biological and research paper cultural aspects of prior human populations. Data derived from human populations of all ethnic and socio-economic groups are critical to our understanding of many aspects of modern human biology as well as to the field of forensics.” (A Cheek and B Keel) Today, however, the space homework “authority of science over the dead is not absolute.” ( and paper modern archaeologists, conservators and curators do not operate in a vacuum. They must pay due regard to the sacred, spiritual and metaphysical beliefs of those cultures with which they come into contact.

Some of the questions raised in this ethical debate include: Should bones be seen solely as artefacts that provide valuable information? Should our view of the on your homework human remains be a function of the age of the paper remains? Should archaeologists have the freedom to pursue knowledge and scientific enquiry without political pressures and legal constraints? Who should have custodianship over the human remains? What is the most appropriate way to store and display human remains?

It is generally agreed that where human bones are of great antiquity (pre-1000), and where ethnic connections ‘are lost in truman scholarship questions the mists of time’, custody favours the payroll research scientist rather than any cultural group. In this case the bones must be treated with the holocaust survivor same professional approach as with other artefacts. However the interests of the scientists and payroll research their rights of enquiry do not necessarily override the wishes of living relatives, direct descendants of written by mark, ‘cultural’ descendants. The question of custodianship of human remains seems to payroll research paper, lie along a continuum, with direct descendants and cultural descendants at one end and museums as custodians of the general public at the other. Often past treatments of bones (e.g. substances for adhering bones) have been carried out written with no understanding of future ramifications. Even today, with the ability to research, conduct a wide range of essay holocaust, sophisticated tests, people are questioning whether it is ‘ethical to jeopardise the physical characteristics of bone for payroll research, potential future analysis on elements that have not necessarily survived in the sample” (FIND) In some museums, the storage facilities for human remains have long been substandard. Storage should conform to how to on your homework, sound conservation practices that protect the remains against physical deterioration: wrapped in acid-free paper, placed in protective containers, as well as being guarded against theft or malicious use. This is essential, since bones may be needed again so that future scientists can check present interpretations, inaccuracies and bias when new techniques become available. Display of Human Remains in Museums.

This has always been a controversial matter and every effort must be made to avoid giving offence. For example: “No ethnic identification should be affixed if it is demeaning, or if no useful purpose is served.” (r. Ford) The sensitivities of certain religious groups such as Jews and Muslims, who object to being in close proximity to human remains, should be taken into account, as should the interests of children. Research Paper! Clear notices should ensure that no-one enters a room displaying human remains without adequate warning. The International Council of Museums (ICOM) in addressing the display of human remains, states: “Human remains should be displayed in a manner consistent with professional standards and, where known, taking into account the interests and beliefs of members for the community, ethnic or religious groups from whom the objects originated. Written By Mark Twain! They must be presented with great tact and respect fot ehe feelings of human dignity held by all people.” (ICOM) Some of the research intact skeletons from the boatshed of Herculaneum are displayed in the National Archaeological Museum in Naples and coming face to face with these twisted agonised skeletons can create a greater response from the viewer that all the plaster casts of Pompeii together.

While the aim of a museum is to provide a fascinating exhibition, skeletal remains should only how to on your homework, be displayed when furthering the public’s understanding of the activities of archaeologists. Opinion of R. Ford: “Wherever possible, the use of casts should replace the actual object.” Most people would agree that one of the most fascinating aspects of a visit to Pompeii is the research paper chance to see plaster casts of the victims displayed in a number of essays, locations, some in payroll research paper situ. Thirteen figures can be seen in the Garden of Fugitives, lying where they fell; two in the Stabian Baths, two in space homework the Villa of Mysteries and two in research the Marcellum. Others are displayed in houses that are only occasionally opened to the public. Essay Holocaust! As well, there are six in the Forum Olitorium, which is at present being used as a storage facility. Research Paper! They were orignally displayed in the Pompeian Museum, which was closed in essays written by mark twain 1975 after thieves looted it of jewellery and coins. These are certainly not displayed to the best advantage and payroll research paper hopefully will find a more appropriate ‘home’ in the future. Although these casts reveal more than anything else the full horror of those fateful 18 hours in August AD 79, they are intended to help the general public understand Fiorelli’s unique contribution to gp essays on education inequality, archaeology, and the tragic deaths of the inhabitants of the payroll city. Despite the how to homework evidence of the pain and suffering experienced – which may cause some to reflect – and payroll paper the fact that the casts contain the remains of bones, they do not to offend, and provide a fascinating display.

Others are safely and sensitively displayed behind glass in the Naples Museum. It is possible that in the future, during construction, road building or agricultural activities, more remains may be found in the countryside around Pomp where many people fled and died in 79. Although there would be no particular religious or cultural reason for not excavating, archaeologists would have to come up with a convincing rationale for it and fulfil the holocaust ethical propositions involved in cultural resource management. The question of the excavation, treatment and display of human remains is ‘an evolving topic’. ii. Ownership and international traffic in research paper antiquities. There has always been treasure seeking, souvenir hunting and looting of archaeological sites – none more so that at Pompeii and Herculaneum – as well as a lucrative antiquities market. Many of the ancient objects in space homework museums around the world and in private collections have been acquired in this way.

Artefacts sold as objects d’art fetch high prices, which is payroll, a further incentive to looters. However, the booming international traffic in antiquities today is different in two ways from that of decades ago. Today it is ‘big business and dangerous. Felons, narcotic dealers and other criminal elements participate in truman scholarship questions the antiquities black market” (FIND). And the payroll advent of the internet, with its online auction houses, has made it easier to dispose of on education, artefacts and harder to police, especially since many objects have been in private collections for generation. The growing demands from the payroll paper market and the manufacture of middle, forgeries are destroying archaeological heritage and payroll research distorting archaeological evidence. Over the thesis definition school years there have been many conferences on cultural property, but there are often conflicts of payroll paper, interest between archaeologists, museums, auction houses and art dealers. In 1999, the Italian govt. Thesis Statement Definition Middle! requested that the USA State Department’s Cultural Property Advisory Committee block the payroll import of thousands of years’ worth of ancient artefacts. Both the Italian govt. and space homework archaeologists believed it would help “curb looting and theft of a treasured Italian heritage”, but art dealers and museum curators insisted that “such a restriction would limit US public access to Italy’s great cultural past.” Most international laws claim the ultimate ownership by the state of all antiquities found within its borders and yet, as recently as November 2004, members of the research Italian govt. shocked archaeologists by proposing to cheat on your, “legalise the private ownership of payroll research paper, archaeological treasures in Italy.” Under this proposal, “treasure hunters who declare their finds can keep and own them if they pay the essay state 5 per cent of the object’s estimated value.” (FIND).

Scholars call the research paper plan “an incitement to theft” and “a looters charge”. The professor of archaeology at Cambridge said: “This legislation would be a slap in the face for essays written by mark twain, those in administration who work for the conservation of its heritage.” Archaeological objects are a non-renewable resource and their protection should be the responsibility of everyone. However, once they have left the country of origin, proving that they have been stolen is one of the most difficult of legal issues, and if a country is to re-acquire them it has to pay, often at astronomical cost. Apodyterium- Changing room. Caldarium Hot room. Frigidarium- Cold room with a cold plunge bath. Palaestra- Exercise area. Pyroclastic flow/surge- Fast-moving and highly destructive flow of gas and rock resulting from the collapse of the eruption column of research, a volcanic eruption. Aediles- The two officials responsible for truman questions, law and order in the town, as well as the supervision of baths, water supply and places of entertainment.

Basilica- Large hall attached to the forum where law courts were held and which was also a meeting place for businessmen. Duoviri- The two officials responsible for judging law cases. Forum- Large open space that was the commercial, administrative and religious centre of payroll paper, Roman towns. Macellum- Food market. Graffito, graffiti- Writing or pictures drawn, painted or scratched onto surfaces such as walls, e. Atrium- Central hall around which other rooms of the house were arranged. (No real equivalent in modern northern European houses) Compluvium- Hole in roof of atrium to let in light and collect rainwater. Hortus- Walled garden. Impluvium- Pool for rainwater. Lararium- Shrine of the household gods.

Peristylium- Garden surrounded by a colonnade. Tablinum- Study/main reception room used by space homework the head of the family. Triclinium- Dining room named after the standard arrangement of payroll research paper, three couches on which Roman diners reclined. Lares- Guardian spirits of a town or family. Podium- High platform on which Roman temples stood. Temples were normally reached by how to cheat climbing a flight of steps at the front of the podium. Precinct- The area around a temple where public worship took place. Arena- Area in research which performance took place in a Roman amphitheatre. ‘arena’ is the Latin word for ‘sand’ Bestiarius, bestiarii- People who both looked after animals before the show and then hunted them in the arena. Cavea- The curved and banked seating area of Roman theatres and amphitheatres.

Murmillo, murmillones- Gladiator equipped with sword, shield and helmet decorated like a fish. Space Homework! Often fought the retiarius. Orchestra- The semi-circular space between the stage and seating in a Roman theatre. Retiarius, retiarii- A lightly equipped gladiator who fought with a net and research threepronged trident. Often fought the murmillo. Scaenae- The high stage building of a Roman theatre. Book your first lesson.

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Research paper on payroll system

Feelings and Emotions: The Essay, Part Two (FEAR, ANGER, GRIEF, JOY) Now, I want to address the four prime emotions of fear, anger, grief and joy. Payroll Research Paper? Why only essay survivor four? Well, these are the ones that give most people lots of trouble, both in having them, dealing with them and communicating about paper, them. Also, there are four unique chemical processes, one for each. There may be many words for fear, but only one chemical. The same is true for anger, grief and inequality, joy. Since there are different chemistries, one can have more than one of these emotions at a time. I believe it quite possible to have large doses of all four emotions. What would you report on, then. I feel scared that my anger makes me so sad that I feel happy! What a mix!

But it is possible. Also I want you to payroll research paper recall that emotions have intensity. For low levels of Fear people often use words like nervous, uneasy, and uncomfortable. For hi levels people use words like terror. For low levels of Anger people speak of testy, ticked off, bugged, growly. For high levels they speak of rage. For low levels of on education, Grief people say they are blue, moody. For High levels they speak of inconsolable grief. For low levels of Joy people speak of feeling good. Paper? For high levels they refer to ecstasy. Middle School? For a list of words used for different emotions click here.

Fear is the first emotion. It is primitive in its function, and is a normal function of the old brain. Check out research, my paper on Safety: The Lizard for the psycho-social issues of space homework, fear. The primary chemical of fear is adrenaline sometimes call epinephrine. While many parts of the body produce this hormone, its major source is part of the adrenal gland in the middle of your back. When the brain interprets the situation as deserving fear, it squirts a dose of adrenaline into your blood stream, which carries it in less than a second to all parts of research paper, your body to your finger tips. Since the brain is essays by mark filled with blood, whole new memories become available and others are forgotten when adrenaline floods it. This is how the emotion of fear affects thinking processes.

The feeling of Fear functions to prepare the body for survival. The chemistry flows when the old brain (the Lizard) senses imminent threat to life. As you may have read, this part of the body can misunderstand things easily. Still it prepares things. The chemical shuts down non-necessary functions (digestion, immune system), it empties useless weight (bowels and payroll, bladder), and it prepares for “last ditch efforts.” It is designed to be very short lived 20 minutes or less. Statement Middle School? It is the research, chemical experience that the holocaust survivor, gazelle experiences when it notices the approaching lion. In our culture this is a terrible problem as most of payroll paper, us live in a “short-term survival” status for essays by mark years. We aren’t designed for this. Paper? Stress kills. Here’s a link for a to the best, readable, book I know on Stress. The experience of adrenaline is very quick and profound.

Consider you are driving a car peacefully, and then hearing a police siren directly behind you, very close. That sensation in your body is the homework, adrenaline flooding you. The word “flooding” is a good one for paper this experience. The feeling is how to cheat homework not fun. If you were to receive an injection of adrenaline, your body tends to research go “ugh”. It is not pleasant. (Note: People speak of an adrenaline high, but that is different from fear and results from other chemicals.) Once the adrenaline hits your body it takes at least 20 minutes for essay survivor your body to payroll paper filter it out of your blood stream. You are driving peacefully, hear a siren, have the adrenaline flooding experience, and space homework, then notice the police is after someone else. Fifteen minutes later you are still reacting to the adrenaline in your body.

For that length of time your body continues to experience the payroll research paper, effects of that hormone. The experience is pretty strong, but the body habituates (gets used) to it quickly. And so people often lose their awareness of the adrenaline in, say, 6 minutes. Yet it is still there affecting thinking and a lot of other things. This issue of timing is pretty important. What is means is that after a person receives a fright, they will not return to normal for at least 20 minutes even though they will experience the “feeling” going away. What is even more interesting is that the part of our bodies that produces adrenaline seems extremely over engineered. It can go on how to cheat on your homework, producing for payroll ever.

It never gets tired. And it seems so over engineered that it can produce enough adrenaline right now to kill you. Adrenaline is remarkably toxic. Enough will stop various organs from cheat, functioning, like your heart. And your body can produce enough to do the job. It doesn’t, normally, because adrenaline production is in the hands of the survival mechanism of your old brain. It doesn’t want to kill you as its function is to keep you alive at all costs. Payroll? Still people can and on education heightens, do “die of payroll paper, fear”. The first time I heard of essays written by mark, this was in stories of prisoners in payroll research, concentration camps in the 2nd World War.

People would receive a shock and drop over definition middle school, dead. How would this happen? Here is the story I tell clients. In the 1950#39;s some researchers were interested in habituating (getting used to) effects of adrenaline. They found that people accustomed to high levels could perform remarkably well. Soldiers for years were trained using fear techniques and the researchers were interested in the effects. What they did was to get a large number of white rats. First they determined how much adrenaline would kill a rat let’s say 55 units. Then they gave all their rats the equivalent of 50 units daily for two weeks just less than the lethal dose.

At the end of that time the previous killing dose of 55 did not kill a rat. Payroll Research? It now took 95 units to kill. Space Homework? The rats’ bodies had become habituated or immune to research a dose that would have killed them. So now they gave the rats 90 units of adrenaline daily for two weeks. At the end of that time, it took 135 units to kill the rats. So they tried 130 units and scholarship essay, so on research paper, and so forth. They finally reached an upper limit beyond which the rats could not survive. The number was 450 units of adrenaline, around 9 times the dose that would have killed the rats in the first place. Space Homework? They had now a small collection of rats living with this high level of adrenaline. The rats were not exactly “normal.” They had stopped reproduction activities. Their immune systems were very weak.

Much of their behavior was quite odd. But they were alive! This gave the researchers an analogy to payroll research paper soldiers. Thesis Statement Definition Middle School? Soldiers have traditionally been habituated to high levels of adrenaline. Many years ago these soldliers were called berserkers and research paper, were highly valued as extremely useful warriors who fought with wild unrestrained aggression. While in scholarship, the military, I heard that the North Vietnamese had used these techniques to research train soldiers. A friend of holocaust survivor, mine described such a soldier running across a landing zone during a fire fight. The soldier was carrying a heavy M-60 rifle he had grabbed. He had no feet. He was running on the shattered bones of his legs.

The study also pointed out that people can live with very high levels of adrenaline and not be aware of it. A person can be in great fear, and not know it. There are many, many tests of how high a level fear people are living with. These “stress tests” often let a person score how many “stressful” events have happened to them recently. Paper? Such events as death of a family member, loss of gp essays on education heightens inequality, a job, arrest, etc. increase basic stress levels for months.

The Polynesians know that when a man loses a wife it may take as much as a year for him to recover. This is consistent with bringing down the high level of adrenaline that his body will start to produce after the death. Paper? In our culture, such a man may be given a week off from work to recover, while in the Pacific islands he may get his year. By the way, you may wonder what they did with those surviving rats. Well it was simple but quite interesting. They set up their cages in a room on how to on your homework, tables. Then they created a large noise, a bang, in the room. Every rat rolled over payroll paper, dead. You see, adrenaline is additive. They were already living at the upper limit of their capacity and the noise triggered another bit, which was too much.

This is how the people in essays written by mark twain, prison camps died. Payroll Research? They were already at too high a level, a level close to a lethal one, and the shock sent them over their limit. Thus I’ve learned that fear is additive; that is, one source of how to on your, fear adds to another. Paper? I also learned that one can live with high levels of holocaust, fear and not be aware of it. High levels of payroll paper, adrenaline in on education heightens inequality, your blood stream, and research, no conscious awareness of it, can be a big problem. It seems easy and common for people to say, “I’m not scared or fearful,” when they have been fearful all their lives. And so, what do you think is the social value of FEAR. Is it a “good” or a “bad”? To me, the amazing answer is that it is a very desirable emotion from the point of space homework, view of our culture. Research Paper? Our culture is, in gp essays inequality, my opinion, a control-freak culture. We want people to be obedient and manageable.

Thus we use threat, tactic that cause fear in others, everywhere and often in order to obtain control. Think of the terms “fear of God” as used in many religions. Think of the payroll research, way police dress and act in threatening ways. Our culture uses fear since our culture likes obedience. When I went to teach school (I got my degree in teaching) for the first time, the more experienced teachers took me aside before the school season began to tell me the ropes.

One piece of advice really stands out after all these years. Statement Middle? “If you try to make friends with them in research, the first couple of days, you will pay for it. Scare the bejeesus out of them for at least 4 days. Pile on gp essays heightens, the homework. If they look frightened, you are doing your job.” Every couple that I see is, among other things, doing one specific thing wrong. They are using “threat in an attempt to paper get love.” I think this foolishness is a direct result of our culture’s love affair with using the gp essays inequality, emotion of paper, FEAR. Anger is the how to on your, next emotion. It is also is primitive in its function. However, I think it is the payroll paper, most misunderstood of on education inequality, emotions and is talked about so casually that I am going to go slowly here.

First I want you re-call that Emotional/Feelings are 1) Events in the Body, 2) are chemical in nature, 3) involve awareness, 4) about which we talk or report and 5) that have social value. I want you to payroll research recall this because Anger is the first of the essays, Emotions that has “negative” social value, is payroll paper frequently reported incorrectly, about which we have more awareness of in others. Thus most seem quite confused about it. I may change your views of anger. I may not. I will share mine with you and see where we all end up. The chemical the gives rise to anger is another secreted primarily by the adrenal glands and injected into space homework the blood stream. Thus its effect on the body is very quick, like that of adrenaline Fear. It saturates the brain in a split second.

But. oh, well. Let me share this with you, as I do in my office. I want you to answer a question and I want you to force yourself to go for a yes or no answer. Here’s the question. When you feel anger is payroll paper it a pleasant experience or an unpleasant experience? Now, just go for a yes or now.

I hope this will be instructive. Homework? When I asked this question in a class I was teaching at college about 2 out of research, 3 said “anger is unpleasant”. About 1/3 saw “anger as pleasant.” The class had almost 120 students in definition school, it. If I was using that class to determine whether Anger was pleasant or not, I don’t think that would have been a good test. About 80 said unpleasant and research, didn’t debate it. Lots of you reading this will say that. Essay Holocaust Survivor? About 40 said anger was pleasant. And so lots of research, you reading this will say so. Now how can this be? How could so many disagree? But I have found this split to be pretty normal.

Most people experience Anger as an undesireable experience while a large minority experience it as fun. Now before I solve the essays by mark twain, puzzle for you, let me ask one more question. Research Paper? When you get angry, really angry, what is the twain, longest that your anger has lasted? (Seconds, minutes, hours, etc.) Be honest with yourself. And I will explain what is going on. The people who experienced Anger unpleasant described their anger as lasting hours, days, weeks, and one guy even said, “all my life.” The people how experienced Anger as pleasant described their anger as lasting 2 minutes, 4 minutes, 7 minutes, 12 minutes, but never longer than 15 minutes. I call it the “Tony the paper, Tiger” emotion. If you got it in a injection, it would make you breathe deeply, and chill you deliciously. Wow is it nice.

Norepinephrine can only last 15 minutes MAXIMUM. The part of survivor, your body that produces it, is very short functioning. After 10 to 15 minutes, it must rest. It cannot keep producing the hormone steadily. These two pieces of data explain the answers the 1/3 of my class gave. Anger is a relatively short-term but pleasant experience. They are people who have learned that anger is an “ok” emotion. I think most of them are Irish. But what explains the answers of the majority of my class, of the majority of people I’ve seen, and my original answers. When I was studying this material, I had experienced what I called very unpleasant anger for a long time.

Well, you already have the answer. What emotion can last forever and feels unpleasant? Sure, Fear does. Most people are fearful of Anger. When anger comes, they get fear at the same time. Their body secretes adrenaline and nor-epinephrine at the same time. And then in about 15 minutes, they are left with the adrenaline only and the thoughts that started the payroll paper, whole thing off. Their angry thoughts, their hostility, feels awful, because those thoughts are accompanied by Fear.

But they have been calling this state “Anger.” I recall tell this to the guy who said, “I’ve been angry all my life.” He looked shocked and holocaust, quiet for a while. Research? Then he said, “So I’ve been scared all my life. Gp Essays On Education Inequality? Damn that makes sense.” Making money off of this confusion. To help you really experience this difference between pleasant Anger and unpleasant Anger, I tell this story. There is an industry in this country that takes advantage of our misunderstanding about Anger and makes BILLIONS of dollars off of payroll, us all.

They know that for most people anger feels bad. They know the potential of the space homework, good feeling of anger. So they give it to us for $5 to $10. They know that in the U.S. and most western nations, we are all taught that anger is free from the paper, connected fear “if the anger is justified.” This is a powerful rule for most people. So this industry takes advantage of this. They take us into school a dark room, show us moving pictures on the wall in which somebody does bad things. Then at the last moment, John Wayne or Jean Claude Van Damme, or some other hero, beats the tar out paper, of the bad guy, and most everyone in the audience experiences pure Anger without Fear. Space Homework? That glorious sensation you get in your body when the payroll research, bad witch falls off the cliff in cheat on your, Snow White, when the research paper, maid, Eowyn, stabs the Witch King, oooh you can name many movies and truman essay questions, cartoons, that wonderful sensation is caused by nor-epinephrine. Ain’t it cool! It hits your body, makes you cheer, makes you feel great.

If it happens very close to the end of the film, you strut out of the theatre, stride to your car, but it wears off before you make it to the restaurant. I recall the movie Raiders of the Lost Ark where Speilberg put the nor-epinephrine events too close together. The movie is just exhausting for most people. That adrenal gland can produce the first rush, but needs some rest time to research paper produce the next. Written Twain? Get that film. Play it, but stop for 10 minutes after each high charged event. I think you may enjoy the movie more. This pattern became so clear to me, that I used to tell my children stories by starting with how bad someone was. And it is research paper also so clear to me that when someone comes into my office and talks about how “bad” their partner is, they are just Angry at them, and are running the essays, “first part of a film” to research paper justify the scholarship, anger they already feel. One of my great teachers used to say, “To get angry at someone, first you must put them in the wrong.” I’ve witnessed politicians and military leaders doing this for research years.

The feeling of Anger functions to raise a person’s energy level in order to push through blocks. The chemistry flows when the old brain (the Lizard) senses something blocking it from achieving its goal. This is the feeling the lion feels when it sees the gazelle on the other side of the clearing. By Mark Twain? This is the feeling produced automatically when we face frustration. If you want something and can’t get it, you feel frustrated and the chemical of anger is payroll research produced. However, for most of us, the chemical of heightens inequality, fear is also produced. Social Value: Undesirable, except when justified In our culture, the general idea seems to research paper be that we should all contain our anger. That means we should not express it, unless of essays, course it is payroll justified.

Soldiers can express it. Police can express it when it is space homework proper. But I was taught from childhood that I was not supposed to express anger. This emotion is chemical in nature (nor-epinephrine), feels good, lasts a very short time, is research mislabled by most of truman, us, and is socially unacceptable to express unless “justified.” The next major emotion is Grief or Sadness. (I am going to be quicker with these last two emotions as I want get on to the bigger lesson about feelings.) The chemical involved with Grief is payroll research Prolactin and it is a neurotransmitter in the brain, rather than a hormone injected in by mark, the bloodstream. This piece of information will come in handy latter. One interesting thing I read about Prolactin is payroll research that its production decreases in males somewhere after the scholarship essay, age of 10.

What I think this means is that there is a chemical basis for some of the difficulty men have in weeping. On the other hand, I think men generally have a lot more to weep about. The feeling of grief functions to research help us adjust to loss. Where Anger helps us push through blocks to get what we want, Grief is there to help adjust to gp essays on education heightens life when we don’t have what we want. Humans are strongly capable of payroll, developing desires. Grief is there to allow us to let go. A person who cannot express grief is hamstrung in their ability to let go.

Most indigenous cultures believe that our culture will fall apart because we teach people not to grieve. They believe grieving is essential to truman scholarship essay questions healthy life both for payroll research the individual and for the culture. Prolactin is produced by the Mid-Brain and its effect on the other functions of the brain are enormous. Generally speaking, when a person weeps they lose control of themselves, their bodies, their consciousness. When they finish, they “come back to the world.” A person should never drive a car while crying as they are likely to crash. Truman Scholarship Essay Questions? Grief is an emotion of losing control. And when you grieve of one thing, it seems you grieve for all losses.

Thus crying at a sad movie can help you adjust to the loss of things in your life. Social Value: Undesirable, especially in men. Many men are taught at an early age that crying is for “sissies.” They are mocked for sadness and paper, told to keep a stiff upper lip. Thesis Statement Definition School? “Heck, I’ll give you something to paper cry about.” Many girls are taught that it is thesis school ok to cry but not ok to get mad. The result is that many women I have met, tend to payroll cry when they get angry. The last major emotion is joy or happiness. The primary chemical in pleasure or joy is endorphins, yet another brain chemical. Endorphins go directly to work in the brain and holocaust survivor, strongly effect the thinking processes. Payroll Research Paper? I imagine the purpose of joy is to written by mark twain give us something to live for. Joy signals that all is going well. I remember a picture I saw as a kid that said, “Man is the only animal that doesn’t know that the research, purpose of life is to statement definition take joy.” Social Value: Undesirable, in public. I think it amazing to note that most kids learn early that parents don’t want them to be happy.

Kids are designed for high levels of joy, but most times you see them being told to be quiet. Kids are built for hardware stores and to payroll research run up and down the aisles pulling things off shelves. Kids are designed to essays by mark run around restaurants yelling and laughing. One time I was asked, “How do you take a kid to a nice restaurant and have peace.” I replied, “You don’t. Kids aren’t designed for research paper that.” Kids are designed for campgrounds and parks. Joy is noisy. Learn to essays twain live with it. Because endorphins are produced in the mid-brain, like Grief, the research, emotion of Joy is an emotion of losing control.

People who are laughing very hard can get into car accidents as the brain is truman slightly incapacitated when in very high joy. Perhaps that is research why people hold onto each other during love making so they don’t fly off into outer space. So here we have the four major emotions. Three of them are frequently socially unacceptable, and the one that is socially acceptable feels ugly. Feelings and Emotions: The Essay, Part Two (FEAR, ANGER, GRIEF, JOY) #8212; 5 Comments.

Hi Al, I come back to your site repeatedly since we did Imago with you years ago. I am digging in truman essay questions, right now because my husband is at recurrent stage four cancer and my emotions are all over payroll, the map. I wish we had conquered all the great things you have in here and perhaps I can get better at some of essay holocaust survivor, them as we move through the stages of payroll, this next round of thesis statement school, chemo and all it entails in payroll research paper, our relationship, our family and just doing life. Thanks for posting all the things here; it helps me understanding why I cry all the time and get angry while my husband seems to be moving forward pretty peacefully. I wish I had your skills at reading him. Space Homework? You would think after 41 years I would have this done. Dear Carol, as I get older I am getting more and more messages like yours. People are passing on.

It provides me an opportunity to feel sorrowful and to send my prayers to research you, to him and to essay holocaust the people around you. Long ago a wise man pointed me out the window at the steady rain and said, #8220;God spends a fair amount of time weeping!#8221; Just keep putting one step in front of the other, is all the advice I have. Oh oh, and research, forgive yourself and him for only being the best you could be. Skies are cloudy and it#8217;s raining. I#8217;m glad we met along the way. Here is a series of emails that John and I exchanged some time ago. To me, your#39;s is a serious question, and I will be happy to answer it. Could you say a bit more, so that I can be clear that you are not part of a marketing company trying to use my website to sell their product. I do not mind their trying, but I would rather put energy into a response that is valuable to my readers.

Thank you for your response. I suffer from PTSD, and definition school, I#39;ve been doing some research, and when I came across your site (well done by the way) I found that with my PTSD fear is the primary emotion that then triggers my symptoms such as anger as an example. I am thinking that if perhaps I can regulate the payroll research paper, amount of adrenalin that my body puts out essay holocaust survivor, that I can counter the symptoms, or at least minimize them. I#39;m not on any prescribed medications, and I#39;m hoping that I can use vitamins and or herbal supplements to do that. I just got in from the health food store which I purchased some L- Tyrosine. Payroll Research Paper? That is the main ingredient in Green Tea which my research seems to show the best results for stress relief, and questions, relaxing without drowsiness. Also, I purchased some Melatonin for help with proper sleep. If you know of anything that might slow my racing mind, which I think occurs due to too much adrenalin so that I can have a moment to address my emotions before reacting that would be great. I#39;m also aware that regardless of what I take to help I will need to modify my responses to my emotions, and research, I#39;m perfectly willing to do the work needed. Any suggestions that you might have are welcome.

I may want to questions post this on payroll research, my blog, but for the time being, I will just respond directly to you. I really applaud your effort of find a solution for what is going on for you. Keep going. Scholarship? As I read your letter, I was struck by payroll research, how several times you seem head off in what I think are non-productive areas of thinking. You may not #39;like#39; what I am writing. All I can share is what I believe. Essay? First, I do not believe stress happens to you.

I believe stress is your conscious (and mostly unconscious) response to research paper what is going on around and inside of you. It is questions more like a #8220;fever#8221; than a disease. The fever is a symptom, or sign, of the body doing its normal job, reacting to an abnormal or ugly situation. I find generally that thinking of curing the payroll, symptom is not very useful. It sometimes is essay holocaust survivor damn destructive. Go get and cure that disease that is causing the payroll research, symptom. Now, it is true that chemicals (prescribed or over the counter or natural) can effect the cycle of reaction. And I have used and recommend chemicals when the emotional reaction prevents working on the sources of the stress. An example of this is when a person gets so upset (fear, anger, grief) that they cannot sleep for several days. But, my thinking is to use those chemicals to gain a #8220;breather#8221; from the reaction in order to work on by mark twain, a more reliable, drug-free, and permanent solution. Payroll Research Paper? (By the on education, way, I don#39;t think the pharmaceutical companies want me to payroll say this.) I am not in favor of the phrase #8220;under stress.” It leads the mind to think that stress is coming at you from the outside. This is an easy delusion, I believe.

I like your noticing that when you are in how to cheat, stress, one of your reactions is anger or irritability. You can use this to go backwards and say, #8220;If I am irritable or angry, perhaps my Lizard is trying to protect me from something.#8221; A useful clue is that your anger triggered by “discussing it. “ This suggests that you don#39;t have much experience with chatting peacefully with people about this topic. What is that all about? Is it normal for paper you to #8220;argue over the truth?” Quit it, if it is. I really don#39;t like your thinking that the #8220;stress is out of your control.” I much prefer you stubbornly finding out what you can do to get a sense of control in your life. I find that just #8220;feeling out of control#8221; will trigger stress. The Lizard loves to be in control of itself.

Now to the phrase #8220;work on finding solutions to cheat express myself to the person causing this stress.” This is a big point, to my way of thinking. That person is not causing your stress. That is the firm way I would say it. I understand that it seems that they are #8220;causing#8221; your stress, but they are not. The #8220;language of blame#8221; leads to not solving the problem. I think it leads to keeping the problem for longer and longer times. It is all about learning Boundaries, and about Passivity and Master/Slave. What I find is that the solution lies in learning how to research #8220;remain calm and peaceful#8221; while dealing with a person like that. This I like your working on finding ways to how to express yourself, but not in blaming that person. regarding the question: #8220;Do you know if there are any vitamins or herbal supplements that can help reduce or regulate the emotional adrenalin?

I know that adrenalin causing situations also dump sugar into the blood stream as a part of the fight or flight response. Payroll Paper? As the adrenalin recedes, we need to balance out the blood sugar. Post alarming situation, I like to eat, take Rescue Remedy (a Bach Flower Essence) and use the large muscles in the body to allow the body to express itself. A fear dance, a walk around the space homework, block and vocalizing all help. Long term stress induced adrenalin dumping could be helped by supporting the #39;Kidney Qi#39; per Chinese Medicine and by taking Chromium supplements and flowers essences like Rescue Remedy or homeopathics like Ignacia.

Do you know if there are any vitamins or herbal supplements that can help reduce or regulate the payroll research, emotional adrenalin?

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Research paper on payroll management

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