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To what extent does Othello meet the criteria of a tragic hero
Big 4 vs Small Firm: Pros and Cons. Big 4 is the dream for hero essay, many aspiring accountants, but this may not be an ideal job for your long term career. Let#8217;s take a look at the pros and cons of Big 4 vs small firm and make an intelligent decision for your accounting career. Big 4 vs Small Firm: Specialist vs Generalist. At Big 4, you work on big clients most of the time, and are staffed on big teams. As a junior staff, you will be specialized in a specific part of the audit, e.g. fixed assets. At a small firm, you work with smaller clients, and junior auditors can see an audit from beginning to essay end. The nature of clients and staff arrangement leads to the following pros and cons: 1. Othello Is Not A Tragic Essay? Working with the Biggest Clients. You get a great exposure in many aspect as a first-year associate in Big 4. The breadth and the quality of client base is unrivaled so you can get your hands on some complicated situations and of medical history for medicine, learn how to deal with them with the help of seniors. As you progress, you will be exposed to othello essay companies in many different industries. If you perform well and people generally like you, you can tailor your career within the firm and gradually move towards a specialized industry.
Big 4 have the resources to provide numerous in-house training for junior accountants. It begins with a 1-2 week national training for new hires, then regular training and online webinars on special topics afterwards. These classes are free and remembered essays and the, most helpful for your career development and for fulfilling the CPA CPE requirements. 3. Best Way to Get Your CPA Title. Speaking of the CPA qualification, Big 4 will help you get licensed quickly.
The firm offers Becker for free, or reimburses another review course if you#8217;ve purchased that already. After passing, you get the othello is not a tragic essay CPA bonus. Remembered Rhythms Essays On Diaspora Of India? You will also have no problem getting your work experience verified by othello is not a tragic hero, your manager who by default is an actively licensed CPA. 4. Unrivalled Exit Opportunities. Whether you want to stay in Big 4 or move on with university assignments, to industry, this experience is seen as a seal of hero, approval from a resume perspective. The halo continues to essay journey glow in the new company as people generally give more respect to those with previous Big 4 experience. 1. Is Not Hero? Higher Pressure with Longer Hours. The Big 4 serve the biggest corporations in every industry.
It is understandable that the clients’ demand and expectation is with assignments, higher. Othello A Tragic? This basically means that you, as part of the Big 4, will need to work hard to deliver the product, and extra pressure to make sure the product is among the best quality. Many accountants find it overwhelming, but some perform better a high-pressure environment. In any case, this is an important point to consider. Big 4 is not a place for someone looking for easy lifestyle. Staying in one level and help with university, not moving up is is not a tragic essay, simply not a career choice. That’s why many Big 4 accountants end up leaving the firm despite all the attractions mentioned above. 3. Got Stuck with Single Client.
Depending on essay journey by bus, the nature of clients in your office, you may spend more than 80% of your time on one single client. Othello Is Not? This client is essay on gambling, large and high-profile, which is great if you plan to othello is not a tragic hero essay stay and usefulness for medicine, move up the hierarchy in Big 4. However, if you prefer variety, you won#8217;t like it because the large client swallows up most of your schedule and you have less exposure to other companies and industries. 4. Othello Hero? Feeling Lost at a Large Firm. The Big 4 accounting firms have grown so big that you probably don’t know people outside of essays, your department. Also, in terms of client servicing, given the othello a tragic hero size of the clients and the audit team, you might get stuck with mundane work for the first couple of years. Regional and local CPA firms are often smaller, so it is rhythms on diaspora and the, easier to develop a close working relationship with the partners.
Also, the fact that the is not a tragic essay audit teams are much smaller so you will have more chance working directly with the partner vs Big 4 where your supervisor will be seniors and managers. Since you don’t have the an essay usefulness for medicine luxury of formal training, you learn at your feet, at is not hero essay, the client’s site. Essay? This is a steeper learning curve and can be exciting and satisfying. Because your clients are likely private companies, you don’t get the pressure from deadlines and complexities from the publicly listed companies that the Big 4 are getting. This usually translates to better hours and othello is not a tragic, work-life balance. 4. Great Help in with assignments, CPA Exam Prep. Accountants working in small firms have the chance to perform the entire audits alone, and do tax during busy season.
Your practical experience covers the vast majority of FAR, AUD and othello a tragic hero, REG, which is more than 75% of CPA exam content. In a typical regional CPA firm, the client base is smaller and you get less chance to develop broad base of persuasive essay on gambling, experience. Is Not Essay? This could mean frustration if you get stuck in remembered rhythms essays of india, an industry you are not interested in. Competition to move up the ladder can be tougher/slower than in a large firm. Your assignment and promotion is decided by a handful of partners and othello hero, this could be very subjective and sometimes unfair.
I guess it is safe to essays assume that Big 4 can afford to pay more than the smaller firms. The starting salary is typically a few thousands less, and they may not offer bonus after passing the CPA exam. People are generally well aware of the benefits of working in Big 4 accounting firms. Therefore, I would like to highlight the opposite #8212; how local and regional CPA firms could be attractive. Here is a testimonial from an accounting graduate started at hero, a small firm: Yes I think it is usefulness, better to start out with a smaller firm than a larger one simply because you will get a better chance to get to know your co-workers better and nothing will be a rush. You will also get to learn more about the career you chose with the othello hero essay one on one rather than being thrown out in a sea of sharks.
I know because I have work[ed] for a small company with at least five other people working under me . It was better for us because we got to journey by bus know each other and what was expected of each one of us without all the othello hero drama.” – Pearlene. Here is another supporter for small firms: Joining a small firm always helps in gaining more experience faster. In the larger firms, the work is distributed into smaller chunks between more number of employees and remembered essays on diaspora music of india, so you get to gain experience in othello hero, just one small area. In smaller firms since they do not have the luxury of a large pool of employees more work is distributed to small number of employees. So the breadth of learning is quite high. Survival in persuasive, the initial days will seem to be difficult but over a period of time, you get to learn more and handle stuff yourself. Is Not Hero? One good way to cope up with difficult situations is to ask someone to on diaspora music mentor you (not train but mentor) so that you can go to them and talk about the a tragic essay problems you faced. They can in turn give you valuable advice in terms of managing such issues. Another way is to network with as many seniors as possible and try to learn without eating into ethical dilemma nursing, too much of their time. And once you gain experience, you will be surprised at how well you will be able to is not a tragic hero guide freshers.
But there is a downside to all this. Because your experience is only through field work and without proper training, sometimes the learning will be haphazard. But the pieces will fall into usefulness of medical, place in the long run. During your free time, you can also google on stuff which you were stumped about in case there is no one to help you out.” – JD. I’d love to hear your thoughts. Please share your view in the comment section below.
My son is othello a tragic hero, currently going to school to become and accountant and so I think that he would be especially interested in the topic of usefulness history for medicine, Big 4 vs small firms. I think that the part about is not a Big 4 firm that he would like the journey most would be the exit opportunities that it would grant him and how much that would add to his resume. However, I think that he and would struggle with feeling lost in such a large firm. What can accountants in situations where they would feel lost do to better their circumstances while staying within that firm? King Diamond says.
If your not from a major city it can be hard to get in the big 4. Recruiters don#8217;t take this into account. Othello A Tragic Hero Essay? You also have more responsibility at a smaller firm. Whether it is big or small, you just need to find the best accounting firms in Auckland that would fit your business requirements. It#8217;s really great topics. It also very interesting ind important post. Thank You for help with, your post. Thank you, I have just been searching for information about this topic for a long time and. yours is the best I have found out so far. But, what about the bottom line? Are you certain concerning. You stated that regional and othello a tragic essay, local CPA firms are often smaller, so it is easier to develop a close working relationship with the partners.
Do most companies hire a CPA firm to do all of their accounting and tax forms? I can imagine that the accounting and tax preparation part of a business are very important and have to be done correctly. Hiring a CPA firm could be a very valuable option. Hello blogger, i must say you have very interesting articles here. Your website should go viral. You need initial traffic only. How to get it? Search for; Mertiso#8217;s tips go viral. I see you don#8217;t monetize your page, don#8217;t waste your traffic, you can earn extra bucks every month. An Essay On The Usefulness History? because you#8217;ve got hi quality content. If you want to know.
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What s It All About, Shakespeare?: Is Othello a Tragic Hero?
Guest Editorial: Uncounted: Power, inequalities and the post-2015 data revolution. People and othello a tragic, groups go uncounted for reasons of power: those without power are further marginalized by essay by bus their exclusion from statistics, while elites and criminals resist the counting of their incomes and wealth. As a result, the pattern of counting can both reflect and exacerbate existing inequalities. The global framework set by the Sustainable Development Goals will be more ambitious, in othello, terms of both the counting and with assignments, the challenging of inequalities, than anything that has gone before. Othello. This article explores the likely obstacles, and the unaddressed weaknesses in the agreed framework, and ethical nursing essay, suggests a number of hero, measures to strengthen the eventual challenge to journey by bus inequalities, including by the promotion of tax justice measures. Explains how the current patterns of ‘counting’ can both reflect and hero essay, exacerbate existing inequalities, and explores the likely obstacles and the unaddressed weaknesses the 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda. Data: Facts and statistics collected together for reference or analysis. Revolution: A forcible overthrow of an essay usefulness, a government or social order, in favour of a new system . Oxford English Dictionary.
Counting matters. As the a tragic, Stiglitz et al. (2009 : 7) report puts it: ‘What we measure affects what we do; and if our measurements are flawed, decisions may be distorted …. Remembered Rhythms Of India. [I]f our metrics of performance are flawed, so too may be the inferences that we draw’. The Commission criticizes at length the use of gross domestic product (GDP) and othello, economic growth as the primary measures of progress, predominantly focusing on rich countries. In development thinking, there is a comparatively rich and varied history of analysing different measures. The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) represented the psychotherapy online, first attempt to establish a common set for all developing countries; the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) takes this further and identifies a universal (global) set of goals, targets and indicators, applicable from 2016 onwards. ‘… measures to strengthen the capacity and coverage of national and othello is not hero, sub-national monitoring and evaluation, data collection and analysis. University. These will need to track the impact of policies, legislation, budgets and programmes among those most disadvantaged and excluded; allow for truly participatory assessment of these measures; enable much more systematic disaggregation of information for equity-focused targets and indicators; and provide mechanisms for othello hero locally-led citizen monitoring and feedback on progress and performance.’ ( UNICEF/UNWomen, 2013 : 10) Later that year, the High Level Panel of ethical dilemma nursing essay, Eminent Persons confirmed to is not hero the UN Secretary General that ‘any new goals should be accompanied by an independent and rigorous monitoring system, [requiring] a data revolution for sustainable development, with an international initiative to improve the quality of statistics and with, information available to citizens’ ( UNICEF/UNWomen, 2013 : 21; emphasis in is not, original).
This momentum carried through, albeit somewhat imperfectly, into the SDGs framework, which achieved UN consensus in ethical, August 2015. This article evaluates the framework in othello is not hero, terms of how far that ‘data revolution’ is likely to reach. The term ‘uncounted’ is used to describe a politically motivated failure to count . This takes two main forms. First, there may be people and groups at the bottom of distributions (e.g., income) whose ‘uncounting’ adds another level to their marginalization, for example, where they are absent from statistics that inform policy prioritization. Second, there may be people and groups at the top of distributions who are further empowered by being able to an essay on the of medical history for medicine go uncounted – not least by hiding income and wealth from taxation and regulation. In either case, the phenomenon is not a random or arbitrary one. Being uncounted is not generally a matter of coincidence, but reflects power: the lack of it, or its excess.
As such, the term ‘data revolution ’ is most appropriate. The implication is not of a technical reform, but rather of othello is not hero essay, a major political change. Essays Online. If the SDGs were to reach their potential in this regard, a substantial redistribution of power is implied. It is argued here that for othello a tragic hero essay a range of reasons, both by design and by omission, the SDG framework is likely to go much further in tackling the phenomenon of those who are uncounted at help with university assignments the bottom. There are however a number of developments outside the framework that support some optimism about the uncounted at the top also. Importantly, there is is not a tragic hero, still scope to establish additional mechanisms to strengthen the framework and the prospects for empowering political change.
The article is organized as follows. The first section outlines the context of development thought within which the MDGs and SDGs were adopted, highlighting the major differences in nursing essay, emphasis. The second section considers the implications of the SDG approach, as adopted, for those who are uncounted at the bottom: Will the framework really ‘Leave No One Behind’? The third section assesses those who are left ahead – the uncounted at the top, and the extent to which the othello is not a tragic hero essay, SDGs may shed light here – in particular from a tax justice perspective. A final section concludes as to the prospects for a post-2015 ‘data revolution’, challenging inequalities and tax injustice, and offers two recommendations to strengthen the framework. Evolution of development thought: context for remembered essays on diaspora music of india MDGs and SDGs.
The history of development thinking can be seen in a tragic hero, a series of essay journey, evolutionary steps in is not a tragic hero essay, counting. In each stage, mainstream aims have become more nuanced and more relevant to usefulness the lived experience of populations. Othello Is Not Essay. Inevitably, this greater nuance has driven better counting (i.e., better measurement of a population’s lived experience). However, the causality runs in both directions because at remembered rhythms essays and the of india the same time, better measurement has revealed important realities that have in turn informed different mainstream priorities. The longstanding preoccupation of is not, much development analysis (and policy) has been GDP, and its growth (or at best, GDP per capita and its growth). With important interventions from UNICEF’s Adjustment with a Human Face ( Cornia et al., 1987 ) and UNDP’s (1990) first Human Development Report, this focus on poor countries gave way – first to on the of medical a greater emphasis on non-GDP aspects of national human development, and then to a focus instead on people living in poverty. The World Bank promoted extreme income poverty as the is not a tragic hero essay, central element, from the subsequent 1990 World Development Report ( World Bank, 1990 ), and its ‘dollar-a-day’ measure was eventually adopted as the basis for the target of the first UN MDG in 2000. Alongside (and partly in response to) the focus on absolute, monetary poverty came a much wider and richer analysis of (individual and household) poverty that much more closely reflect the UNICEF and UNDP analysis. Ruggeri-Laderchi et al. (2003) identify three main approaches. The capabilities approach (following Sen, 1999 ) treats poverty as the failure to achieve certain minimal capabilities, rather than as the failure to reach a certain consumption or income level.
While the persuasive on gambling, emphasis remains on othello is not essay, absolute achievements, the capabilities approach is necessarily a multidimensional one, going far beyond income as a proxy for utility. The social exclusion approach, which had by persuasive on gambling far the is not a tragic, most important policy role in the European Union, puts greater emphasis on relative aspects of poverty – emphasizing the help university assignments, ability of people to participate in a tragic hero, a given society. From this approach tends to follow an understanding of psychotherapy, poverty as clearly multidimensional, and significant attention to group characteristics (since these are frequently the basis for exclusion). Finally, the participatory approach seeks to elicit views from othello is not a tragic within communities on the nature and locus of poverty. Important concerns here reflect issues around eliciting views without introducing external bias; ensuring the views that are heard are genuinely representative (a problem that looms ever larger as attempts are made to take this approach to national scale); and inherent problems of self-identification (including, e.g., the tendency to identify others as [more] poor). A comparison of four approaches to poverty. Social exclusion approach. Unit of analysis. Ideally the individual, de facto the household. Individuals or groups relative to others in their community/society.
Groups and individuals within them. Required or minimum standard identified by. Reference to ‘external’ information (defined outside the unit); central element food requirements. Reference to online ‘lists’ of dimensions normally assumed to be objectively definable. Reference to those prevailing in is not, society and state obligations. Local people’s own perceptions of well-being and ill-being. Sensitivity to social institutions. None, but assessments can be broken down by group. Emphasis on remembered essays on diaspora and the music, adequacy rather than sufficiency leaves space for (non-modelled) variations. Reflected in the way poor people analyze their own reality. Importance of processes.
One of the main thrusts of the othello a tragic hero, approach. Critical for achievement of satisfactory methods. Major weaknesses conceptually. Utility is not an adequate measure of well-being, and poverty is not an economic category. Elements of arbitrariness in choice of basic capabilities, problems of adding up. Broad framework, susceptible to many interpretations, difficult to help compare across countries. Whose perceptions are being elicited, and othello a tragic essay, how representative or consistent are they? How does one deal with disagreements? Problems for essay cross-country comparisons. Comparability of surveys, of price indices, of drawing poverty lines. Fewer problems if basic capabilities are defined externally, but adding up difficulties make comparisons difficult with inconsistencies according to adding up methodology.
Lines of othello essay, social exclusion essentially society-specific; also an adding up problem. Cultural difference can make appropriate processes differ across countries, results may not be comparable. Household surveys regularly conducted; omitted observations can be important. Use of essays online, national income data – but requires assumptions about essay, distribution. Data less regularly collected, but could easily be improved. Currently have to rely on data collected for other purposes. If agreed on with, basic dimensions, data could be regularly collected. Generally only small purposive samples. Never available nationally, would be difficult to extend method for regular national data collection. Major weaknesses for measurement. Needs to is not a tragic hero be anchored to external elements.
Impossibility of set evaluation. How to deal with multidimensionality even if only of basic functionings. Problems with multidimensionality. How comparable? How representative? Challenge of capturing process.
Interpreted by policymakers as requiring. Emphasis on economic growth and distribution of monetary income. Investments in extending basic capabilities/basic needs via monetary incomes and public services. Foster processes of inclusion, inclusion in markets and social processes, with particular emphasis on formal labour market. Empowerment of the poor. In both aspects, the remembered rhythms and the, MDGs marked a final break from seeing development as a problem of ‘poor countries’, and focused instead on poor people. Collier’s (2007) The Bottom Billion: Why the Poorest Countries are Failing and What Can Be Done About It can be seen as something of a throwback.
Its main thesis was subsequently demolished in Sumner’s (2010) work on the ‘new bottom billion’, showing that the majority of extreme income poverty occurred – and had done for some time – in middle- rather than low-income countries, reflecting within-country inequality rather than countries’ absolute poverty. The power of the latter analysis has combined with growing political attention to income and wealth inequalities in donor countries following the 2008 financial crisis (see, e.g., the unexpected prominence of Piketty, 2014 ). Othello Is Not Hero Essay. But perhaps the strongest current in development thought since the establishment of the MDGs has been that focused on group inequalities. Two inter-related strands can be identified: one intellectual, one data-led. Of the former, much credit is due to the pioneering work on horizontal inequalities of Stewart and the Centre for Research into Inequality, Security and Ethnicity at Oxford (see, e.g. Essay Journey By Bus. Stewart, 2002 ). The MDG Achievement Fund played a major role in funding work that directly addressed potential applications within the SDG framework (in particular Kabeer, 2010 ; Paz Arauco et al., 2014 ). At the same time, the growing availability of relatively consistent survey data has allowed a range of group inequalities to be analyzed. Although the data remain far from perfect, the effect has been to othello is not essay demonstrate the possibility of a truly global framework with disaggregation in multiple dimensions – as reflected in essay by bus, calls from othello a tragic hero international NGOs such as Christian Aid (e.g. Cobham et al., 2010 ) and Save the Children (e.g. Persuasive On Gambling. Espey et al., 2012 ; Roche et al., 2015 ). The Multidimensional Poverty Index (e.g. Alkire and Robles, 2015 ) has also highlighted the othello is not a tragic hero, potential of survey data, albeit without stressing group inequalities.
In addition, the dilemma essay, gender equality goal (MDG 3 of 8) has increasingly been seen as a (perhaps even ‘the’) success story from the MDGs. By playing an is not a tragic hero important role in making concrete a norm that was still only emerging, this in turn set the basis for the group equality norm, which runs through the SDGs, under the university, banner of a tragic hero, ‘Leave No One Behind’, and is the persuasive on gambling, subject of the following section. Finally, note that both the process and the intended financing of the SDGs differ in powerful ways from that for othello is not essay the MDGs, and these also reflect the changing currents of development thought. The process was deliberately participatory, and by bus, established something much closer to a global conversation (albeit with inevitable issues of access and empowered engagement) than the othello is not a tragic hero essay, ‘few white men in a room’ approach that developed the MDG framework from the original Millennium Declaration. In keeping with this wider ownership, the financing emphasis is very much on domestic resource mobilization (and on tax revenues in particular), rather than foreign aid.
In this broader context of development thought, the ethical nursing, SDGs represent an entirely logical evolution from the MDGs – and one in effect mapped out by Ruggeri-Laderchi et al. Othello Hero. (2003) . Where the MDGs combined then-dominant monetary poverty and capabilities approaches, the rhythms on diaspora music of india, SDGs add important social exclusion dynamics to the framework and in the process at least put rather greater emphasis on participatory approaches. Both aspects demand a step change in counting, in order to address inequalities and power questions. Is Not A Tragic Essay. They require data to capture important group disaggregation as well as data to provide transparency and support accountability. The rest of the by bus, article considers how successful the framework is likely to be. Uncounted at the bottom: will the SDGs really ‘Leave No One Behind’? ‘As we embark on this great collective journey, we pledge that no one will be left behind. Recognizing that the dignity of the human person is is not a tragic hero, fundamental, we wish to see the Goals and targets met for all nations and peoples and for all segments of society. And we will endeavour to reach the furthest behind first. SDGs, finalized text for adoption’ (1 August 2015: 3) ‘The next development agenda must ensure that in help with university, the future neither income nor gender, nor ethnicity, nor disability, nor geography, will determine whether people live or die, whether a mother can give birth safely, or whether her child has a fair chance in life.
We must keep faith with the promise of the MDGs and now finish the othello is not, job. Psychotherapy Essays Online. The MDGs aspired to is not a tragic essay halve poverty. After 2015 we should aspire to put an end to hunger and extreme poverty as well as addressing poverty in all its other forms. This is a major new commitment to everyone on the planet who feels marginalised or excluded, and to the neediest and most vulnerable people, to make sure their concerns are addressed and that they can enjoy their human rights … To be sure that our actions are helping not just the largest number of people, but the neediest and most vulnerable, we will need new ways of nursing, measuring success.’ ( High Level Panel of Eminent Persons, 2013 ) A major criticism of the MDGs reflected here is that by largely ignoring identity, and targeting aggregate progress instead, the a tragic hero, framework actually incentivized greater inequality ( UNICEF, 2015 ). In terms of vertical inequalities, helping those living on psychotherapy, US$0.01 a day is almost inevitably harder than tipping those on othello a tragic hero essay, $0.99 a day over ethical the line instead.
In terms of horizontal inequalities, although it turns out that countries that reduced these tended to see greater aggregate success (as, e.g., Roche et al., 2015 find in child mortality reduction), this was not obvious ex ante . Where existing inequalities reflected the balance of power in a tragic hero, a country, and/or were not widely recognized, then a well-meaning pursuit of national progress could easily exacerbate or simply fail to help university address them. The social exclusion impetus of the SDGs is intended to is not ensure that identity is remembered rhythms on diaspora music, well recognized from the a tragic essay, outset; and that disaggregated data support accountability for persuasive addressing group inequalities. These are the final of the 169 targets: Data, monitoring and accountability. 17.18. By 2020, enhance capacity-building support to developing countries, including for least developed countries and small island developing States, to increase significantly the availability of high-quality, timely and reliable data disaggregated by income, gender, age, race, ethnicity, migratory status, disability, geographic location and other characteristics relevant in national contexts.
17.19. By 2030, build on existing initiatives to develop measurements of progress on sustainable development that complement GDP, and support statistical capacity-building in developing countries. Two main risks can be identified: first, that the core data necessary simply are not collected; and second, that the data are collected but characterized by such systematic weaknesses as to othello a tragic hero undermine the aims of inclusion from the outset. Analysis to rhythms and the date has largely focused on the first risk, and on the technical and financial aspects (rather than the political). Probably the othello is not, most common interpretation of the psychotherapy essays, ‘data revolution’ call has been as requiring a major increase in the coverage and frequency of household surveys – in order to establish that ‘neither income nor gender, nor ethnicity, nor disability, nor geography’ remain determinants of major human development outcomes. Alkire and Samman (2014 : 35) compare possible data sources and conclude that ‘traditional in-depth survey programmes accompanied by interim surveys have the greatest potential’. Is Not A Tragic Hero. Jerven (2014) suggests that the by bus, costs of such a survey push would be prohibitive. He estimates the cost of a full MDG data package at around $1 billion a year, extrapolating on a simple per-target basis to suggest a total figure for the SDGs of as much as $254 billion (or around two and a half times the annual aid budget).
Sandefur and Demombynes (2014) , however, conclude that this is overblown. In practice, they suggest that the total of international donor assistance needed is of the othello essay, order of $300 million per persuasive, year – much of which is already provided, so should not be seen as additional for the SDGs. Less prominently analyzed in the post-2015 context is the othello is not a tragic hero essay, range of systematic weaknesses in psychotherapy essays online, current survey (and national census) data. Carr-Hill (2013 , 2014 ) has led the way in a tragic hero, assessing the extent to which particular groups are excluded, either by design or by sampling failures. Household surveys by with assignments design exclude those who are not part of households, specifically: homeless populations; those in institutions (hospitals and prisons); and, highly mobile populations, including nomadic and pastoralist groups. In addition, there is significant under-representation in practice of three further groups (all of which experience some level of insecurity or fragility): those living in informal settlements; those from othello is not a tragic hero essay households that are fragile and/or disjointed; and, those living in relatively insecure areas. Overall, albeit using inevitably somewhat crude estimates, Carr-Hill (2013) identifies the potential scale of the journey, problem as affecting 300–350 million people. While a randomly distributed undersampling of a tragic hero, perhaps 5 percent of the global population might not be a grave concern, a common feature of the groups in question is the likelihood of their being overwhelmingly over-represented at the bottom of the relevant income distributions.
Quality of essays, water sources, urban populations of othello, sub-Saharan Africa. A separate failing of an essay usefulness of medical history, survey data relates to the identities that are captured. On the whole, surveys tend to allow regional and urban–rural disaggregation. Often, although not always, ethnolinguistic disaggregation is is not a tragic hero, also possible. The long-standing problem of help with assignments, gender disaggregation remains, since important (especially economic) data may be captured at the household rather than the individual level. Perhaps the most egregious failing of a tragic, surveys in respect of the groups identified in the SDGs, however, relates to persons living with disabilities. Here there has been a persistent failure, if anything worsening over time.
Samman and Rodriguez-Takeuchi (2013) address disabilities in survey data, and the somehow parallel issues of essay journey by bus, mental health and old age. In each case, the authors highlight scale and identify associations with poverty. People over 60 make up 11 percent of the global population, and households they head are likely to have lower incomes; and that mental health disorders affect 450 million people, although the comparative lack of study and data mean that any link to poverty or poor development outcomes is less clear. An estimated 15–20 percent of the othello a tragic essay, world’s population lives with some form of disability, including those resulting from mental health issues, and the disability is considered severe for an estimated 2–4 percent of the global population. People living with disabilities are again more likely to be income-poor and to be excluded in a range of other ways. In the United Kingdom, for example, where major data challenges remain, it is estimated that women living with learning disabilities died 20 years earlier than the general population, and ethical dilemma nursing essay, men with learning disabilities 13 years earlier ( Heslop et al., 2013 ). Samman and Rodriguez-Takeuchi (2013) also show that the othello is not a tragic essay, three groups are undercounted, and often completely uncounted, with the main surveys conducted.
There are issues in help university, terms of coverage (e.g., these groups may be more likely to live outside formal households, a problem discussed above) and the extent of othello is not a tragic, information collected (not least, whose opinion is sought about rhythms essays music of india, conditions affecting household members). However, the biggest issues relate to identification. Are the right questions being asked of sufficient numbers of people to obtain representative data? Almost without exception – and is not essay, above all for disabilities and mental health – the answer is no. For example, disability questions are typically not included (sometimes with the justification that necessary over-sampling to obtain representative data would be prohibitively expensive). Where disability questions have been included, the form has been weak. For example, ‘Is [NAME] physically or mentally handicapped or disabled?’ Such questions will tend to an essay on the of medical identify only a tragic hero, severe, and typically more physically visible, disabilities, while issues of stigma may undermine even this identification.
There is now fairly broad consensus – although only limited practical use – of the minimum six-question approach proposed by the UN’s Washington Group on Statistics, which instead puts the by bus, emphasis on self-reporting of actual capabilities: Do you have difficulty seeing even if wearing glasses? Do you have difficulty hearing even if using hearing aid/s or are you deaf? Do you have difficulty walking or climbing stairs? Do you have difficulty remembering or concentrating? Do you have difficulty (with self-care such as) washing all over or dressing?
Do you have difficulty communicating (for example, understanding or being understood by othello is not hero essay others)? Question response categories: No, Some, A lot, and Unable. Extended versions exist, but reasons of usefulness for medicine, cost may prevent their widespread use in surveys that must address multiple issues. The areas of old age, mental health and – above all – disability, are ones in othello is not hero essay, which being uncounted represents very clearly a further marginalization. Progress will require new approaches that condemn such exclusion to the past, and generate the data even to assess whether these groups are included in any individual SDG achievements. Survey data are of course not the rhythms essays on diaspora, only options.
Outlining elements of a solution to the systematic omissions he identifies, Carr-Hill (2013) highlights the importance of accurate census data, both as a central element of national statistics in their own right and as the basis to is not essay assess and possibly to persuasive essay reweight survey findings. By 2030, provide legal identity for all, including birth registration. Dunning et al. Othello Is Not Hero. (2014) note three reasons: that recognized identity supports the establishment of persuasive essay, (at least notional) rights vis-a-vis a state; that it facilitates (practical) access to is not essay state services; and persuasive, third, to support better data. Thus, as with broader aspects of counting, it is both means and end to hero development progress. Once again, the uncounted are not an arbitrary group: ‘it is no accident that those lacking birth registration and remembered rhythms on diaspora music of india, legal identity are typically the most vulnerable people in is not a tragic hero essay, the poorest countries’ ( Dunning et al., 2014 : 3). This includes an estimated 750 million children under 16, of whom around 230 million are under 5. A further 70 million registered children are estimated to have no birth certificate. By 2030, all countries at least halve the percentage of unregistered births for children younger than five and essays and the music of india, reduce the average age of birth registration. By 2030, ensure that all individuals have well-defined and recognized legal identity by the time they become adult (15–18) A further set of concerns relate to is not hero the linkages between legal identity and citizenship ( Bloom, 2015 ). These include the general risk that attention to legal identity exacerbates the problems faced by those who are stateless (e.g., that they may receive an identity that confers illegal status, in effect; or that the SDGs’ emphasis on accountability to citizens may exclude them more comprehensively even than presently).
The need to ensure rights regardless of legal identity or citizenship is not made generally explicit (although migrants are explicitly included in on gambling, some targets). Overall, as far as the othello is not a tragic, uncounted at the bottom are concerned, there is reason to be cautiously optimistic about the SDGs. The driving force of the persuasive, social exclusion approach has resulted in a clear focused on group inequalities, and so the proposed data revolution may go a long way to is not a tragic improving identity-based development statistics. The underpinning political drivers cannot be ignored, however, and online, nor should they be expected simply to dissolve in hero, the face of UN consensus. There is no coincidence in ethical dilemma essay, the fact that so many of the groups about whom data is now sought, but currently unavailable, have been unable to othello hero exert the effective political demand to be counted. This may reflect a widespread lack of understanding or concern, for ethical essay example, as is likely to be the case worldwide for persons living with disabilities. It may reflect embedded political dynamics, for is not a tragic essay example, such as that facing indigenous populations in countries from Australia to Canada that result in what the UN Special Rapporteur refers to as ‘nearly universal disadvantageous social and economic conditions’ ( OHCHR, 2014 ); or something more targeted such as the persuasive on gambling, apparently deliberate marginalization of multiple regions and ethnolinguistic groups in Sudan ( Cobham, 2005 ). 1.
In the last section, I consider some possibilities to support greater progress, reflecting the political nature of the obstacles. Before doing that, it is essential to othello is not hero explore the role of the essay, SDGs in respect of uncounted phenomenon related to a tragic hero essay the top of the distribution. Uncounted at with assignments the top: hidden inequalities and tax justice. At the other end of the distribution are phenomena that go uncounted because of an excess of othello a tragic essay, power: tax abuses of individuals and companies; the financial secrecy provided by jurisdictions including some of the richest that undermine tax and the rule of law in others including the poorest; and the hidden criminality of private and public sector corruption. In addition, more prosaic forms of going uncounted also contribute to obscure actual inequality. The SDG approach to illicit financial flows (IFFs) is considered below, but the immediate concern relates to the treatment of vertical inequalities. Remembered Rhythms On Diaspora And The Music. The most relevant goals and targets are as follows. Goal 10: Reduce inequality within and among countries. 10.1. By 2030, progressively achieve and sustain income growth of the bottom 40 per cent of the population at othello a rate higher than the national average.
10.2. On Diaspora And The Music. By 2030, empower and promote the social, economic and political inclusion of all, irrespective of age, sex, disability, race, ethnicity, origin, religion or economic or other status. 10.4. Adopt policies, especially fiscal, wage and othello is not hero essay, social protection policies, and essays music, progressively achieve greater equality. Fully capturing the distribution at the top is necessary to assess the extent to is not which growth is inclusive, and to ensure that fiscal policies progressively achieve greater equality. Cobham et al. (2015a) lay out three main ways in which income inequality in particular is hidden. First, higher-income households are undersampled in surveys (commonly because of refusal to participate). Increasingly, a remedy can be found through administrative tax data – as now brought together for persuasive essay a growing number of countries in the World Top Incomes Database by othello is not a tragic essay Alvaredo et al. (2015) . Using such tax data appears to add in on the usefulness of medical history for medicine, the order of 3–6 percentage points to the resulting Gini coefficient, for othello is not a tragic hero national (e.g., for the United States, Korinek et al., 2005 ) or global data ( Anand and Segal, 2014 ).
Second, tax data is by bus, itself likely to be systematically biased downwards, because of the under-reporting of incomes associated with tax evasion. Zucman (2013) estimates that undeclared assets held offshore may amount to othello is not a tragic as much as 10 percent of global GDP. Forthcoming analysis ( Cobham et al., 2015b ) using IFF (rather than stock) estimates suggests that the resulting adjustment to national Gini coefficients for undeclared incomes may be of the psychotherapy essays online, same order as that found by allowing for declared incomes via administrative tax data. The third way in which the true extent of income inequality can be hidden relates to othello is not a tragic the choice of by bus, measure. Othello Is Not. The relative insensitivity of the Gini coefficient to the tails of the distribution has long been recognized ( Atkinson, 1973 ). Cobham and Sumner (2013a , 2013b ) demonstrate that the Gini is also relatively insensitive at higher levels of inequality.
In addition, these papers provide evidence that such is the relative stability (across countries and over persuasive time) of the income share of deciles 5–9 that despite its oversensitivity here that a regression of the Gini on the bottom 40 percent and top 10 percent income shares alone produces near-perfect fit. That same stability supports Palma’s (2006 , 2011 ) findings, and the proposal of Cobham and Sumner (2013a , 2013b ) for an alternative inequality measure, the Palma ratio: the ratio of national income shares of the top 10 percent to the bottom 40 percent, since this is where most income inequality actually occurs. Per Atkinson (1973) , no single measure of is not essay, inequality is without subjective implications; the best we can do is to be aware of that which we use. Although the same two income shares drive the Gini coefficient in practice also, it occurs in a somewhat obscure and opaque way. In the Palma ratio, by contrast, it is direct and transparent. The subtitle of Palma’s (2011) paper is ‘The share of the rich is what it’s all about’. With. What is disappointing about the income inequality measure in the SDGs is that it obscures the is not a tragic essay, share of the rich almost completely.
As discussed above, the centrality of social exclusion as the development approach behind the SDG framework results in essay, great emphasis on group inequalities, and in particular on marginalized groups. Those relatively favoured groups do not necessarily come into othello is not hero, such stark contrast, in particular if the progress of marginalized groups is dilemma, compared with national averages rather than that of the most advantaged groups. This logic reaches a nadir in othello is not a tragic essay, the ‘income inequality’ target. The relationship between the help university, bottom 40 percent, deciles 5–9 and the top 10 percent shares of national income is such that, in general, the target of higher income growth for othello hero essay the bottom 40 percent than for the mean is likely to be associated with reductions in the Palma or Gini – but it is essay journey by bus, unclear why such a circular and complex route is othello a tragic essay, preferred to, for example, the Doyle and Stiglitz (2014) proposal of targeting a Palma ratio of 1, in each country, by university assignments 2030. The uncounted nature of some part of top-end incomes introduces no less important a bias in othello a tragic essay, the SDG target than it would in a Palma target, only that it is somewhat hidden. ‘There has been some criticism that the focus on essays online, the growth rate of the per othello a tragic essay, capita income of the poorest 40 percent ignores inequality. This criticism is misplaced. Since each nation already tracks the journey by bus, growth rate of the per is not hero essay, capita income of its entire population and these data are widely available, as soon as we see the growth rate of the on the of medical, bottom 40 percent next to this figure, it will be immediately obvious as to a tragic hero whether the essay, poorest 40 percent is falling off from the rest or catching up. The fact that this is not combined into a single ratio means little, since the ratio is all too obvious. Moreover, there is some literature showing that what the poorest 40 percent loses goes largely to the top 10 percent of the population.’ ( Palma, 2011 ; Green, 2012 ) It was perhaps inevitable that the othello a tragic essay, World Bank’s measure would not be taken directly into the SDGs, when its defenders begin by help with university assignments recognizing that only as a ratio can it speak to othello is not inequality. It seems at best unfortunate, however, to set a target that would loosely equate to a reduction in inequality, with no attention paid to the starting point.
Given the universal nature of the SDGs, does it make sense for a country where the bottom 40 percent earn more than the top 10 percent (i.e., Palma1) face the same target as a country where the top 10 percent earn perhaps five or six times as much? Ultimately, the compromise between ‘shared prosperity’ and a Palma target is an unsatisfactory one. An Essay. The SDG position reflects clear progress from the absolute income focus of the othello is not a tragic, MDGs, of course, but there is a sense of essays on diaspora and the music, having ducked an a tragic important possibility. Returning to IFFs, a somewhat similar conclusion may be reached. In theory, MDG 8 (Develop a global partnership for development), and target 8A in persuasive essay on gambling, particular, may be relevant: ‘Develop further an othello a tragic hero essay open, rule-based, predictable, non-discriminatory trading and financial system’. In practice, MDG 8 has been excoriated as badly designed, little measured and ethical nursing essay, largely unaccountable; and 8A stands out even here. Not only is the target not SMART (arguably, it meets none of the criteria at othello is not a tragic hero essay all: certainly it is neither specific nor measurable); there is rhythms and the music of india, also no single indicator in the framework that relates. Overall, the MDGs focused strongly on aid and had no space for domestic taxation; and included no references beyond the vague wording of 8A to the transparent or fair operation of is not hero essay, international finance and trade. 17.1.
Strengthen domestic resource mobilization, including through international support to developing countries, to improve domestic capacity for tax and other revenue collection. Note the somewhat ambiguous recognition of the international nature of the problem. Some (non-aid donor) countries had apparently pushed for essay by bus clarity over international responsibility, for example, in respect of othello essay, full inclusion of developing countries in the exchange of tax information; some (donor) countries rejected this, allowing instead the language on support that could be interpreted as technical assistance in-country alone. This year has seen studies from both UNCTAD (2015 , for the World Investment Report) and the Fiscal Affairs Department of the International Monetary Fund ( Crivelli et al., 2015 ) highlighting the scale of psychotherapy, revenue losses associated with profit-shifting by multinational groups. Othello Is Not A Tragic Essay. The former suggests that investment structures (including intra-group lending) through conduit jurisdictions results in on gambling, a loss for developing countries of is not a tragic essay, around $100 billion annually. The latter suggests that overall profit-shifting might have twice that impact, as well as causing around $500 billion of annual revenue losses for of medical OECD countries. The fact that such estimates (based variously on statistics on tax revenues, FDI income and corporate tax rates) are currently the best guide for policy reflects a further aspect of uncounted. Current corporate reporting rules do not provide for country-by-country information on othello is not hero essay, the economic activities and tax paid by multinational groups; and without this, neither the multinationals nor national tax authorities can be effectively held accountable for psychotherapy their approaches. The first analysis and advocacy priority of the then nascent Tax Justice Network in 2003 was for public country-by-country reporting ( Murphy, 2003 ). Ten years later, with increasing pressure from media revelations about corporate tax abuse such as ‘LuxLeaks’, the G8 and G20 groups of countries called for the OECD to develop just such a standard, which it has now done ( OECD, 2014 ). At present, however, the information generated (potentially by every multinational group) will only be supplied to individual tax authorities – so while some abuses may become visible and be addressed, there will be no greater public accountability of either multinationals or tax authorities. A related area for international support of domestic tax capacity, again data-dependent, is the exchange of tax information between jurisdictions.
This was the second of the Tax Justice Network’s original priorities, and othello is not a tragic, again was adopted by the G8 and G20 some ten years later, and the OECD mandated to deliver. The automatic provision of information is seen as a powerful mechanism to minimize the hiding of by bus, taxable wealth and incomes in other jurisdictions including tax havens. Despite assurances to the contrary, however, it seems likely that the is not a tragic, main beneficiaries will be OECD member states, while many developing countries may remain excluded from full participation. In addition, there are currently no plans in place to ensure consistent partially aggregated is published on an essay, the scale of bilateral holdings – so once again, the scope for accountability of tax authorities, or indeed of jurisdictions for their contribution to international financial transparency, or opacity. The lack of indicators in the SDGs, or indeed in the Financing for Development document, suggests again a missed opportunity to is not support domestic tax capacity – this time by improving the counting of elites’ offshore incomes. As noted, the underlying assets are likely to represent a material share of world GDP, and to psychotherapy online have significant implications for recorded inequality. 16.4. By 2030, significantly reduce illicit financial and essay, arms flows, strengthen the recovery and return of stolen assets, and combat all forms of organized crime. ‘We will redouble efforts to substantially reduce illicit financial flows by 2030, with a view to eventually eliminating them, including by combating tax evasion and corruption through strengthened national regulation and increased international cooperation.’ ( UN, 2015 : 8) The dictionary definition of rhythms of india, illicit is ‘forbidden by law, rules or custom’; that is, it goes beyond narrow illegality. The consistent feature of IFFs – those that are certainly illegal, such as cross-border money-laundering and tax evasion, and that those may be legal but are socially unacceptable such as the most egregious tax avoidance (or unproven evasion) of othello, some multinational companies – is the ethical nursing essay, use of financial secrecy to prevent public visibility.
A typology of IFFs and immediate impacts. Impact on othello is not, state funds. Impact on state effectiveness. Exploit subsidy regime. (Re)patriate undeclared capital. Shift undeclared (licit) income/profit. Shift criminal proceeds out. Evade capital controls (including on profit repatriation) (Re)patriate undeclared capital.
Shift undeclared (licit) income/profit. Shift criminal proceeds out. Evade capital controls (including on profit repatriation) Shift undeclared (licit) income/profit. Shift undeclared (licit) income/profit. Shift criminal proceeds out.
Evade capital controls (including on profit repatriation) (Re)patriate undeclared capital. Hide market dominance. Hide political involvement. Evade capital controls (including on profit repatriation) Shift undeclared (licit) income/profit. Shift criminal proceeds out. Hide political involvement.
(If no expectation of help university assignments, repayment, or if under-priced) Public asset theft (illegitimate allocation of state funds) (If state illegitimate, or if over-priced) Public asset theft (illegitimate creation of state liabilities) Related party lending. Shift undeclared (licit) income/profit. Related party borrowing. Shift undeclared (licit) income/profit. Public asset sales. Public asset theft. Hide market dominance. Hide political involvement.
Public asset theft. Hide market dominance. Hide political involvement. Offshore ownership transfer. Note : ‘IFF type’ defined as: 1 – market/regulatory abuse, 2 – tax abuse, 3 – abuse of power, including theft of state funds, 4 – proceeds of crime. As the table illustrates, each form can occur via multiple channels (from, e.g., mispricing of trade to a tragic essay the use of anonymous shell companies); and each channel can be used for and the music of india more than one form of illicit flow. As a result, precise estimates are difficult. The leading estimates of total IFFs come from Global Financial Integrity ( Kar and Spanjers, 2014 ), and combine a ‘hot money’ component reflecting capital account anomalies with a ‘misinvoicing’ component reflecting trade anomalies. While there are criticisms of othello, each, and alternatives in specific areas where more detailed trade data, for example, has been available ( Pak and Zdanowicz, 2000 ), Global Financial Integrity has long set the challenge to international institutions to do better. On Diaspora. As yet, none have attempted it. A Tragic Essay. One major benefit of the SDG target then – vague and currently unmeasured as it is – is that it may finally prompt action, perhaps from the World Bank or the International Monetary Fund (IMF) or ideally a broader collaboration including NGO expertise, to establish a methodology around which consensus can be formed.
Ideally, such an psychotherapy online approach would come closer to essay the breadth of IFF in Table 3 , and the work cited by UNCTAD and IMF researchers on multinational tax losses could well form a part. In any event, if there is to be accountability for progress, a necessary first step is to count IFF more effectively. Conclusions and policy recommendations. This article has considered the new SDGs framework in the context of the evolution in development thought since 2000. The greater emphasis on social exclusion and participatory approaches to poverty has been seen to underpin the framework’s attention to power and to inequalities, which represent important shifts from the focus on absolute income poverty and basic capabilities that characterized the MDGs. If this shift is to essays gain traction in a tragic essay, policy terms, and to drive meaningful rebalancing of political power as is implied, then the much-heralded data revolution will truly be required. While there are many technical and financial challenges to achieve this, such a revolution is dilemma nursing essay, fundamentally political – and so too are the obstacles. The thesis of ‘uncounted’ put forward here asserts that marginalized groups are often further excluded by their absence from statistics used for policy or in public debate, while elites may be further empowered by their lack of visibility. In both cases, technical fixes alone will not address the political reasons for othello a tragic essay the inequalities – but genuine progress on counting can be a powerful step towards addressing the wider inequalities.
Two proposals are put forward, with the common aim of online, strengthening the political accountability of the othello is not a tragic hero essay, counting that the framework requires. The first relates primarily to the uncounted at the bottom, the second to the uncounted at the top. Who will count those who themselves are counting? A major risk is that states and/or elites will either actively suppress the collation or publication of data on uncomfortable inequalities (note 1), or more through inertia simply fail to prioritize sufficiently the counting of those who are in fact most marginalized (consider, e.g., the failures globally in relation to persons with learning disabilities, and indigenous populations; or the effective absence of elites from much income distribution data). At a minimum, reporting structures should be put in place so that the presence or absence of an essay on the of medical for medicine, reporting, in relation to each inequality type relevant to each target, is itself reported . This would facilitate the comparison and ranking of the extent of othello is not a tragic hero essay, uncounted phenomena, by issue; by inequality type and/or group; and by country and journey, region. Is health better counted than income poverty?
Is counting with respect to is not hero disabilities catching up or falling further behind? Which countries are leading, and which trailing, and persuasive, why? Are there financial issues holding back overall progress, or more political aspects leaving individual groups or thematic areas uncounted? Sometimes, such analysis is likely to reveal legitimate prioritizations; in other cases, making the effective choices visible will ensure greater accountability, and a more participatory approach to hero essay future decisions. Equivalent accountability should be put in place for national statistical offices (NSOs) also, to track the extent to with university which they deliver their share of the necessary data.
Here the importance is as much to is not essay support the independence of NSOs from domestic political pressure, as to hold them accountable themselves. To this end, the global framework might usefully be augmented by the addition of help university, annual indicators for othello is not a tragic hero essay each country of the de facto and de jure independence of NSOs, as are often constructed for central bank independence, for example. Even with the convoluted income inequality target 10.1, it remains the case that if those at the top are uncounted then it is impossible to know if those at the bottom are being left behind or otherwise. While there may be more political discomfort to a focus on top incomes, or other development outcomes – and perhaps exactly because of that discomfort – it is important that these groups do not remain uncounted, if the SDGs are to deliver their promise. A specific aspect of uncounted at the top relates to the inclusion or otherwise of data on ethical dilemma, offshore assets and othello is not a tragic hero essay, incomes to lower-income countries, and the publication or otherwise of partial aggregates for accountability of both taxpayers and tax authorities, along with the country-by-country reporting of multinationals for exactly the same reasons. Much like the non-aid commitments of donor countries in MDG 8, the G8 has yet to deliver on its promises of 2013 to on the usefulness history ensure full inclusion of developing countries in tax information exchange.
The SDGs and Financing for Development outcome document have, in the end, delivered somewhat less of a shift in is not a tragic, power than might have been hoped. Neither, for essay journey example, has required the publication of othello hero, country-by-country reporting data; and the latter narrowly failed to essays online deliver an intergovernmental tax body with the is not a tragic hero, power to strengthen cooperation. For each country and on the of medical, jurisdiction, on what proportion of foreign-owned assets and to the states of what proportion of the world’s population, are they providing tax information bilaterally to others? For each country and jurisdiction, from which countries and jurisdictions are they receiving tax information bilaterally? For each country and jurisdiction receiving information, what proportion and volume of revealed assets were already declared by hero essay the taxpayer, and what resolution has reached each year in respect of the remainder? For each country and jurisdiction, for multinationals making up what proportion of the declared multinational tax base is country-by-country reporting publicly available? For each country and jurisdiction, are they contributing to the World Top Incomes Database or elsewhere publishing equivalent data and/or adjusted income distribution data? There are of course a range of other areas in which SDG-related efforts to tackle the problems of the uncounted would be valuable. For potential adoption from the outset, however, these two proposals could be quickly implemented and offer immediate support to existing stated intentions. The SDGs offer the promise of the greatest, global challenge to systematic power inequalities.
A true data revolution would overcome the deep-rooted political underpinnings to the intertwined problem of the uncounted. The paper shows the pattern by combining regionally disaggregated data on health and education outcomes, with equivalently disaggregated fiscal data published by the IMF in the early 2000s. When the essay by bus, IMF published a report nearly ten years later using updated data ( Abdoun et al., 2012 ), and I requested it, they delayed repeatedly – apparently because the Sudanese government was doing the same in a tragic hero, response to the IMF’s request for psychotherapy essays permission. Ultimately, the is not a tragic, data was not made available to me – or, presumably, to any Sudanese or other citizen with an interesting in exploring these questions. The author is grateful for comments from participants and discussants at seminars and conferences at essay on gambling Birmingham, Columbia, Heriot-Watt, NYU Law School and at the Pan-African Conference on othello is not a tragic hero essay, Inequalities in the Context of Structural Transformation in Accra. There are no affiliations available.
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State of Luxury Car Sales and Distribution to is not a tragic hero essay, Generation Y Essay. Luxury vehicle is a marketing term used to describe cars with greater performance, comfort, innovation, and usefulness of medical history for medicine features that convey a brand image. As the industry has grown, it has become much more complex; there is more intense competition and new needs for othello hero consumers. Help University! By doing a SWOT analysis of the luxury car industry, the data reveals that although there are constant threats to this industry, there are also many opportunities. Some of the a tragic essay strengths for many of the established manufacturers are their high brand equity. They are world leaders and by bus consumers view them that way; being the ‘finest’ in the industry, companies like Mercedes can charge high prices for othello is not essay their cars.
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On April at a New York auto show, Benz reviled a concept version of the redesigned A-class and Jackson called it “beautiful. ” The A-class is expected to sell around $30,000 in 2013 in by bus, the United States and European automakers are extremely confident that it will sell. Technology has become a vital part of the automaker industry, especially for luxury cars and Generation Y. Othello Is Not A Tragic Hero Essay! Luxury carmakers are able to online, charge high prices for their premium products by utilizing a differentiation strategy. A Tragic Hero! They need to increase a customer’s willingness to pay to compensate for their higher prices. Innovative technology is one of the main ways to usefulness of medical history, achieve this. Even a small innovation could help boost sales of a particular model. Therefore, it is very important for luxury carmakers to invest in research and development. It is important to be the is not hero essay first company with these new innovations because buyers crave these new innovations and it attracts them to the brand. Innovation for luxury carmakers should focus on four main goals: Appealing to tech-savvy buyers, environmental friendliness, performance, and safety. By Bus! Appealing to tech-savvy drivers is an extremely important goal. As the othello is not a tragic hero essay younger generation grows older, innovation will be a huge factor in their car purchasing decision.
New features in remembered rhythms and the music, cars are being designed to othello hero, make driving feel like a video game. “Auto makers view these features as lures for younger, cash-conscious and tech-savvy buyers” (White). Psychotherapy Essays! Environmental friendliness in luxury cars is also an is not a tragic important focus of innovation. As the world becomes more and more conscious of the psychotherapy online problems with the environment, drivers will look for more environmentally friendly vehicles. Recently, luxury carmakers have begun to roll out plans for hybrid luxury vehicles. “They want to othello is not a tragic, attract the lifestyle purchasers who aren’t necessarily concerned about saving a few dollars on gas, but want an environmentally conscious choice without giving up the remembered essays and the music of india amenities they are used to” (Hirsch). Luxury carmakers need to continue to research the is not a tragic essay use of an essay, hybrid technologies and implement them into future models. A third goal for these companies’ innovation is to maintain the performance of their vehicles. They need to othello is not essay, find a compromise between keeping the comfort and reliability of past luxury cars and adding new technologies and innovations. The last focus of innovation for luxury cars should be safety. Safety is always an extremely important focus of research and development.
Infiniti recently introduced “Eco Pedal”, a pedal that “gently pushes back against your foot when the car’s computers decide you’re romping too aggressively on the accelerator” (White). This new innovation both allows the customer to drive more efficiently and make it safer. The main targets of the marketing plans for luxury cars should be new drivers and young professionals, not forgetting their loyal customers. With! The new, younger drivers are more interested in technologically advanced cars. Technology is the main attraction and should be the focus for marketing departments when advertising to young drivers.
The other target is past customers. They are more concerned with reliability and safety of the cars and their performance. The marketing techniques being used currently by is not hero essay, some of these luxury carmakers include TV, radio, and print ads, social networks, brand positioning, and green technology leadership. TV, radio, and print advertising are important because they reach a broad audience and are less expensive compared to other forms of advertising. Another type of marketing being used by of medical for medicine, carmakers is the use of social networks. Othello A Tragic Hero! While carmakers have started using these social tools, researchers believe that they are missing an opportunity to essays online, really reach out to the younger market (Generation Y). A third tool used by marketers of luxury carmakers is brand positioning.
One way to othello is not a tragic, do that is to associate certain attributes with your brand. Mercedes and BMW have been able to create a culture to their brand that represents the ideals of business professionals. More and more people are becoming conscious of the condition of the environment. It will be important for companies to establish themselves as leaders in going green technology to attract environmentally conscious customers. Future marketing should be geared towards these Generation Y consumers. Given that the internet offers access to unlimited information, Gen Y has developed into the most well-informed consumer market and therefore the most unresponsive to advertising. They reject aggressive or concentrated advertisement and they prefer products that have reached them through word of mouth or subtle social media advertising.
The luxury car market is facing some issues due to the increased customers’ expectations that have resulted due to the constantly advancing technology, increased products standards and social changes. Luxury brands seem less different from each other which has resulted in an increase competition and essays online a need for companies to capture younger generations and cultivate a brand identity on them. Luxury car manufactures are taking advantage of the use of othello is not a tragic essay, digital media and online channels to get the most out of today’s luxury customers. In order to attract the Generation Y some strategies are being developed and essay journey by bus some may also appear in a short future. Given that the internet enables consumers not only to find information but also experience, luxury carmakers are aiming to create online campaigns and online private communities. Mercedes Benz is is not a tragic hero essay one of the leaders when it comes to finding ways to connect with the new generation.
They have taken advantage of the Gen Y enthusiasm for digital communities by a developing a private online community called Gen-Benz. This online community was founded on 2008 and essays and the of india is by invitation only. The company contacts Generation Y owners and fans and connects them with the othello is not a tragic hero brand’s decision makers thru live chat. The Marketing Vice President Steve Cannon said that “the project’s success has led the help university company to move almost entirely away from focus groups, to evolving “customer intimacy” via these networks. ” (Luxury Society, 2010). This community is successful not only because the company can obtain direct feedback about media advertisement and cars performance but because it’s attractive to members. Having the is not a tragic hero essay opportunity to with university, provide advice directly to top executives, test drive new cars and is not hero essay provide feedback on social media is extremely exciting and attractive to essays online, the Generation Y. Mercedes Benz has successfully figure out a new approach of how to is not hero essay, utilize social media to conduct cost effective consumer researches that ultimately helps the company’s brand development. Researches have revealed that Gen Y like feeling part of essay by bus, a private group, reason why this strategy works so well. Another new approach that carmakers are following are project based competitions in which selected MBA students are invited to is not hero, participate and provide ideas on essay journey by bus how to solve current issues that the company and industry are facing. Luxury car makers select top students from top universities in a tragic, order to have direct access to the ideas of their potential future customers.
Moreover, this approach is also used as a recruitment strategy. Carmakers are developing new car models targeted specifically to the young college professionals. By Bus! For example, Acura has recently launched the a tragic hero essay youthful 2012 Acura TSX Special Edition which aims to attract the an essay on the history for medicine image seekers. Othello Is Not A Tragic Essay! Image seekers are consumers that will appreciate the journey styling and performance of the vehicle while addressing their need to identify with their growing personal and professional success. (Brand insider, 2012) IN the same manner other luxury carmakers are looking to introduce similar cars at affordable prices, with a sporty interior, powerful and fuel efficient engine. Generation Y have embraced technology and video games like no other generation. Many brands, not only carmakers, are starting to show their presence in the virtual world as a marketing strategy.
A game called “The Second Life” offers players an opportunity to explore beyond their reach in virtual life. Moreover offer companies a chance to is not hero essay, reach their targets in a different way by offering them the possibility to essay by bus, experience new products. Luxury car makers have created showrooms in the game where players can stop by, gather all the information they need, explore visually and most importantly experience the is not a tragic excitement of driving any car in a virtual test track. In this 3 D environment carmakers host events where they play videos and advertisements for interested consumers in a dynamic and entertaining way. Many carmakers have created parallel brands in order to reach a different segment of consumers. The most popular lower cost brands create a luxury parallel brand to enlarge their market coverage. A very well know example is the essay Toyota brand that created Lexus. Othello Is Not! In the same way luxury car makers may create lower cost parallel brands in order to capture those customers that admire the brand and its products but are unable to afford them. The luxury car market is at a crossroad.
As this new market, Generation Y, arises, they are faced with both a great threat and great opportunity. These carmakers need to adapt to with, these new consumers in hero, the ways they design and essay by bus market their cars. They must succeed with this if they want this market to continue to grow. Works Cited Banks, Libby. “Mercedes Shift Strategy to Woo Younger Consumers. ” Luxury Society. 2 June 2010. Hero! Web. 25 Nov. 2011. Boyce, Carlton. “Ferrari Achieve Record-Breaking Sales in 2011 | The Global Herald. ” The Global Herald – News, Analysis Reflection. The Global Herald, 28 July 2011. Web.
16 Dec. 2011. http://theglobalherald. com/ferrari-achieve-record-breaking-sales-in-2011/22526/. “Echo Boomers Look Forward to Automobile Ownership — ATLANTA, May. University/College: University of California. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 17 February 2017. Let us write you a custom essay sample on an essay of medical State of Luxury Car Sales and othello is not a tragic hero essay Distribution to Generation Y.
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31 Attention-Grabbing Cover Letter Examples. Is Not Hero Essay. The Muse Editor. Traditional cover letter wisdom tells you to start a cover letter with something to the effect of: Dear Sir or Madam, I am writing to apply for the position of Marketing Manager with the Thomas Company. We say: The days of cookie cutter cover letter intros are long gone. Here’s the thing: Your cover letter is the best way to introduce to the hiring manager who you are, what you have to offer, and why you want the job—but you have an extremely limited amount of time to do all of remembered rhythms essays those things. So, if you really want to get noticed, you’ve got to start right off the bat with something that grabs your reader’s attention. What do we mean? Well, we won’t just tell you, we’ll show you—with 31 examples of original cover letter introductions. We don’t recommend copying and pasting them because, well, your cover letter should be unique to your stories, background, and interests, but you can most definitely use them to a tragic essay, get inspired for your next application.
Don't worry—we've got you covered. Many companies say that they’re looking for people who not only have the skills to do the job, but who are truly passionate about an essay what they’re spending their time on every day. If that’s what your dream company is really looking for (hint: read the job description), try an intro that shows off why you’re so excited to be part of the team. Othello Hero. If truly loving data is dilemma, wrong, I don’t want to othello a tragic essay, be right. With. It seems like the rest of the team at Chartbeat feels the same way—and that’s just one of the reasons why I think I’d be the perfect next hire for othello hero, your sales team. I’ve been giving my friends and psychotherapy essays online, family free style advice since I was 10, and recently decided it’s time I get paid for it. Othello Is Not A Tragic Hero Essay. That’s why I couldn’t believe it when I found a personal stylist position at J. Hilburn. After about dilemma three years of othello is not hero essay trying out different roles at early-stage startups around San Francisco, watching more “find your passion” keynotes than I’d like to admit, and assuring my parents that, yes, I really do have a real job, I’m starting to come to terms with the fact that I’m only really good at two things: writing great content and getting it out into the world. When I was growing up, all I wanted to ethical nursing essay, be was one of is not a tragic those people who pretend to be statues on the street. Remembered Rhythms Essays And The. Thankfully, my career goals have become a little more aspirational over the years, but I love to draw a crowd and othello hero essay, entertain the masses—passions that make me the online, perfect community manager. When I graduated from Ohio State last May, my career counselor gave me what I consider to is not, be some pretty bad advice: “Just get any job, and essay journey by bus, figure the rest out later.” While I think I could have gained good transferrable skills and othello a tragic essay, on-the-job experience anywhere, I wanted to make sure my first step gave me opportunities for professional development, mentorship, and rotations through different departments.
Enter: Verizon. The other day, I took a career assessment, which told me I should be a maritime merchant. I’m not quite sure what that is, but it did get me thinking: A role that combines my skills in business development with my lifelong passion for an essay history for medicine, the ocean would be my absolute dream. Which is how I found this role at Royal Caribbean. Start With Your Love for the Company. Similarly, many companies want to a tragic, hire people who already know, love, eat, and on the usefulness, sleep their brand. A Tragic Hero Essay. And in these cases, what better to kick off your cover letter than a little flattery? Bonus points if you can tell a story—studies show that stories are up to 22 times more memorable than facts alone. Of course, remember when you’re telling a company why you love it to persuasive essay on gambling, be specific and genuine.
Because, um, no one likes an overly crazed fangirl. I pretty much spent my childhood in a tragic hero, the cheap seats at Cubs games, snacking on popcorn and remembered rhythms and the of india, cheering on the team with my grandfather. It’s that passion that’s shaped my career—from helping to establish the sports marketing major at my university to leading a college baseball team to an undefeated season as assistant coach—and what led me to apply for othello is not a tragic, this position at the Chicago Cubs. Most candidates are drawn to startups for an essay on the usefulness of medical, the free food, bean bag chairs, and is not, loose dress code. And while all of those things sound awesome coming from my all-too-corporate cubicle, what really attracted me to Factual is the ethical nursing, collaborative, international team. It was Rudy, my Golden Retriever, who first found the operations assistant opening (he’s really excited about the prospect of coming to work with me every day). But as I learned more about Zoosk and what it is doing to transform the othello is not, mobile dating space, I couldn’t help but get excited to be part of the essay journey, team, too. Is Not. When I was seven, I wanted to essay by bus, be the GEICO gecko when I grew up. I eventually realized that wasn’t an option, but you can imagine my excitement when I came across the events manager position, which would have me working side by side with my favorite company mascot. When I attended Austin Film Festival for othello is not essay, the first time last month, I didn’t want to university assignments, leave. So I decided I shouldn’t—and immediately went to is not a tragic essay, check out job openings at the company.
If I could make the journey, NYC apartment rental process better for just one person, I would feel like the horrors of othello is not a tragic essay my recent search would all be worth it. So, a customer service role at essays on diaspora of india RentHop, where I could do it every day? I can’t think of anything more fulfilling. Having grown up with the Cincinnati Zoo (literally) in my backyard, I understand firsthand how you’ve earned your reputation as one of the most family-friendly venues in the State of Ohio. For 20 years, I’ve been impressed as your customer; now I want to is not a tragic hero essay, impress visitors in the same way your team has so graciously done for me. ( Via @JobJenny ) I was an hour out from my first big dinner party when I realized I had forgotten to pick up the white wine. In a panic, I started Googling grocery delivery services, and that’s when I first stumbled across Instacart. I’ve been hooked ever since, so I couldn’t help but get excited by the idea of on the usefulness of medical for medicine bringing the amazingness of Instacart to shoddy planners like me as your next social media and othello essay, community manager. Persuasive Essay. Though I’m happily employed as a marketing manager for OHC, seeing the othello essay, job description for Warby Parker’s PR director stopped me in on the usefulness of medical history, my tracks. I’ve been a Warby glasses wearer for othello a tragic hero essay, many years, and have always been impressed by rhythms essays on diaspora of india the way the company treats its customers, employees, and is not a tragic hero essay, the community at psychotherapy online large.
Start With an Attribute or Accomplishment. The unfortunate reality of the job hunting process is that, for any given job, you’re going to be competing with a lot of other people—presumably, a lot of other similarly qualified people. So, a great way to stand out in your cover letter is to highlight something about yourself—a character trait, an is not a tragic hero essay accomplishment, a really impressive skill—that’ll quickly show how you stand out essay journey by bus among other applications. My last boss once told me that my phone manner could probably diffuse an international hostage situation. I’ve always had a knack for communicating with people—the easygoing and the difficult alike—and I’d love to bring that skill to the office manager position at Shutterstock. Among my colleagues, I’m known as the one who can pick up the is not a tragic, pieces, no matter what amount of you-know-what hits the fan. Which is dilemma nursing, why I think there’s no one better to fill Birchbox’s customer service leader position. Last December, I ousted our company’s top salesperson from his spot—and he hasn’t seen it since. Which means, I’m ready for my next big challenge, and the sales manager role at LivingSocial just might be it. Is Not A Tragic Hero Essay. After spending three years managing the internal communications for psychotherapy online, a 2,000-person company, I could plan a quarterly town hall or draft an inter-office memo in my sleep.
What I want to do next? Put that experience to work consulting executives on their communications strategy. While you won’t find the is not a tragic, title “community manager” listed on my resume, I’ve actually been bringing people together online and off for usefulness, three years while running my own blog and series of Meetups. A Tragic. If you’re looking for someone who can follow orders to the T and help with university, doesn’t like to rock the boat, I’m probably not the is not a tragic essay, right candidate. Essay By Bus. But if you need someone who can dig in to data, see what’s working (and what’s not), and is not hero, challenge the status quo, let’s talk.
Ever since my first job at Dairy Queen (yes, they DO let you eat the ice cream!) I’ve been career-focused. I completed my first internship with a professional football team while I was still in college. I was hired full-time as soon as I graduated, and within six months I was promoted into a brand new department. I thought I knew it all. But as I’ve progressed in my career, I finally realized…I absolutely do not. Usefulness History. Shocker, right? Enter The Muse. ( Via @Kararuns729 ). You might be wondering what a 15-year veteran of the accounting world is is not a tragic, doing applying to an operations role at a food startup like ZeroCater. While I agree the shift is remembered, a little strange, I know you’re looking for othello is not a tragic essay, someone who’s equal parts foodie and financial guru, and I think that means I’m your guy.
Over the last 10 years, I’ve built my career on one simple principle: Work smarter. I’m the person who looks for inefficient procedures, finds ways to streamline them, and consistently strives to boost the productivity of everyone around me. It’s what’s earned me three promotions in the supply chain department at my current company, and online, it’s what I know I can do as the new operations analyst for is not a tragic hero, SevOne. Journey. OK, before you read any of is not essay these, we feel we have to stamp them with a big disclaimer: Do your homework before trying anything like this—learning everything you can about the company, the hiring manager, and on the usefulness of medical for medicine, whether or not they’ll appreciate some sass or snark. If they do, it’s a great way to othello is not essay, make them smile (then call you). If they don’t?
Well, better luck next time. I’m interested in the freelance writer position. But before I blow you away with all the reasons I’m going to persuasive, be your next writer, I would like to tell you a little about myself: I didn’t grow hair until I was about five years old, which made everyone who crossed my stroller’s path believe me to be a boy (my name is Casey, which definitely didn’t help). Hope I got your attention. ( Via @CaseCav ) Have you ever had your mom call five times a day asking for a status update on how your job search is going, and then sounding incredulous that not more progress has been made since the last phone call? That’s my life right now.
But I’m hoping that soon my life will revolve around being your full-time social media manager. The good news is, I bring more to is not a tragic, the table than just an overbearing mom. Let me tell you more. Thank you so much for help with university, offering me the is not essay, marketing manager position at Airbnb! I wholeheartedly accept. OK, I know we’re not quite there yet.
But if we were, here are just a few ideas of what I would do once in the role. You’ve slept on it. You’ve made lists of pros and cons. You’ve talked to your life coach, your hairdresser, and every barista on your block. Persuasive Essay. So why haven’t you made your decision yet? When you’re looking for othello a tragic essay, advice, what you need is not more, but better.
If you’re constantly plagued with tough career decisions and presentation-day butterflies, you need an advocate, a listener, and sometimes, a kick in the pants. Essay By Bus. You need Rachel Elizabeth Maley. ( Via @RE_Maley ) I considered submitting my latest credit card statement as proof of just how much I love online shopping, but I thought a safer approach might be writing this cover letter, describing all the reasons why I’m the girl who can take STYLIGHT’s business to the next level. I never thought that accidentally dropping my iPhone out of othello a tragic a second story window would change my life (it’s a funny story—ask me about ethical it). But thanks to othello is not essay, my misfortune, I discovered iCracked—and found my dream job as an expansion associate. If we were playing “Two Truths and a Lie,” I’d say the following: I’ve exceeded my sales quotas by at assignments least 20% every quarter this year, I once won an international pie-eating contest, and I have an amazing job at Yext.
The last, of course, is the lie. Is Not Hero. For now. Photo of person writing courtesy of Sam Diephuis/Getty Images#46; Hmmm, seems you#39;ve already signed up for essays on diaspora music, this class. While you#39;re here, you may as well check out all the amazing companies that are hiring like crazy right now.
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To what extent does Othello meet the criteria of a tragic hero
Early modern English – an overview. The early modern English period follows the Middle English period towards the end of the fifteenth century and coincides closely with the Tudor (1485–1603) and Stuart (1603-1714) dynasties. The battle of Bosworth (1485) marked the end of the long period of civil war known as the Wars of the Roses and the establishment of the Tudor dynasty under Henry VII (1485–1509), which brought a greater degree of stable centralized government to England. Hero? Not long before, the introduction of the craft of printing in 1476 by William Caxton marked a new departure in the dissemination of the written word. The end of the period is marked by the religious and political settlement of the essay, ‘Glorious Revolution’ (1688), the transition to is not a tragic hero the Augustan age during the reign of an essay on the usefulness of medical for medicine Queen Anne (1702–14), and othello a tragic essay, the achievement of on the usefulness history for medicine political unity within the essay, British Isles through the Act of Union between England and Scotland (1707).
The defining events of the sixteenth century were those of the essays, Reformation , initiated under Henry VIII in the 1530s, which severed both religious and political links with Catholic Europe. During the seventeenth century the new science gradually achieved prominence, beginning with the writings of Francis Bacon (1561-1626) and othello is not a tragic essay, issuing in the foundation of the help with assignments, Royal Society (chartered in othello is not a tragic essay 1662). At the start of our period English was spoken throughout England except in on the history for medicine western Cornwall, where it was rapidly replacing Cornish. The English speach doth still encroche vpon it [Cornish], and hath driuen the same into the vttermost skirts of the shire. Most of the essay, Inhabitants can no word of essays Cornish; but very few are ignorant of the othello hero, English. Richard Carew, The Survey of Cornwall (1602) Wales was integrated administratively and legally into England by parliamentary acts of psychotherapy essays 1536 and a tragic hero essay, 1543; the psychotherapy essays, former made English the only language of the is not a tragic hero essay, law courts and excluded those who used Welsh from any public office in Wales. However, apart from the ruling gentry, the inhabitants remained Welsh-speaking throughout the period. In Scotland, Scots (see below) was spoken in most of the Lowlands, Gaelic (called Erse in this period) in the Highlands and Galloway, and the Scandinavian language Norn in Shetland and Orkney. The Tudor monarchs asserted their claim to the lordship of psychotherapy essays Ireland. Hitherto the is not a tragic hero essay, English speaking presence had been small, restricted to remembered rhythms essays on diaspora and the the English pale . Is Not Hero Essay? A series of military conflicts and plantations under Elizabeth, James I, and Oliver Cromwell led to the political domination of the country by English-speakers.
The era of overseas commercial venture and nursing essay, colonization was initiated in a tragic essay 1496–7 by the visit to Newfoundland (compare new-found adj. 2) of the Italian explorer John Cabot, commissioned by Henry VII. Ethical Dilemma Nursing Essay? Newfoundland was subsequently claimed for England in 1583. Settlement on the mainland of North America began with Jamestown (1607); the mainly Puritan Pilgrims [ pilgrim n. Othello A Tragic? 4a] or ‘Pilgrim Fathers’ founded the essay by bus, Plymouth Colony (1620). During the last part of the seventeenth century economic hardship led to large-scale Scottish emigration to Ireland and North America. Bermuda was colonized in 1612, followed by St Kitts (1623) and Barbados (1627) in the West Indies. Othello Is Not A Tragic? After the defeat of the Spanish Armada (1588) English merchant voyages to the Indian Ocean began. The East India Company established its first trading factory in India in 1612 and took possession of Bombay in 1668. During the Middle English period numerous regional dialects existed in England and Scotland. Middle English manuscripts, even copies of the same work, differ linguistically from one another to a greater or lesser degree. In the later Middle Ages London gradually emerged as the seat of administration and the court.
The speech of the capital acquired social prestige and written forms of it became usual in official documents and literature, though it could only loosely be called a ‘standard’. Since printing was based in dilemma London this form of is not hero English was adopted by the early printers. But Caxton himself was acutely aware of variation and change within English. Certaynly our langage now vsed varyeth ferre from that which was vsed and spoken whan I was borne. Essay On Gambling? William Caxton, Prologue to Eneydos (1490). Nevertheless, compared with Middle English texts, early modern texts seem much more uniform. Is Not A Tragic Hero? It was recommended that literary English should be based on the speech of the London area. Ye shall therfore take the vsual speach of the Court, and that of London and the shires lying about London within lx. myles, and not much aboue. George Puttenham, Arte of English Poesie (1589).
A high degree of psychotherapy essays online spoken regional variety still existed and was generally recognized. Although regional dialects were scarcely recorded, their extent can be deduced from dialect study undertaken from the eighteenth century onwards. Within England, northern and western dialects were generally known to be markedly different from written English. Evidently (as today) particular differences were specially prominent. Pronouncing according as one would say at London I would eat more cheese if I had it, the Northern man saith Ay suld eat mare cheese gin ay hadet, and the Westerne man saith Chud eat more cheese an chad it. Richard Verstegan, A Restitution of Decayed Intelligence (1605).
There was a stylized stage version of western speech, as, for example, used by Edgar when posing as a countryman in a tragic essay King Lear . Good Gentleman goe your gate, let poore volke passe: and usefulness of medical for medicine, chud haue been zwaggar’d out of my life, it would not haue bene zo long by a tragic hero, a vortnight: nay come not neere the olde man, keepe out psychotherapy essays online cheuore ye, or ile try whether your costard or my bat be the harder, chill be plaine with you. Othello A Tragic Hero? Shakespeare, King Lear , IV. vi (2nd Quarto, 1619). Scots was a special case. In 1500 Scotland and England were separate countries and during the assignments, sixteenth century Scots can be regarded as a language distinct from the English spoken south of the hero essay, border. An Essay Of Medical For Medicine? In Scotland under James IV (1488–1512) there was a cultural flourishing, with the beginnings of Renaissance influence from the continent. After the accession of James VI of Scotland to othello is not essay the throne of England in 1603 the status of essay journey by bus Scots declined. The court moved to London with the king, so that Scots lost its social prestige. Moreover writers like John Knox, who were in essay the forefront of the help with university assignments, Scottish Reformation (1560) and greatly influenced Scottish literary culture, wrote mainly in southern English.
Already, around 1590, the is not hero, number of books printed in Edinburgh in remembered essays on diaspora and the music English had overtaken those printed in Scots and after 1603 Scots ceased to be a book language. Gif ?e, throw curiositie of nouationis, hes for?et our auld plane Scottis quhilk ?our mother lerit ?ou, in is not a tragic hero tymes cuming I sall wryte to ?ou my mynd in essay Latin, for I am nocht acquyntit with ?our Southeroun. Ninian Win?et, Letter to John Knox (1563). Social dialects (essentially those used by people regarded as inferiors) were also widely recognized by contemporaries, but we can make only very partial reconstructions from the surviving evidence, such as comments by othello a tragic, grammarians and the dialogue in essay stage plays. A particular, though perhaps somewhat artificial, social dialect that received special attention was the canting slang of a tragic hero essay rogues and vagabonds (see, for example, John Simpson on the first dictionaries of persuasive essay English). Early in the period, English was frequently compared unfavourably as a literary language with Latin. It was also initially seen as not possessing advantages over is not hero, other European languages, as this dialogue shows. ‘What thinke you of this English, tel me I pray you.’ ‘It is ethical dilemma a language that wyl do you good in England but passe Dover, it is woorth nothing.’ ‘Is it not used then in other countreyes?’ ‘No sir, with whom wyl you that they speake?’ ‘With English marchants.’ ‘English marchantes, when they are out of England, it liketh hem not, and is not essay, they doo not speake it.’ John Florio, Florio his firste fruites (1578), ch. 27. The inferiority of English was often explained in terms of the mixed origin of its vocabulary. It is a language confused, bepeesed with many tongues: it taketh many words of the latine, and mo from the French, and mo from the Italian, and many mo from the essay, Duitch, some also from the Greeke, and is not a tragic hero essay, from the Britaine, so that if every language had his owne wordes againe, there woulde but a fewe remaine for English men, and yet every day they adde.
Florio, Florio his firste fruites , ch. 27. English was also criticized for being inelegant and uneloquent. But there was a sudden change between 1570 and 1580. English began to be praised, in contrast with other languages, for its copious vocabulary, linguistic economy (in using words of mainly one or two syllables), and simple grammar. For example, a lengthy and essay on gambling, spirited defence of English, as compared with Latin, is given by the educationist Richard Mulcaster. The English tung cannot proue fairer, then it is at this daie. Richard Mulcaster, The First Part of the Elementarie (1582). During the seventeenth century the status of othello a tragic hero essay Latin rapidly declined and by the end of the century even works of science were being written in English. The vocabulary of English expanded greatly during the early modern period. Writers were well aware of this and argued about it.
Some were in favour of loanwords to express new concepts, especially from Latin. Others advocated the use of existing English words, or new compounds of them, for this purpose. Others advocated the revival of journey obsolete words and the adoption of regional dialect. A notable supporter of the introduction of new words was the humanist and diplomat Sir Thomas Elyot (c.1490–1546). Among now common words, he introduced participate v. in five of the a tragic, senses given in OED and persist v. in three.
Among less popular words, he introduced obtestation n. and pristinate adj. Elyot frequently explained his coinages: for example his use of the words maturity (maturity n. 3: he was unaware that the word had already been used in other senses in English) and modesty (modesty n. 1) in The Boke Named the Gouernour (1531). Yet of these two [sc. celeritie and slownesse] springeth an assignments, excellent vertue, whervnto we lacke a name in englishe. Wherfore I am constrained to vsurpe a latine worde, callyng it Maturitie. Sir Thomas Elyot, The Boke Named the Gouernour (1531) Many early modern writers criticized the use of Latinate expressions (usually loanwords from Latin, sometimes words modelled on Latin) in order to elevate the style of writing, especially in inappropriate contexts or for is not a tragic essay concepts which had ordinary English equivalents. These were known as inkhorn terms (an inkhorn being ‘a small portable vessel, originally made of dilemma horn, for holding writing-ink’).
A notable critic was Thomas Wilson, writing on the important art of rhetoric. This should first be learned, that we neuer affect any straunge ynkehorne termes, but so speake as is commonly receiued. Sir Thomas Wilson, The Arte of Rhetorique (1553). Further on a tragic hero, Wilson holds up to ridicule an example of a (probably fictitious) ‘ynkehorne letter’. A typical clause from this runs ‘I obtestate your clemencie , to inuigilate thus muche for by bus me’: all three italicized words were quite new in 1553; two of them have survived.
It is othello notable that many of the words that were objected to then as unnecessary were soon accepted into the language. Such controversy waned after about 1600, partly because so many Latinate words had been accepted and were now regarded as an enrichment. By contrast the royal tutor Sir John Cheke translated part of the New Testament avoiding loanwords wherever possible. (This translation was not, however, published until 1843.) For example, he uses moond for ‘lunatic’, onwriting for ‘inscription’, and tabler for ‘banker’. Our own tung shold be written cleane and pure, vnmixt and vnmangeled with borowing of and the other tunges. Sir John Cheke, in his letter to Thomas Hoby, printed at the end of Hoby’s translation of Castiglione’s Courtier (1561). Ralph Lever, in othello is not a tragic hero his Arte of nursing Reason, rightly termed, Witcraft (1573), attempted to render Latin logic terms with English compounds such as nay-say ‘negation’, but none caught on. Nathaniel Fairfax, a Baconian scientist, managed to write a book devoid of obviously learned loanwords, called A Treatise of the Bulk and Selvage of the World (1674), ‘bulk and selvedge’ here meaning ‘volume and boundary’; other terms include bodysome ‘corporeal’, nowness ‘the quality of othello is not a tragic hero essay being always present’, and remembered rhythms essays and the music, onefoldness ‘singleness’.
However, Fairfax’s language is often misleading and sometimes incomprehensible. The poet Edmund Spenser was the leading proponent of the a tragic, use of archaic and dialectal words, especially in The Shepheardes Calender (1579) and The Faerie Queene (1590). The former has a preface defending the practice, written by Spenser’s friend ‘E.K.’ And firste of the essay journey, wordes to hero essay speake, I graunt that they be something hard, and of most men vnused, yet both English, and also vsed of most excellent Authours and most famous Poetes. ‘E.K.’, preface to Edmund Spenser, The Shepheardes Calender (1579). Examples of Spenser’s archaisms include nempt ‘named’ ( nemn v.), prow adj. ‘worthy, valiant’, and queme ‘please’ ( queem v.). A number of seventeenth-century poets imitated Spenser, although they did not always use his archaic and essay journey by bus, dialectal words correctly. Even errors, however, played a part in the formation of poetic vocabulary: derrynge do ( derring do n.) arose as a misprint for the verbal phrase dorryng do ‘daring to do’ in sixteenth-century editions of Lydgate’s History of Troy , which was then misunderstood by Spenser as a noun phrase, explained in the Glossary to the Shepheardes Calender as ‘manhood and chevalrie’.
An eloquent language was one which made use of the devices of classical rhetoric. Rhetoric, originally referring to the art of public speaking, had come to othello hero be applied to literature in general. It was a normal part of the study of Latin and was carried over by educated writers into their use of English. From the mid-sixteenth century onwards books on rhetoric began to appear in English, such as Thomas Wilson’s The Arte of Rhetorique (1553) referred to above. The figures of rhetoric covered a wide range of literary devices and essay, their presence in a tragic hero a work was noticed and praised. They would have been immediately spotted, for example, in Mark Antony’s speech in essay by bus Shakespeare’s Julius Caesar, III. ii . ‘I am no Orator, as Brutus is; But..a plaine blunt man [topos of modesty]…I..Shew you sweet C?sars wounds, poor poor [epizeuxis] dum mouths [oxymoron and metaphor] And bid them speak [prosopopoeia] for me: But were I Brutus, and Brutus Antony [synoeciosis]…’ The classical languages, not being current spoken languages, do not change, and can therefore be described by othello a tragic essay, a set of help fixed grammatical rules. This was frequently regarded as the ideal condition of hero a language. From about an essay usefulness of medical, 1660 there were proposals for othello is not a tragic hero an academy similar to the Academie Francaise which would regularize and purify the language: supporters included John Dryden and remembered essays and the music of india, later Daniel Defoe and Jonathan Swift. Dryden’s Defence of the Epilogue (1672) marks the beginning of the tradition of criticizing supposed grammatical errors in English. From Jonsons time to ours, it [English] has been in a continual declination.
John Dryden Defence of the Epilogue (1672). Dryden criticizes Ben Jonson himself for such mistakes as placing a preposition at the end of a sentence and using the plural ones . This desire for regulation was to some extent met by the expansion of the number and coverage of othello a tragic dictionaries and by the development of English grammars, most of which, however, were modelled on remembered of india, grammars of Latin and had very little to say about sentence structure. (For more on othello a tragic hero essay, this see the essay journey, related article on grammar in early modern English.) The Restoration period also saw the beginnings of criticism of affected vocabulary, focusing initially on essay, the adoption of French expressions. We meet daily with those Fopps, who value themselves on their Travelling, and pretend they cannot express their meaning in English, because they would put off to us some French Phrase of the last Edition. Dryden, Defence (1672). But this by no means implies the rejection of all foreign loanwords: John Evelyn in his Letter to Sir Peter Wyche (20 June 1665; published in 1908) suggested for adoption a number of French and Italian words which ‘we have hardly any words that do so fully expresse’: a number of on the usefulness these did indeed become current at around this time, including bizarre , chicanery , concert , and naivete . Between about 1540 and 1640 there was a movement for spelling reform in England. Early advocates were Sir John Cheke (see above) and Sir Thomas Smith, who as classical philologists were conscious of the disparity in is not a tragic hero essay spelling between English and Latin. John Hart produced three works on the subject between 1551 and 1570 and proposed a phonetic spelling system using a number of essays additional symbols.
In opposition to this approach, Richard Mulcaster (above) advocated only a tragic mild reform, and there are very few improvements in his word-lists when compared with modern spelling. (For more, see early modern English pronunciation and spelling.) Fresh perspectives: Old English and new science. Old English (or Anglo-Saxon) began to be studied during this period. Manuscripts were collected and persuasive essay on gambling, Old English texts published. Othello Is Not Hero? The first Old English dictionary (edited by William Somner) appeared in 1659 and the first grammar of the language (edited by George Hickes) in 1689. The original motivations for the undertaking were mixed: either to demonstrate the on the usefulness of medical history for medicine, continuity of the Church of England, to show that the othello hero, English legal system descended from Anglo-Saxon law, or to support the cause of biblical translation. Nevertheless it had the effect of introducing a historical understanding of the of medical for medicine, English language and paved the way for later etymological and philological investigation. At the same time the seventeenth-century scientific movement, heralded pre-eminently by othello hero, Francis Bacon, had the effect of establishing English finally as an adequate medium of technical writing in place of Latin. It also led to the cultivation of essays a plain style of writing, without the a tragic hero essay, use of the devices of rhetoric. Bacon, who wrote in both English and Latin, himself criticized the valuing of style above matter.
His followers carried the attack much further. The Royal Society, according to its historian, Bishop Thomas Sprat, was to help with university be praised for correcting stylistic excesses in writing. They have therefore been most rigorous in putting in hero essay execution, the only Remedy, that can be found for this Extravagance, and that has been, a constant Resolution, to reject all the amplifications, digressions, and swellings of style; to return back to the primitive purity, and psychotherapy essays, shortness, when men deliver’d so many things, almost in an equal number of othello words. Thomas Sprat, History of the Royal-Society of London (1667). Charles Barber, Early Modern English (1976) Manfred Gorlach, Introduction to Early Modern English (1991) there’s a growing list of commentaries on English in time, charting historical lexicography from Old English to the modern day. As well as this introduction to early modern English (1500-1700), you can read an overview of Old English by Philip Durkin of the OED . the early modern period witnessed a huge expansion of the English language: the OED includes nearly 90,000 words with a first reference in these two centuries; between 1600 and ethical dilemma nursing essay, 1700 over 8000 words entered the language to describe aspects of the life and physical sciences. for the decade after 1660 , the OED includes more than 250 new words of othello is not a tragic French origin, including apropos , bijou , en passant , and lemonade . How do I search for nursing these?
With subscriber access to the OED Online you can search for entries by date, usage, origin, region, and subject using the Advanced Search option. To group entries by time period, use Advanced Search/date of entry or entry range; use the Subject and Origin options to focus on a tragic, words relating to particular categories or derived from other languages. More about the OED Sign up for Word of the Day, delivered daily to your in-box, using the sign-up box in help university assignments the right hand panel What’s new? Recent updates, plus more features on English—past and present. Please sign in to othello is not hero search the dictionary. Copyright © 2017 Oxford University Press.
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