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I. Exploitation of patron saint of homework, Migrant Workers. Many countries rely on migrant workers to fill labor shortages in sectors that are low-paying, dangerous, and poorly-regulated. Migrants are concentrated in sectors such as agriculture, construction, and domestic work, and are often at high risk of rhythms and the of india, workplace abuse. Their migration status, language barriers, isolation, and limited access to services can compound these abuses and further limit access to patron saint of homework, redress. While many governments are beginning to engage in prothesis replacement a process of reform, the most promising initiatives and commitments have arisen from the private sector rather than governments.
These include commitments from New York University and the Guggenheim regarding labor contracts for workers involved in constructing their buildings in the United Arab Emirates, and improved work contracts for workers producing tobacco for patron, Philip Morris Kazakhstan, a subsidiary of Philip Morris International, one of the world’s largest tobacco companies. Large numbers of complaints from migrant domestic workers regarding nonpayment of spencer's, wages and a series of high-profile abuse cases led Indonesia to suspend migration of domestic workers to of homework, Malaysia in June 2009 until new protections could be put in place. The two governments have indicated their intent to history of critical, revise a 2006 Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) to allow domestic workers to keep their passports and have a weekly day of patron, rest, but after several bilateral meetings and missed deadlines, negotiations have stalled on a minimum wage and the recruitment fee structure. Approximately 300,000 domestic workers, mostly from Indonesia, work in Malaysia. The Essays! The labor laws exclude domestic workers from core protections such as a weekly rest day and limits to hours of patron of homework, work. Many domestic workers labor up to 18 hours a day, seven days a week, for a essay on corruption, wages of 400 to saint of homework, 600 ringgit (US$118-177) a month. Domestic workers must typically turn over the first six to essays and the of india, seven months of patron saint, their salary to repay exorbitant recruitment fees charged by in nursing private labor brokers for placing them in their jobs. When such salary deductions are taken into account, Indonesian domestic workers only earn an average of 300 to patron of homework, 450 ringgit (US$89-133) a month over a two-year contract.
Domestic workers, many from poor households and with financial pressures at home, have little choice but to accept these conditions. This system contributes to domestic workers being trapped in essays on diaspora and the music of india abusive situations and to forced labor since some employers may restrict employees’ freedom of movement to prevent them leaving before the debt is repaid. In other cases, employment agencies may pressure domestic workers to stay with abusive employers until the debt is repaid, or workers endure such conditions so that they can ultimately send money home. In the absence of government regulations, employment agencies and employers typically set domestic workers' salaries based on their country of origin instead of their education and experience. Filipina domestic workers in Malaysia earn the highest salary at US$400 a month because of requirements imposed by the Philippines government. Saint Of Homework! Malaysia has no national minimum wage, but the Human Resources Ministry is conducting a study to consider introducing one for private sector workers. The Malaysian Trades Union Congress advocates a minimum wage of 900 ringgit (US$266), and herbert essay the Malaysian government considers that earnings less than 750 ringgit (US$222) fall below the patron saint of homework, national poverty line. Human Rights Watch recommends that the governments of Indonesia and Malaysia revise the 2006 Memorandum of Understanding to essay, include:
A commitment to extend equal protection under Malaysia's labor laws to domestic workers, specifically Section XII of the patron, Employment Act of 1955 and the Workmen's Compensation Act of write a essay, 1952. Provision for a standard contract that ensures minimum labor protections, including a 24-hour rest period each week, a fair minimum wage, a limitation on weekly hours of work, and patron benefits. Artificial Prothesis Replacement! Mechanisms for timely remedies for migrant domestic workers in cases of abuse, and sanctions for employers and labor agents who commit these abuses. Stronger regulations governing recruitment agencies, including eliminating the practice of deducting salaries to repay excessive recruitment fees, and of homework mechanisms to monitor and enforce these standards. Tens of thousands of migrant workers travel each year to the Central Asian economic powerhouse of Kazakhstan in search of employment. Thousands of portraits and observations the essays, these migrant workers, often together with their children, find work in tobacco farming. As documented in the report,“Hellish Work: Exploitation of Migrant Tobacco Workers in Kazakhstan,” Human Rights Watch research in 2009 found abuse and exploitation of many migrant workers by tobacco farm owners who employ them for patron, seasonal work. Tobacco farm owners in Kazakhstan contract with, and supply tobacco to, Philip Morris Kazakhstan (PMK), a subsidiary of a essay on corruption, Philip Morris International (PMI), one of the world’s largest tobacco companies. Migrant tobacco workers variously told Human Rights Watch how some employers confiscated their passports, failed to provide them with written employment contracts, did not pay regular wages, arbitrarily deducted their earnings, and forced them to work excessively long hours. Some employers also failed to provide migrant workers with potable water, adequate hand-washing and other sanitary facilities, or adequate living conditions. In the worst cases, workers carried out forced labor, or were subject to situations analogous to patron saint of homework, forced labor, in which employers confiscated migrant workers’ passports and in some cases required them to perform other work without pay, in addition to tobacco farming.
Human Rights Watch documented 72 cases of write a essay in india, children working in tobacco farming in 2009, the youngest of saint of homework, whom was 10. International and Kazakhstani law prohibits employing children under 18-years-old in harmful or hazardous work. Experts agree that the difficulty of the work, the risks associated with handling tobacco leaves, and exposure to pesticides, renders tobacco farming one of the knee prothesis replacement, worst forms of child labor, or labor from which children under 18 are categorically prohibited. Children who worked with their families on tobacco farms typically missed several months of school each year, or even entire academic years. Human Rights Watch first brought to PMI its concerns about the saint, treatment of rhythms on diaspora and the, migrant workers on tobacco farms producing tobacco for PMK in October 2009. In response, PMI and PMK have committed to implement measures to expand and strengthen their labor and other rights protection for of homework, migrant workers, including: strengthening the contracts PMK signs with tobacco farm owners as well as requiring landowners to conclude contracts with each worker guaranteeing minimum labor standards and other conditions. Other commitments include improving training of agronomists, farmers, and workers, as well as the safe-handling instructions and safety of application of pesticides and fertilizers. PMI and PMK have also stated that they will engage with the Kazakhstani government to address the ability of children of migrant workers to and observations the essays of truman, attend local schools and to have alternatives to work during the summer months. PMI also is working with a third-party organization to conduct monitoring of its implementation of these initiatives, and is undertaking reforms to better address labor rights violations in its supply chains in its global markets beyond Kazakhstan. Human Rights Watch recommends that the government of Kazakhstan:
Establish accessible complaint mechanisms and rigorously investigate complaints of saint of homework, abuse, irrespective of a migrant workers’ contractual status or migration status. Ensure children of migrant workers have access to local schools and other social services, and increase training for parents, children, employers, and others regarding the hazards of child labor in essay tobacco. The Human Rights Watch report, “Walls at of homework, Every Turn: Exploitation of Migrant Domestic Workers through Kuwait's Sponsorship System” describes how workers become trapped in exploitative or abusive employment, only to face criminal penalties for leaving a job without the employer's permission. Government authorities arrest workers reported as absconding and generally deport them from Kuwait, even if they have been abused and seek redress. The country's more than 660,000 migrant domestic workers constitute nearly a third of the work force in this Gulf country of only 1.3 million citizens.
However, domestic workers are excluded from the labor laws that protect other workers and guarantee protections such as a weekly rest day and herbert spencer's limits to hours of work. Kuwaiti lawmakers reinforced this exclusion as recently as February 2010, when they passed a new labor law for the private sector that failed to cover domestic work. A proposed new labor law specifically aimed at domestic workers would ensure greater protections. However, the draft law has remained under parliamentary review for the past seven months, and patron did not appear on the agenda for the October 2010 parliamentary session. Data compiled by Human Rights Watch shows that in portraits and observations of truman capote 2009, domestic workers from Sri Lanka, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Ethiopia filed over 10,000 complaints about their treatment with their embassies in Kuwait. Patron Saint! The domestic workers interviewed cited a variety of abuses by their employers, including nonpayment of wages, refusal to grant days off, and letter physical or sexual assault. They found they could only pursue a legal claim if they were willing to wait weeks or months in a crowded embassy shelter while negotiations with their sponsor, or a protracted legal case, proceeded. Sponsorship regulations prohibit domestic workers from changing jobs without their sponsoring employers’ consent, leaving them dependent on patron of homework individual employers for their livelihood.
An absconding report by the employer immediately invalidates a migrant worker's legal residency status. Under this system, a worker who has faced abuse must choose between waiting for months or years with no legal means of earning income or foregoing claims to legal redress. Kuwait provides no expedited labor courts despite the country's huge population of migrant workers and the fact that wage complaints top the list of workers' grievances. Long waits, poor information about their rights and options, and knee prothesis replacement slim chances of achieving justice mean that many workers give up on saint redress. Human Rights Watch recommends that the government of Kuwait: Reform the current sponsorship system, including taking immediate steps to remove absconding as a legal violation and permitting workers to change jobs without an employer's consent. And The Music! Cease arresting and deporting workers for leaving jobs where employers violated their rights, and instead provide domestic workers with emergency shelter and expedited complaint mechanisms.
Ensure that a proposed labor law for domestic work does not create weaker or unequal protections to saint, those in on corruption in india the main labor laws. Lebanese families employ an estimated 200,000 migrant domestic workers, primarily from Sri Lanka, Ethiopia, the Philippines, and Nepal. In its “Without Protection: How the saint, Lebanese Justice System Fails Migrant Domestic Workers” report, Human Rights Watch reviewed 114 Lebanese judicial decisions affecting migrant domestic workers and found that lack of accessible complaint mechanisms, lengthy judicial procedures, and thinking in nursing restrictive visa policies dissuade many workers from filing or pursuing complaints against their employers. Even when workers file complaints, the police and judicial authorities regularly fail to patron of homework, treat certain abuses against domestic workers as crimes. Human Rights Watch did not find a single example among the 114 cases it reviewed in which an employer faced charges for locking workers inside homes, confiscating their passports, or denying them food, even though these violations of the law are commonplace.
Complaints that workers file against employers often languish in essay letter counter court for months, and sometimes years. This poses an added burden on the workers because Lebanon's restrictive visa policies make it hard for them to patron, remain in the country to pursue the case. Cases of physical violence against migrant domestic workers often fail to in nursing, garner sufficient attention from police and prosecutors. For example, a review of police reports in numerous cases of violence against these workers shows that police investigating these cases regularly ask employers only patron, general questions and accept their statements as truthful without cross-checking their statements with other potential witnesses. While authorities have prosecuted certain cases of severe beatings against migrant domestic workers, these cases remain rare and have resulted in remembered rhythms essays on diaspora and the music only light sentences. Of Homework! The most severe sentence for physical abuse of which Human Rights Watch is aware was one month in letter counter prison imposed by a criminal court on patron of homework June 26, 2010, against an employer who repeatedly beat a Sri Lankan domestic worker while forcibly confining her to essays on diaspora of india, the house. Human Rights Watch documented numerous violations of due process and the right to a fair trial in cases in saint of homework which migrant domestic workers were accused of a crime, usually theft. Of the 84 criminal cases against domestic workers reviewed by Human Rights Watch, 37 of the workers (44 percent) lacked a defense lawyer.
Most—at least 57 of 84 cases reviewed—also faced police and court proceedings without the help of certified translators, even though many do not speak fluent Arabic. Researchers also found that workers were detained before trial in 64 out of the letter counter, 84 cases. Most who were eventually found not guilty had been detained during trial for an average of three months before being released, although at least four had been jailed for more than eight months before a court found them not guilty. In June, the Ministry of Labor instituted a hotline to receive workers' complaints, but its effectiveness remains unproven. Most migrant domestic workers do not know about the patron, hotline, whose operators do not have language support for any of the languages migrant workers commonly speak, such as Amharic, Hindi, Tagalog, Tamil, Malagasy, or Nepali. Human Rights Watch recommends that the government of Lebanon: Develop a national plan to increase the likelihood that complaints against employers for crimes committed against migrant domestic workers lead to history in nursing, prosecution, including training programs for patron saint of homework, police officers, immigration officials, prosecutors, and judges. Enact legislation to create a simplified dispute resolution mechanism to essay counter, settle salary disputes between employers and migrant workers in a timely manner. Provide access to of homework, legal aid and certified interpreters for migrant domestic workers who are victims of abuse or are accused of a crime. Reform the artificial knee prothesis, visa sponsorship system so that workers' visas are no longer tied to individual sponsors, and so that workers can file complaints without fear of detention and deportation.
In 2010, Human Rights Watch monitored several cases in which Saudi Arabia’s justice system failed migrant workers, highlighting broader problems of access to redress and fair treatment. Several aspects of Saudi Arabia’s labor laws and saint immigration sponsorship system put migrants at high risk of abuse. Migrant workers’ residency is tied to their immigration sponsor (a company or an individual employer), who must provide consent for the worker to change jobs or to get an exit visa from the Interior Ministry to leave the country. Herbert! This system gives employers inordinate control over workers and can trap them in abusive situations. Saudi Arabia has also failed to finalize reforms to the labor law to extend protections to the country’s approximately 1.5 million migrant domestic workers, who are currently excluded from basic guarantees such as a weekly day of rest or limits to hours of work. Several migrant domestic workers were only able to report complaints of grave physical abuse after returning to patron saint, their home countries because complaint mechanisms in Saudi Arabia remained inaccessible. Herbert Essay! For example, in late August, Lahadapurage Daneris Ariyawathie, a domestic worker from Sri Lanka returned home and needed an operation to saint, remove dozens of nails and metal objects she said her Saudi employers had hammered into her body after she complained of remembered rhythms essays on diaspora music of india, being overworked. Saint Of Homework! A Kenyan newspaper, The Nation, reported that in write a essay on corruption January, Saudi authorities summarily deported Fatma Athman, a domestic worker from Mombasa, a week after she suffered injuries she said resulted from patron her employer pushing her off a third-floor balcony. In the past, Saudi authorities have been slow to investigate or prosecute abusers in remembered essays and the music similar cases. The criminal case against the employers of Keni binti Carda, an Indonesian domestic worker who says she was burned by her employers in September 2008 before they put her on a plane back home, was only investigated following international pressure and has been subject to protracted delays. Human Rights Watch also documented several cases in 2010 in saint which workers complaining of unpaid wages were unable to obtain redress and were effectively trapped in the country once their residency permits expired.
In one example, Jadawel International, a Saudi company, failed to pay workers more than six months of salaries that they owed them. Managers told workers they were working toward a solution for paying the back salaries and renewing their residency permits, without which workers could not leave the on corruption in india, compound for fear of arrest, access medical treatment, or leave the country. Following Human Rights Watch communication with the company’s chairman, Jadawel renewed most residency permits, issued exit visas, and paid six months outstanding salaries in saint August, although workers stated on October 24, 2010, that salary payments were three months in arrears. Saudi Arabia’s labor courts are notoriously slow, often taking years to hear and decide a case, which can then be appealed, further delaying a final decision. Essays On Diaspora Music Of India! Migrant workers on low incomes of a few hundred dollars a month, most of which they send home, cannot afford to wait that long. Migrant workers also lack the resources that companies have to hire lawyers to saint of homework, present their case. In other cases, migrant workers accused of crimes may face harsh penalties such as the death sentence and several obstacles to a fair trial including limited access to lawyers and translators. In a prominent case, Saudi Arabia's Supreme Court upheld the death penalty for on corruption in india, Rizana Nafeek, a Sri Lankan domestic worker. Nafeek had been in Saudi Arabia for patron, two weeks in May 2005 when her employers’ 4-month-old baby died in her care.
A recruitment agency in Sri Lanka had altered the birth date on her passport to suggest she was 23, but her birth certificate later confirmed she was 17 at the time. Though she was arrested in 2005, she did not have access to legal counsel until after a court in Dawadmi sentenced her to death in 2007. As of November 2010, the death sentence had not been carried out. Human Right Watch recommends that the government of Saudi Arabia: Create effective mechanisms to monitor migrant workers' working conditions, including accessible complaints mechanisms such as hotlines, and take steps to resolve labor disputes in a timely manner. Rigorously prosecute employers and employment agents who abuse migrant domestic workers and ensure that migrants have access to write a essay on corruption in india, competent translators and a lawyer during legal proceedings. Adopt comprehensive immigration and labor reforms so that workers do not require the consent of their first employer to transfer jobs or leave the country, and of homework so that domestic workers receive equal protection under labor laws. Human Rights Watch's report, “From the Tiger to the Crocodile: Abuse of Migrant Workers in Thailand,” describes the widespread and severe human rights abuses that migrant workers—who originate from Burma, Cambodia, and Laos—face in Thailand, including torture in essay detention, extortion, sexual abuse, trafficking, forced labor, restrictions on organizing, violent retaliation against complainants, and even death. Eighty percent of these migrant workers are from Burma, many of whom are fleeing ethnic and political conflict back home.
Local police and officials often ignore or fail to effectively investigate migrants’ complaints. National laws and policies and provincial decrees prohibit migrants from establishing their own organizations, such as trade unions, and asserting their rights. Policy restrictions on changing employers, moving outside designated areas, and convening meetings with more than a handful of persons leave migrants vulnerable to exploitation and ill-treatment. Migrants reported constant fear of detention and extortion by police, who demand money or valuables from patron of homework migrants in their custody in return for their release. It is not uncommon for a migrant to lose the a essay on corruption in india, equivalent of one to several months pay in a single extortion incident. Human Rights Watch found that a number of provinces continue to restrict migrants’ use of mobile phones and motorcycles, severely limit freedom of movement, prohibit migrant gatherings, and enforce nighttime curfews. Human Rights Watch recommends that the government of patron saint of homework, Thailand: Revoke laws and national and knee prothesis provincial policies that bar migrants from forming labor unions, changing employers, organizing assemblies, and exercising their rights to freedom of expression, association, and movement.
Establish an patron of homework independent and in india impartial commission to investigate allegations of abuse by police and other authorities against migrants. Such a commission should be empowered to subpoena, require presentation of evidence, and recommend criminal and civil charges against abusers. It should make reports public periodically. In 2010, New York University (NYU), the patron saint, Guggenheim Foundation, and their government-owned partners announced new contractual safeguards for workers employed in knee building an NYU campus and a branch of the Guggenheim on Saadiyat Island, Abu Dhabi. As of November, Le Louvre Abu Dhabi, another major international construction project on patron saint of homework Saadiyat Island, had not made any specific public commitments on letter counter labor standards for its workers. A May 2009 Human Rights Watch report, “The Island of Happiness: Exploitation of Migrant Workers on Saadiyat Island, Abu Dhabi,” documented how the patron, UAE government and development authorities had failed to write in india, tackle worker abuse, including unlawful recruiting fees, unpaid wages, and a sponsorship system that gives employers inordinate power over workers. Patron Saint Of Homework! These contribute to a cycle of abuse that leaves migrant workers deeply indebted and often unable to leave their jobs. In repeat visits to rhythms on diaspora music, the island in 2010, Human Rights Watch interviewed workers who, consistent with earlier findings, had paid exorbitant recruitment fees that took months or years to patron of homework, recover, and whose employers had confiscated their passports. In early 2010, NYU and its partner, the Executive Affairs Authority of of critical thinking, Abu Dhabi, announced it would require all companies involved in building and saint of homework operating the NYU Abu Dhabi campus to reimburse workers for remembered rhythms and the of india, recruiting or other employment-related fees they are found to have paid. The new terms also bar companies from confiscating worker passports, and require them to provide 30 days annual leave, health insurance, and premium rates for overtime work, among other benefits. In September 2010, the Guggenheim and its government-owned partner, the Tourism Development Investment Company (TDIC), said all companies involved in building and operating the museum's Abu Dhabi branch would be required to patron of homework, provide workers with electronic wage payment, overtime provisions, annual leave, a weekly day off, and health insurance.
Companies would also have to give workers contracts in local languages before they enter the UAE, and give them access to essay, a complaints body at TDIC. Unlike NYU, the Guggenheim did not include explicit provisions to require companies to patron, reimburse workers for any recruitment or other employment-related fees, although it reaffirmed an employer's responsibility for such fees. Indebtedness for recruitment fees remains the primary factor that creates conditions of forced labor, with workers required to use their wages to pay off the fees, and pressured into history of critical remaining in their jobs regardless of abusive conditions. Every single worker interviewed for patron saint, the 2009 report, as well as all workers interviewed in 2010, had paid such fees before coming to work in the UAE. The new measures announced by NYU and the Guggenheim lack clear provisions for enforcement or for independent, third-party monitoring of employer compliance. Nor did they address workers’ rights to collective bargaining, strike, and have a fair minimum wage. They did not specify what penalties, if any, will be imposed on contractors that violate the terms. It is also unclear what legal recourse NYU Abu Dhabi or the Guggenheim have in on corruption the event of a breach by a contractor employing workers on its project, with which it will have no direct contractual relationship. Human Rights Watch calls upon saint NYU, the Guggenheim, the Louvre, and the government of the UAE to: Establish a mechanism to monitor labor practices within the operations of the new branch, as well as those of history of critical thinking in nursing, any subcontractors and of homework their affiliates (including those who provide construction and maintenance services).
This monitoring mechanism should oversee how migrant workers are hired and treated during their employment with the capote, Abu Dhabi branches, as well as subcontractors and affiliates. Penalize and terminate relationships with any contractors that continue to work with labor agencies or sub-agencies that charge workers fees and/ or mislead workers regarding conditions of employment upon arrival in the UAE. Create mechanisms that would encourage compliance by subcontractors (i.e. Patron Of Homework! retain experienced and reputable labor and construction lawyers and give them a mandate to letter, ensure that all construction and maintenance related contracts require meaningful compliance with labor laws). Hundreds of thousands of children work on US farms, but are less protected than all other working children in the United States. The 1938 Fair Labor Standards Act specifically exempts farm worker youth from minimum age and maximum hour requirements, exposing them to work at far younger ages, for far longer hours, and under more hazardous conditions than children in other jobs.
Federal protections that do exist are often not enforced, and saint of homework state child labor laws vary in herbert spencer's essay strength and enforcement. As a result, child farm workers, most of whom are Latino and include both domestic and international migrants, often work 12 to 14 hour days, and risk pesticide poisoning, heat illness, injuries, and patron lifelong disabilities. Many, especially migrant children, drop out of school; girls are sometimes sexually harassed. While federal legislation that would close the loophole and protect child farm workers remains pending, some government agencies have moved to improve conditions: the Department of Labor added more than 250 new field investigators since early 2009 and write a essay plans to add more; the Environmental Protection Agency has pledged to strengthen its assessment of pesticide health risks, and to propose amendments to federal worker protection standards by 2012. Human Rights Watch recommends that the government of the United States: Via the saint, US Congress should amend the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA) to apply the essay letter counter, same age and hour requirements to children working for hire in agriculture as already apply to all other working children. Congress should also raise the patron saint, minimum age for particularly hazardous work in agriculture to 18, in line with existing standards in all other industries. Via the US Department of Labor should increase agricultural workplace inspections targeting child labor and a essay on corruption minimum wage violations and significantly increase civil money and criminal penalties within the limits allowed by law to improve compliance.
It should also press for of homework, much-needed amendments to the list of jobs in agriculture that are deemed to be “particularly hazardous” for children. II. Abuse and Detention at Borders. Men, women, and letter children often risk their lives to cross borders and are frequently subject to abusive treatment while in grey areas: no-man’s lands between border checkpoints, on the high seas, and at international zones of airports. Of Homework! Many countries have border control policies that are hostile, discriminatory, and flout international standards, particularly along frontiers at the margins of territories that often lie beyond the a essay in india, sight of media and other witnesses. Saint! Governments—often in the form of border and coast guards—may fail to screen migrants to identify asylum seekers, trafficking victims, unaccompanied children, and other members of vulnerable groups, or subject them to violence, extortion, poor conditions in detention, and refoulement (forced return to essay, torture or persecution). As of of homework, November 2010, Egyptian border guards in knee prothesis replacement 2010 had shot dead at least 28 migrants attempting to cross the Sinai border into Israel. Patron! A government official said in March that security forces had “only” killed 4 percent of those attempting to write a essay, cross in 2009. Saint Of Homework! Egypt continues to essay letter, detain refugees and migrants and charge them with illegal entry before military courts that do not meet international fair trial standards. Many of those trying to cross into Israel at or near the Sinai border come from refugee-producing countries such as Eritrea and Sudan.
Israel's policy of patron, forcibly returning to Egypt some of those who do make it across, without adequately considering possible asylum claims, also violates international law. History Of Critical In Nursing! Migrants and refugees who Israel forcibly returns to Egypt face arbitrary arrest and detention, unfair trials before military courts, and forcible deportation without the chance to make asylum claims. Egypt denied UNHCR access to detained refugees and migrants, preventing them from making asylum claims. In January, Egyptian security officials arrested at least 25 Sudanese refugees and asylum seekers and detained many incommunicado for up to three months. Many are vulnerable to deportation even though they hold refugee documentation from the UNHCR. On January 25, Egyptian authorities returned Muhammad al-Haj, a recognized Sudanese refugee, to his home country, in violation of the prohibition of patron saint of homework, refoulement. Human Rights Watch recommends that the Egyptian government: Order border police to use lethal force only as a proportional and history of critical necessary response to a threat to life, and conduct a thorough and impartial investigation into the killings of African migrants, make the results public, and prosecute responsible border police officers and officials with oversight responsibility. Saint Of Homework! Cease using military tribunals to try civilian migrants, refugees, and asylum seekers detained in the Sinai.
Guarantee UNHCR access to artificial, all migrants who have international protection needs in official custody. Human Rights Watch recommends that the Israeli government: Conduct no additional coordinated returns to Egypt of persons who cross the saint, Sinai border until: Israel institutes a system that ensures border-crossers the ability to present asylum claims, and Egypt credibly guarantees that it will respect returnees' rights under international human rights and refugee law and essay letter counter not to return them to countries where they could face persecution. Since May 2009, Italy has joined forces with Libya to patrol the patron, waters from the coast of Libya to remembered rhythms on diaspora and the music of india, Italy’s Mediterranean territories, principally the island of Lampedusa. Libya in 2010 operated patrol boats provided by Italy with Italian personnel on board to interdict boat migrants on of homework the high seas and in Libyan waters and return them summarily to Libya with no screening to identify refugees, the sick or injured, pregnant women, unaccompanied children, victims of trafficking, or victims of violence against and observations the essays capote women. All interdicted boat migrants are detained upon arrival in Libya in overcrowded and unsanitary conditions. Libya is saint of homework not a party to the 1951 Refugee Convention and has no asylum law or procedure.
In April, Libyan Foreign Secretary Moussa Koussa said his country “does not have any refugees but only illegal migrants who break the laws.” In July the government said that there were 3 million irregular migrants in Libya. A new law on “Illegal Migration” criminalizes trafficking of migrants but does not mention protections for refugees. In June, Libya closed the office of the herbert essay, UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) in Tripoli and expelled its representative. It later allowed the office nominally to reopen but only with highly restricted permission to work on behalf of refugees and saint asylum seekers whom it had registered prior to closing, and replacement without access to newly detained migrants and patron of homework asylum seekers. On June 28, a group of detained Eritrean migrants tried to escape from a migrant detention center after Libyan officials allowed Eritrean embassy officials to take their photos and forced them to on corruption, complete forms raising fear of deportation. In response, Libyan authorities transported 245 Eritrean detainees from the Misrata detention on Libya’s northern coast to another detention center at al-Biraq, north of Sabha, in an apparent attempt to patron saint of homework, deport them.
Some of these Eritreans were among those whom Italy had forcibly returned to Libya without giving them an opportunity to claim asylum. After an international outcry, Libya released this group but did not provide them with any support or protection. They remain in Libya. Human Rights Watch recommends that the Libyan government: Sign and ratify the 1951 Refugee Convention and its 1967 Protocol and on corruption establish asylum procedures in conformity with international refugee standards. Patron Saint Of Homework! Improve the deplorable conditions of detention in Libya, and prosecute officials responsible for abusing migrants in and out of detention.
Human Rights Watch recommends that EU institutions and member states: Refrain from concluding multilateral or bilateral readmission agreements with Libya until Libyan policies and practices with regard to letter, migrants, refugees, and asylum seekers fully meet international standards. Saint Of Homework! Pressure Italy to stop cooperating with Libya to of critical in nursing, forcibly return migrants—including apparent asylum seekers—to Libya where they are routinely subjected to patron of homework, inhuman and degrading treatment and where potential refugees are not effectively protected. Ensure that the EU external border control agency, Frontex, is herbert spencer's not involved in saint activities that result in refoulement. On January 1, 2010, a readmission agreement between the European Union and Ukraine came into force that provides for the return of third-country nationals who enter the EU from Ukraine. Readmission agreements are a cornerstone of the EU’s so-called externalization strategy for spencer's, asylum and patron saint migration, the history, core of which is to stop the of homework, flow of migrants and asylum seekers into the EU by portraits the essays shifting the burden and responsibility for migrants and refugees onto countries that neighbor the Union, in this case Ukraine. Ukraine has a dysfunctional asylum system, and from August 2009 through August 2010, no government body had the mandate to saint of homework, recognize or provide protection to refugees. Ukraine is struggling to manage the backlog of claims that were not processed during that time. Not only has Ukraine been unable or unwilling to provide effective protection to refugees and asylum seekers, it has also subjected some migrants who returned from history of critical neighboring EU countries to patron saint, torture and other inhuman and degrading treatment. Out of 161 interviews of refugees, migrants, and asylum seekers in Ukraine, Slovakia, and Hungary whom Human Rights Watch interviewed in June 2010, 48 said they had been returned from Slovakia or Hungary. Most of portraits and observations the essays of truman, those 48 said they had asked for asylum upon arrival in saint of homework those countries, but that their pleas had been ignored and they had been swiftly expelled.
These practices breach the essay counter, right to of homework, seek asylum contained in remembered rhythms and the music the binding EU Charter of Fundamental Rights. Both Slovakia and Hungary also returned unaccompanied children to Ukraine in violation of their international obligations to patron of homework, protect them. Human Rights Watch recommends that Slovakia, Hungary, and other EU member states: Suspend the return of third-country nationals to Ukraine under the EU-Ukraine readmission agreement or bilateral readmission agreements until Ukraine meets international standards with respect to the human rights of artificial knee prothesis, returned migrants, particularly with regard to the practice of patron, torture, inhuman or degrading treatment, and arbitrary detention and until Ukraine demonstrates willingness and the capacity to provide a fair hearing to asylum seekers and effective protection to refugees. Human Rights Watch recommends that Ukraine: Ensure that all migrant detainees in state custody are treated in on diaspora a humane and dignified manner and that their detention fully complies with Ukraine’s international obligations governing the administrative detention of migrants. Immediately investigate allegations of patron, torture and abuse of migrants in State Border Guard Service custody, including at the time of apprehension and in all phases of detention and transfer. Ensure that border guards quickly forward all requests for herbert spencer's, asylum to the regional migration service and discipline any personnel who obstruct access to patron saint of homework, asylum. In 2010, Greece was faced with 10,000 requests by other EU member states to return migrants and asylum seekers there under the Dublin II regulation, the instrument that assigns responsibility among EU states for examining asylum claims.
Dublin II generally holds that the country of first entry is responsible for examining the claim. Essay! Greece was the entry point for about 75 percent of the 106,200 irregular migrants entering the EU in 2009; that percentage rose to 80 percent in the early months of patron saint, 2010, according to The Economist . In September 2010, UNHCR described the situation for migrants and asylum seekers in Greece as a “humanitarian crisis.” Despite the government’s repeated commitments to overhaul its broken asylum system, restore appeal rights, ensure humane treatment for artificial prothesis replacement, migrants, and police accountability for ill-treatment, it had made no progress in any of those areas by year’s end. A Presidential Decree containing modest reforms, including addressing a backlog of more than 46,000 cases, remained stalled partly because of the country’s budget crisis, while only 11 of saint of homework, 30,000 applicants (0.04 percent) were granted asylum at first instance in 2009. Migrants and asylum seekers continued to and observations capote, be detained in substandard conditions, with little or no assistance to unaccompanied migrant children and other vulnerable groups, many of whom live in destitution or on of homework the streets, at risk of exploitation and trafficking. During an October visit, the UN special rapporteur on torture investigated ill-treatment of migrants, as well as the detention of asylum seekers, women, and children. On October 20, he called on the EU not to transfer asylum seekers to Greece under the Dublin II regulation. Human Rights Watch recommends that other EU member states: Suspend all Dublin II transfers to Greece.
Human Rights Watch recommends that Greece: Invite UNHCR to take over counter its asylum system as long as it is incapable of of homework, doing so. Completely reform its asylum system to provide access to the procedure for knee, all asylum seekers and fair and timely adjudication of claims. Patron Of Homework! Improve conditions of detention in all places of migration detention to meet international standards. The Canary Islands government's decision to keep 200 unaccompanied migrant children in emergency shelters, which are not subject to normal care regulations, puts the children at risk and threatens their well-being. While some conditions have improved in recent years, the centers fail to comply with the Canary Islands government's minimum care standards for migrant children and have no occupancy limits. The approximately 100 children in the biggest and most secluded emergency center, La Esperanza, receive low-quality food, lack adequate heating, hot water, and blankets, and artificial knee prothesis report exposure to patron of homework, frequent violence from other children. The emergency centers were established in 2006 as a temporary measure in response to an unprecedented number of unaccompanied migrant children arriving on the islands.
Some conditions have improved since 2007, including access to education, training opportunities outside their residences, and more frequent monitoring visits. Other serious concerns also persist in emergency centers. These include the absence of a functioning mechanism to file confidential complaints, mixing of younger children with older peers in spencer's one emergency center, insufficient access to the asylum procedure, absence of occupancy limits, and limited opportunities to become integrated in the community. In addition, the substandard conditions at La Esperanza center threaten children's well-being. The Canary Islands government informed Human Rights Watch orally on June 15 that it plans to close down La Esperanza emergency center by December 2010 and of homework move children to other centers, including the emergency centers at history of critical thinking, Tegueste and Arinaga. It has not committed to making those centers subject to its own established minimum standards of saint, care. Human Rights Watch recommends that the government of the Canary Islands: Close La Esperanza emergency center as a matter of priority and transfer all children to adequate care arrangements.
End the emergency regime as a whole and bring all centers for unaccompanied minors in portraits the essays line with Canary Islands minimum standards and occupancy limits for centers accommodating unaccompanied migrant children. III. Saint Of Homework! Inadequate Health Care for Migrants in Detention. We are sweating at history, night on the floor; we don’t know what illnesses we have, but we pass them back and forth…. Patron Saint Of Homework! I asked the officer to go to and observations, the clinic, but he said, “You just need to wait for deportation.” Especially when they know you are a foreigner, they don’t take you serious. —Jean Marie, 28, immigration detainee, Lusaka Central Prison, Zambia, October 3, 2009. Migrants frequently face barriers in accessing health care. Patron! Migrant populations in and observations the essays of truman detention can be particularly vulnerable, as they are entirely reliant on the government to provide or facilitate their access to services.
Under international law, states have an obligation to ensure medical care for patron, all prisoners at rhythms essays and the music of india, least equivalent to that available to of homework, the general population; human rights law also requires that a core minimum of health care services be provided without discrimination on the basis of artificial knee prothesis replacement, citizenship or social origin. Patron Saint Of Homework! Yet despite these protections, prisoners in and observations the essays of truman Zambia and Malawi are often held in life-threatening conditions. Human Rights Watch researchers have found that migrant detainees held in prisons—sometimes inappropriately or unnecessarily—also experience discrimination, and faced conditions or health care inferior to those provided to non-migrant prison populations. In August 2010, Human Rights Watch became aware of serious health and justice concerns in the cases of patron saint of homework, approximately 230 Ethiopian migrants imprisoned in Malawi. The migrants had recently been convicted of illegal entry and sentenced to various terms of imprisonment, with an average sentence of 10 months. Reports from herbert essay these prisoners suggested that their trials were conducted in a language they were unable to understand, with no translation provided, raising concerns that the trials may not have met international fair trial standards.
While many, if not all, prisoners in Malawi face poor prison conditions, reports suggest those experienced by Ethiopian detainees in some Malawian prisons are significantly worse than the norm, and could have serious health implications. For example, in one prison some 85 non-Malawian inmates were housed in a small, smoke-filled kitchen, measuring 3.4 by 3.9 meters. Some of the inmates were forced to stand for of homework, 16 hours a day while the cell was locked: one or more were forced to write a essay on corruption in india, crouch in the chimney. Inmates reported respiratory ailments and symptoms consistent with malnutrition-related disorders, but often could not report serious health problems because they did not speak the officers’ language. Human Rights Watch has recommended that the government of Malawi: Improve conditions of detention and in particular overcrowding in Malawi’s prisons, ensuring that non-Malawian prisoners are held under conditions of detention equivalent to Malawian prisoners. Provide migrant detainees with a designated interpreter through whom they can request medical assistance and through whom they may make complaints to prison authorities empowered to address prison conditions. In Zambia, immigration detainees—including administrative detainees held pending deportation—are frequently held in patron saint of homework prisons, made to await deportation without due process, and mixed with convicted and pre-trial criminal prisoners. Human Rights Watch, the remembered of india, Prisons Care and Counselling Association (PRISCCA), and the AIDS and Rights Alliance for Southern Africa (ARASA) interviewed immigration detainees in Zambian prisons and found that only 38 percent of those interviewed had ever seen a magistrate or judge, compared with 97 percent of non-immigration detainees.
Many who were detained appeared to saint, have reasonable claims to legal status. Immigration detainees are routinely told to pay for their own deportation and are held until they pay. Being held behind bars can have life-threatening consequences for a essay in india, all inmates, including immigration detainees. Overcrowding, malnutrition, rampant infectious disease, grossly inadequate medical care, and routine violence at the hands of prison officers and fellow inmates make Zambian prisons death traps for inmates of patron saint, all nationalities. In 2010, the Zambia Prisons Service employed only 14 health staff—including one physician—to serve its 16,666 prisoners. Tuberculosis (TB) rates in Zambia’s prisons are more than ten times those in the general population, and HIV rates almost double. Counter! Yet despite being held under the same unhealthy conditions as Zambian inmates, immigration detainees interviewed by Human Rights Watch, PRISCCA, and ARASA had been tested for both TB and HIV in detention at even lower rates than their Zambian counterparts; six percent of patron saint of homework, immigration detainees had been tested for TB compared to knee, 23 percent of all detainees, and 21 percent of immigration detainees had been tested for HIV compared with 57 percent of saint of homework, all detainees. Such a disparity is attributable to a combination of discrimination against of critical in nursing immigration detainees in accessing care, and of homework the fact that immigration detainees, on average, spend less time in detention than convicted detainees. Human Rights Watch recommends that the government of Zambia:
Boost prison-based health services to include HIV and TB testing and treatment, and ensure accessibility of such services to immigration detainees on equal terms. On Diaspora And The Music Of India! Amend the Immigration Act to require that any administrative detention for saint, the purposes of deportation be explained on artificial knee prothesis replacement a case-by-case basis and shown to of homework, be proportionate and necessary, and include specific limits on the duration of essay letter, administrative detention for the purposes of deportation. Ensure that each immigration detainee receives a hearing in a timely manner and is able to request asylum. IV. Discriminatory Treatment of Migrants. France launched a highly-publicized campaign against Roma from Eastern European in late July 2010, moving to forcibly evict Roma (and French travelers “gens du voyage”) living in unauthorized camps and to return migrant Roma (who are mostly EU citizens) to their countries of of homework, origin. By the end of August, 128 of the camps had been destroyed, and by mid-September, over one thousand Roma from Romania and Bulgaria had been removed from France, the majority through “assisted voluntary returns” involving cash inducements and threat of deportation. There is evidence that the government specifically targeted camps occupied by migrant Roma from of critical in nursing Eastern Europe with a view to organizing expulsions, and saint of homework concerns remain that evictions were carried out history thinking, without appropriate safeguards. At time of writing, a government-sponsored immigration reform bill, already passed by the lower chamber of saint of homework, parliament, is under examination in the French senate. On Diaspora Music! The draft law weakens migrants’ rights and contains provisions that widen the grounds for expelling EU citizens to include abuse of France’s welfare system, profiting from patron saint of homework begging by others, and “abusive” occupation of land.
The last-minute introduction of the latter provisions and political rhetoric around their introduction strongly suggested they were aimed at Roma from Eastern Europe. The European Commission applied pressure on France in September for failing to a essay on corruption, implement correctly a 2004 EU directive on freedom of of homework, movement for EU citizens, which contains protections against summary and mass expulsions, neither of which appear to herbert, have been respected in the case of the expulsions of Roma to Romania and Bulgaria. While a positive move, the commission’s actions did not take France to task for discrimination against Roma, although it has said it will continue to patron of homework, monitor France’s compliance with its human rights obligations in this area. The commission’s actions prompted France to history thinking, indicate it will take steps to remedy the shortcomings in national legislation. The immigration reform currently being debated also includes limiting the rights of patron saint, appeal of migrants held in deportation detention, and of critical thinking in nursing withdrawing acquired citizenship from persons convicted of killing a public official, such as law enforcement officers, firefighters and judges. Human Rights Watch recommends that the French government:
Ensure all camp evictions are conducted lawfully and in compliance with international standards on evictions, including with necessary safeguards, such as appropriate advance notice, compensation for lost or damaged belongings, and alternative accommodation. Patron Of Homework! Conduct an artificial prothesis replacement independent review of its “voluntary assisted return” program and the policy of expulsion of migrant Roma. Ensure that any expulsion measures are based on individual review and of homework do not discriminate on the grounds of ethnicity or nationality. Withdraw problematic provisions of the immigration reform bill, including those targeting Roma, weakening the rights of prothesis replacement, migrants in patron detention, and essay letter counter withdrawing citizenship from naturalized French convicted of certain crimes. Racist and xenophobic violence, including against saint of homework migrants, remains a serious problem, with the government not only slow to acknowledge the problem and adopt appropriate legal and policy responses, but exacerbating a climate of intolerance with anti-immigrant and anti-Roma discourse.
The plight of seasonal agricultural migrant workers was laid bare in January 2010, when 11 African seasonal migrant workers were seriously injured in drive-by shootings and there were mob attacks over a three-day period in Rosarno, Calabria, in south Italy. Every winter, thousands of seasonal migrant workers go to Rosarno to harvest citrus fruits. Most are hired without legal employment contracts, and of critical thinking work in conditions that are often exploitative, involving low pay, failure to pay, and abusive treatment. Following two drive-by shootings of African migrant workers on the same day, migrants organized protests, some of which resulted in violence and criminal damage of of homework, property. In the on corruption, most serious episode attributed to saint of homework, migrants, a woman and her children were forced out of their car, the woman was hit in the face with a rock, and the car set ablaze. More shootings and mob beatings targeting migrants followed, there were two attempts to run over migrants (including with a bulldozer), and an arson attack on a house occupied by essay migrants. In addition to the 11 seriously injured migrants, at least 10 other migrants, 10 law enforcement officers, and 14 local residents required first aid treatment.
Over one thousand migrants left the saint, town after the violence, most of them evacuated by law enforcement personnel. To date, three Italians have been convicted of violence against migrants during the Rosarno unrest, although none of prothesis, those responsible for the targeted shootings or mob attacks have been brought to justice. Five African migrants were convicted and sentenced in of homework late January in expedited trials for incidents during the riot after the history thinking in nursing, first two drive-by shootings. Anti-migrant discourse has become a staple of Italian politics, with elected officials making statements linking migrants to crime. This has exacerbated an existing climate of hostility, prompted in part by several high profile murders and rapes attributed to foreigners. Patron Saint Of Homework! Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi said in herbert spencer's essay January 2010 that fewer foreigners in Italy “means fewer people to swell the ranks of criminals,” while the mayor of Milan said in May 2010 that “illegal immigrants who don’t have regular work usually commit crimes.” Elected officials at the local and national level have engaged in derogatory rhetoric about Roma (many of whom are Italian citizens) and Romanians, blaming them for crime and urban blight. Human Rights Watch recommends that the Italian government: Ensure existing criminal provisions that provide for penalty enhancement in racially-motivated crimes are utilized and fully implemented. Ensure that attacks on migrants, Roma, and other ethnic minorities are promptly investigated by law enforcement and patron of homework those responsible are brought to justice.
Condemn forcefully and consistently all racist and letter counter xenophobic statements, especially by public and elected officials, and make clear that racist discourse has no place in Italian society. Since 2005, up to 3 million Zimbabweans have fled political persecution and economic collapse in their country and saint sought refuge and economic opportunities in neighboring South Africa. In 2008 and 2009, 261,000 claimed asylum, overwhelming an asylum system which already faced a backlog of just over 100,000 cases. Responding to a essay in india, international calls to grant Zimbabweans in South Africa temporary special protection, South African authorities in April 2009 announced a “special dispensation” policy under which Zimbabweans would receive special permission to remain and work in patron saint South Africa. While the history of critical thinking in nursing, policy was never implemented, South Africa stopped deporting Zimbabweans that same month, ending a practice that had seen over an estimated half-a-million Zimbabweans forced back to their country since early 2007. On September 2, 2010, due to patron saint, perceived improvements in the situation in Zimbabwe, South African authorities announced an end to the special dispensation policy, and confirmed deportations would resume on January 1, 2011. However, the September 2 decision allows Zimbabweans (asylum seekers, the undocumented, and those with fraudulent South African identity papers) currently working, studying, or operating a business in South Africa to regularize their status by December 31, 2010.
To qualify, applicants must hold a Zimbabwean passport, which they can obtain from Zimbabwean authorities in South Africa, and portraits the essays capote prove they have been in the country since at of homework, least May 31, 2010. Human Rights Watch and other organizations have voiced concern that four months is remembered essays on diaspora and the music insufficient time to patron of homework, ensure that all Zimbabweans wishing to apply can do so, and that those who miss the deadline will be caught up in South Africa’s likely resumption of remembered rhythms essays on diaspora of india, mass deportations of Zimbabweans in early 2011. Impact on saint of homework Asylum System and essay letter counter Genuine Refugees. Human Rights Watch is patron of homework also concerned that lack of additional resources for the asylum system and inadequate safeguards against police abuses means resumed deportations of Zimbabweans will lead to more violations of asylum seekers’ rights. Once deportations have resumed, Zimbabweans will have only two options to essay letter, lawfully enter and remain in South Africa: apply for asylum, or apply for patron, a temporary residence permit under the Immigration Rules’ work, study, and business provisions. The majority who wish to enter or remain in South Africa will be unable to apply for such a residency permit due to a combination of permit fees, lack of skills, lack of Zimbabwean identity documents, and lack of sponsorship by essay counter South African employers or educational institutions.
For most Zimbabweans, the only way to remain legally in of homework South Africa will be to claim asylum, which guarantees them a right to remain in the country until the remembered essays on diaspora and the music of india, claim has been resolved. In 2011, therefore, there is likely to be a significant rise in Zimbabwean asylum applications. South Africa’s asylum system—already buckling under the strain of hundreds of thousands of Zimbabweans’ claims and tens of thousands of claims by other nationalities—will be under further pressure. As documented in our June 2008 report, “Neighbors in Need,” this will almost certainly lead to even less access to the asylum system, resulting in police arrests, prolonged detention, unlawful deportation of genuine refugees, and patron saint a drop in the quality and timeliness of decisions for a essay on corruption, asylum seekers in genuine need of international protection. Recommendations to of homework, the South African government: Extend the deadline for Zimbabweans to register in South Africa until at least June 1, 2011, to ensure that those wishing to a essay in india, apply have enough time to do so; support the Zimbabwean authorities in South Africa to saint of homework, rapidly issue passports to the essays, all Zimbabweans wishing to patron of homework, register. In light of the likely dramatic increase in Zimbabwean asylum applications following resumed deportations, take all necessary steps to portraits the essays capote, ensure that anyone wishing to claim asylum in South Africa can easily lodge their claim and is guaranteed protection from patron saint of homework police arrest, detention, and remembered essays and the music of india deportation. Federal reforms to the laws that regulate which migrants may enter and remain in the US mostly stalled in 2010. Instead, constituent states considered problematic immigration laws.
An Arizona law, SB 1070, authorized police to interrogate anyone who they reasonably suspect to patron of homework, be undocumented. A Essay On Corruption! Human Rights Watch opposed SB 1070, concerned that it would lead to racial profiling. In July a federal court enjoined enforcement of the most controversial sections of SB 1070, including the “reasonable suspicion” interrogations. The court’s decision is under appeal. October 2010 marked one year since the US Immigration and Customs Enforcement agency (ICE) published a report calling for replacing the current punitive approach to detaining immigrants with a “civil detention model.” The agency has been working on programmatic steps to achieve that goal. In 2010, it took the positive step of establishing a computerized detainee locator system, enabling attorneys, government officials, and family members to locate an immigrant held in one of around 300 detention facilities throughout the country. However, several other key reforms that Human Rights Watch has called for based on saint its research are stalled or need additional effort by the agency. Aspects of immigration detention procedures needing prompt reform include:
While the ICE detainee locator system is an herbert important first step, much more needs to saint, be done to ensure that ICE uses its detention facilities only essay, as necessary. In 2009, ICE held between 380,000 and patron saint 442,000 people in approximately 300 facilities, at an annual cost of US$1.7 billion. These people are not imprisoned as punishment for spencer's, criminal offenses, but rather are detained for patron of homework, civil immigration violations. Many are deprived of their liberty for months, and even years. Treatment of essay letter counter, Detainees with Mental Disabilities.
Immigrants with mental disabilities are often unjustifiably detained for years, sometimes indefinitely. They also must undergo deportation hearings without the right to a government-appointed attorney, which means approximately 60 percent go through court hearings without a lawyer. Human Rights Watch has documented numerous cases in which people with mental disabilities were prevented from making claims against patron of homework deportation—including claims of US citizenship—because they were unable to represent themselves. Some people interviewed by replacement Human Rights Watch did not know their own names, were delusional, could not tell the time, or did not know that deportation meant removal from the United States. Sexual Violence against Female Detainees. Human Rights Watch has compiled documented incidents and patron of homework allegations of sexual assault, abuse, and harassment in immigration detention since the formation of rhythms essays on diaspora music, ICE in 2003. In one such incident, five women detained at the Port Isabel Service Processing Center in Texas were assaulted by a guard in 2008 when he entered each of their rooms in the detention center infirmary where they were patients. He ordered them to undress and touched intimate parts of their bodies.
While ICE has taken some steps to address the problem of sexual assault, including proposing new requirements for how detention facilities must prevent and respond to sexual abuse, the agency should act swiftly to improve oversight of the entire detention system and ensure accountability. On February 22, ICE wrote to Human Rights Watch, announcing the patron saint of homework, agency's intention to “minimize the number of detainee transfers to the greatest extent possible.” This important commitment came after Human Rights Watch raised serious concerns about ICE's policy of transferring large numbers of letter counter, immigrant detainees to facilities far from where they lived. The transfers impede and sometimes completely bar detainees from accessing an attorney and interfere with detainees' ability to present key witnesses and evidence in immigration court. Sometimes transfers completely alter the law applied to saint, their deportation or asylum case, for example, the of india, act of patron saint, sending a detainee from one jurisdiction to another can determine whether she may ask an immigration judge to allow her to remembered rhythms on diaspora music of india, remain in the United States. In light of the saint of homework, 1.6 million detainee transfers recorded between 1997 and 2006, and data from 2008 that show that a majority of detainees were transferred two or more times, ICE’s statement of intention is a positive step.
However, it needs to make specific changes to its internal policies to address this serious problem. Human Rights Watch recommends that the US government: Ensure that immigrants are not detained unnecessarily, with particular attention to remembered on diaspora music of india, preventing the detention of persons with mental disabilities without justification, and provide appointed counsel for non-citizens with mental disabilities in immigration proceedings. Establish legally enforceable standards to govern conditions of detention, including access to medical care; reform policies to saint of homework, limit the transfer of detainees away from counsel and family; and of critical thinking improve accountability and oversight mechanisms in the detention system to prevent and respond to abuses. Reform federal immigration law to ensure that all migrants’ human rights are protected even while their presence in the United States is strictly regulated. In Cote d'Ivoire, as elsewhere in patron saint of homework West Africa, women and girls are trafficked from portraits capote Nigeria for saint, forced prostitution. Most appear to come from Delta and Edo states in Nigeria and are lured into migrating with promises of gainful employment in West Africa or Europe. Instead, they are forced to pay off an exorbitant debt through prostitution, with threats of rhythms essays music of india, harm by women overseeing the patron saint of homework, brothels should they fail to do so.
The problem appears to be rising, with the Nigerian embassy repatriating scores of victims this year alone. Cote d’Ivoire has failed to ratify the UN Trafficking Protocol and likewise has no domestic legislation against remembered rhythms on diaspora and the of india trafficking, resulting in serious legislative deficiencies to tackle the problem. Human Rights Watch recommends that the government of Cote d’Ivoire: Sign and ratify the patron saint of homework, UN Trafficking Protocol, and portraits and observations of truman capote pass a domestic anti-trafficking law that provides a framework for combating trafficking, including trafficking for the purpose of prostitution, in accordance with international standards. Conduct a thorough and comprehensive national investigation into the trafficking of West African women and girls for the purposes of prostitution, in order to of homework, determine the scale of the problem, the history thinking in nursing, main trafficking routes, and the conditions and threats under which the patron, women and girls live. Under the current domestic legal framework, arrest and prosecute those engaged in recruiting children for prostitution and those who force women and girls into prostitution. More than two million migrant domestic workers are employed in Saudi Arabia and Kuwait and are at high risk of of critical in nursing, abuse and exploitation due to gaps in patron saint of homework labor laws and restrictive immigration practices. The combination of deceptive recruitment practices in home countries, indebtedness due to placement fees, confinement to the workplace upon employment, withholding of passports, and abuses summarized earlier in this report, can contribute to situations of forced labor, trafficking, and slavery-like conditions. In May 2010, the Nepalese embassy in Riyadh confirmed several cases in which Kuwaiti employers hired Nepalese domestic workers, illegally transported them to Saudi Arabia against their will, and forced them to work for Saudi families. The Saudi families typically paid the Kuwaitis fees for trafficking the workers, and when finished employing them, often abandoned them at portraits, the Nepalese embassy to patron saint of homework, avoid paying fines for illegal hiring. In India! Although many of the Nepalese women arriving at the embassy appeared to patron saint, have suffered abuse, including sexual abuse, diplomats said that Saudi authorities, while typically facilitating repatriation of these domestic workers, did not provide them with specialized services or investigate the Saudi employers who illegally employed or abused them.
Saudi Arabia passed an anti-trafficking law in July 2009. Remembered And The! The law prohibits all forms of trafficking, and includes specific provisions addressing migrant workers, including prohibiting sale of work permits, receiving commissions in return for saint, employment, and stiffer penalties if the crime was committed across national borders. The Kuwaiti parliament is considering a draft of an anti-trafficking law, first proposed in July 2008, that would also punish trafficking across borders. Human Rights Watch recommends that the governments of Kuwait and Saudi Arabia: Cooperate to prevent, monitor, and in india prosecute cases of saint of homework, cross-border trafficking of migrants. Institute and enforce comprehensive legal frameworks to on corruption in india, combat human trafficking, including implementation of Saudi Arabia’s anti-trafficking law, adoption of patron of homework, such a law by Kuwait, and reforms to labor and on corruption immigration laws. Patron Saint! Provide specialized services to victims of trafficking including appropriate health and counseling services. In Senegal, at least 50,000 young boys live in essay counter conditions that amount to a modern form of slavery. Saint Of Homework! They generally come from small villages and are sent by parents to history, cities around Senegal to study the Quran. However, many of the men who operate these residential schools offer little education and patron saint of homework instead force the boys to beg for up to ten hours a day.
The boys must return a daily demanded sum or face severe physical abuse. Rhythms Essays On Diaspora And The! While the saint of homework, boys suffer from malnutrition and frequent diseases, many of the teachers live in relative affluence. Many boys are trafficked internally within Senegal or from thinking in nursing neighboring Guinea-Bissau, Guinea, the Gambia, Mali, and Mauritania. In 2005, Senegal passed a law that criminalized trafficking and forcing another person to beg for financial gain; in September 2010, one month after President Abdoulaye Wade announced a ban on saint all forms of begging, the country applied the remembered rhythms and the music of india, law for the first time, arresting and saint prosecuting nine men who were exploiting young boys under their de facto guardianship through forced begging. Portraits Capote! It was considered a landmark case by local and international organizations working on the issue, and the number of boys on saint the streets in Dakar clearly reduced given the legitimate threat of prosecution.
However, only a month later President Wade reversed course and announced that the ban on begging would no longer be applied—and the number of boys forced to essay letter, beg on the street appeared to return to its previous ubiquity. As of October 2010, Guinea-Bissau, the neighboring country that sends the greatest number of these young boys to patron, Senegal, had no law against trafficking. However, a draft law that would bring the rhythms essays on diaspora and the music of india, country's legislation in line with international obligations is set to appear before the National Assembly in patron saint early 2011. Border officials, children's rights workers, and police said the law was essential to stem the flood of boys who are taken across the border each year to remembered rhythms essays on diaspora music, be exploited in Senegal. Guinea-Bissau’s National Assembly should act quickly to pass a law criminalizing human trafficking.
The draft law, which the Assembly recently placed on patron its agenda for its October-November session, would empower police, judicial officials, and civil society to improve protection of the country’s children, thousands of whom are trafficked from Guinea-Bissau to Senegal and other countries each year. Human Rights Watch recommends that the government of Senegal: Resume prosecutions of artificial knee prothesis replacement, those who traffic and abuse boys through forced begging. In particular, undertake proactive police work to target the most exploitative teachers, and extend the state's crackdown on patron saint of homework forced begging to other cities in Senegal. Essay Counter! Strengthen and saint expand the mechanisms in place to temporarily house, clothe, and feed boys recovered from abusive Quranic schools, and to return them to their families. Establish minimum standards in Quranic schools that protect a child's right to education, health, and physical and mental development, and essay letter require all such schools to be registered and periodically inspected by state officials to ensure they conform to of homework, such standards. Human Rights Watch recommends that the a essay in india, government of Guinea-Bissau: Immediately enact the draft legislation that criminalizes child trafficking, and enforce its provisions through the arrest and prosecution of individuals who traffic boys to Senegal under the guise of religious education. Increase the capacity of civil and patron saint border police units, particularly in the Bafata and Gabu regions, to deter child trafficking and essay counter other illegal cross-border movements of children. Nisha Varia, senior researcher in saint the women’s rights division, coordinated the compilation and publication of this report. The contents are based on the field research and writing of letter, several Human Rights Watch staff: Jane Buchanan, Zama Coursen-Neff, Corinne Dufka, Bill Frelick, Nadim Houry, Megan McLemore, Sarah Mehta, Heba Morayef, Priyanka Motaparthy, Samer Muscati, Alison Parker, Meghan Rhoad, Phil Robertson, Rebecca Shaeffer, Gerry Simpson, Judith Sunderland, Katherine Todrys, Simone Troller, Nisha Varia, Matt Wells, and Christoph Wilcke.
The findings on Zambia are based on joint field research by Human Rights Watch and Nyaradzo Chari-Imbayago of the AIDS and Rights Alliance for Southern Africa, Chris Mumba of the patron saint of homework, Treatment Advocacy and Literacy Campaign, and Godfrey Malembeka of the Prisons Care and remembered essays on diaspora and the music of india Counselling Association. Janet Walsh, deputy director in the women’s rights division, Bill Frelick, director of the refugee program, and Danielle Haas in the program office reviewed the report. Clive Baldwin, Aisling Reidy, and James Ross, all from the legal and patron of homework policy office, provided legal review. Daniela Ramirez provided editing and production assistance, and Grace Choi and Fitzroy Hepkins provided production assistance. Human Rights Watch Reports on Migrants in 2010. Human Rights Watch, From the Tiger to the Crocodile: Abuse of Migrant Workers in Thailand , February 23, 2010, http://www.hrw.org/en/reports/2010/02/23/tiger-crocodile-0.
Human Rights Watch, “Off the Backs of the Children”: Forced Begging and Other Abuses against Talibes in herbert spencer's essay Senegal , April 15, 2010, http://www.hrw.org/en/reports/2010/04/15/backs-children-0. Human Rights Watch,Prisons Care and Counselling Association, AIDS and Rights Alliance for Southern Africa, and Human Rights Watch, Unjust and Unhealthy: HIV, TB, and Abuse in Zambian Prisons , April 27, 2010, http://www.hrw.org/en/reports/2010/04/27/unjust-and-unhealthy-0. Human Rights Watch, Slow Reform: Protection of Migrant Domestic Workers in Asia and the Middle East , April 28, 2010, http://www.hrw.org/en/reports/2010/04/28/slow-reform-0. Human Rights Watch, Eternal Emergency: No End to patron of homework, Unaccompanied Migrant Children’s Institutionalization in Canary Islands Emergency Centers , June 22, 2010, http://www.hrw.org/node/90993. Human Rights Watch, “Tough, Fair, and Practical”: A Human Rights Framework for Immigration Reform in the United States , July 9, 2010, http://www.hrw.org/en/reports/2010/07/09/tough-fair-and-practical-0. Human Rights Watch, “Hellish Work”: Exploitation of Migrant Tobacco Workers in Kazakhstan , July 14, 2010, http://www.hrw.org/en/reports/2010/07/14/hellish-work-0. Human Rights Watch, Deportation by Default: Mental Disability, Unfair Hearings, and Indefinite Detention in the US Immigration System , July, 26 2010, Human Rights Watch, Without Protection: How the Lebanese Justice System Fails Migrant Domestic Workers , September 16, 2010, Human Rights Watch, Walls at Every Turn: Exploitation of portraits and observations the essays, Migrant Domestic Workers Through Kuwait's Sponsorship System , October 6, 2010, http://www.hrw.org/en/reports/2010/10/06/walls-every-turn-0. Human Rights Watch, Ukraine: Buffeted in the Borderland: The Treatment of Asylum Seekers and Migrants in of homework Ukraine (forthcoming December 2010). Other Human Rights Watch Materials on rhythms and the music of india Migrants in 2010.
“Human Rights Watch Interviews with African Migrants Seriously Injured in Individual Attacks,” Human Rights Watch interviews, February 4, 2010, Letter from Human Rights Watch to The Honorable Prime Minister, Mr. Abhisit Vejjajiva, “ Open Letter of Concern for the Safety and Security Of Migrant Workers in Thailand,” February 16, 2010, http://www.hrw.org/en/news/2010/02/16/open-letter-concern-safety-and-security-migrant-workers-thailand. “Thailand: Migrant Workers Face Killings, Extortion, Labor Rights Abuses,” Human Rights Watch news release, February 23, 2010, Letter from Human Rights Watch to patron saint, the Lebanese government voicing concern over migrant and refugee arbitrary detentions, February 24, 2010, Letter from Human Rights Watch to essay letter counter, the Government of Greece on Reform of the Asylum and Immigration System, April 28, 2010, http://www.hrw.org/en/news/2010/04/28/letter-mr-michalis-chryssochoidis-ministry-citizen-protection-greece. “Kuwait: Deliver Promised Rights Reform,” Human Rights Watch news release, May 12, 2010, “US/Mexico: Investigate Border Killings,” Human Rights Watch news release, June 11, 2010, “US/Mexico: Investigate Border Killings,” Human Rights Watch news release, June 11, 2010, “Libya: Do Not Deport Eritreans,” Human Rights Watch news release, July 2, 2010, Letter from Human Rights Watch to The Honorable Prime Minister, Mr. Saint! Abhisit Vejjajiva, “Open Letter Requesting Investigation of portraits and observations the essays, Claims Migrants Deported from Thailand Facing Human Rights Abuses by DKBA,” July 19, 2010, Letter from Human Rights Watch, to Mr.
Michalis Chryssochoidis, Minister of Citizen Protection, “ Open Letter to the Government of Greece on saint Reform of the spencer's essay, Asylum and Immigration System,” July 28, 2010, Letter from Human Rights Watch to H.E. Dr. Khalid al-Karaki, Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Education, “ Undocumented Migrant Children’s Right to Education, Human Rights Watch Letter to Jordanian Minister of Education,” September 9, 2010. Letter from Human Rights Watch to patron of homework, the Governments of essay letter, Saudi Arabia, Indonesia, and Sri Lanka, “Prevent Abuses Against Migrant Domestic Workers, Human Rights Watch Letter to of homework, the Governments of Saudi Arabia, Indonesia, and Sri Lanka,” November 23, 2010, “Greece: End Inhumane Detention Conditions for Migrants,” Human Rights Watch news release, December 6, 2010 , http://www.hrw.org/en/news/2010/12/06/greece-end-inhumane-detention-conditions-migrants. Global: Flawed Policies Expose Migrants to Abuse.
Iran: Afghan Children Recruited to Fight in Syria. Jordan: Syrian Refugees Being Summarily Deported. Syria: First Atrocities Trials Held in a essay on corruption in india Europe. Saudi Arabia: Domestic Worker Brutalized. UN Human Rights Council Confronts Venezuela. Witness to Carnage in Burma’s Rakhine State. Burma: Military Commits Crimes Against Humanity.
Burma: Satellite Imagery Shows Mass Destruction. Burma: Targeted Sanctions, Arms Embargo Needed. Crimes against Humanity by Burmese Security Forces Against the patron saint, Rohingya Muslim Population in Northern Rakhine State since August 25, 2017. Human Rights Watch defends the rights of people in 90 countries worldwide, spotlighting abuses and bringing perpetrators to and observations of truman capote, justice.
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19 Reasons Why This Is An Excellent Resume. Patron? Recruiters spend an average of six seconds reviewing a resume before they make the initial decision on candidates, according to research conducted by TheLadders, an online job-matching service for remembered rhythms and the professionals. That means you have to win them over fast. To get a better idea of what makes a resume great, we reached out to Amanda Augustine, career expert at TheLadders. Patron Saint Of Homework? She created an example of an excellent resume and allowed us to share it.
While resumes should be tailored to the industry you're in, the one below offers a helpful guide for entry- and essay letter, mid-level professionals with three to five years of relevant work experience.. What makes this resume so great? Augustine outlines the patron saint following reasons: 1. The Essays? It includes a URL to the jobseeker's professional online profile. If you don't include URLs to patron saint, your professional online profiles, hiring managers will look you up regardless. Augustine tells Business Insider that 86% of counter, recruiters admit to reviewing candidates' online profiles, so why not include your URL along with your contact information? This will prevent recruiters from having to guess or mistaking you for someone else. Of Homework? If you have a common name, consider including your middle initial on portraits and observations the essays of truman capote your resume and online professional profiles to patron of homework, differentiate yourself from the spencer's essay competition, says Augustine.
For example, decide if you're Mike Johnson, Michael Johnson, or Mike E. Johnson. Then use this name consistently, be it on LinkedIn, Google+, Twitter, or Facebook. 3. Saint? It includes a single phone number and email address. Choose one phone number for your resume where you control the voicemail message and who picks up the history thinking in nursing phone, she advises. The same rule applies to an email address. 4. It does not include an objective statement. There's no point in saint, including a generic objective about a professional looking for opportunities that will allow me to leverage my skills, says Augustine.
It's not helpful and distracting. Essay Letter Counter? Ditch it. Patron Of Homework? 5. Instead, it includes an executive summary. Rhythms Essays And The Music? Replace your fluffy statement with an executive summary, which should be like a 30-second elevator pitch where you explain who you are and patron of homework, what you're looking for . Write On Corruption? In approximately three to five sentences, explain what youЂ™re great at, most interested in, and how you can provide value to a prospective employer, Augustine says. 6. It uses reverse chronological order. This is the most helpful for recruiters because they're able to see what you've been doing in recent years immediately, says Augustine. The only time you shouldn't do this is if you're trying to patron saint, transition to another career altogether, but then again, in this situation, you'll probably be relying more on essay networks, than your resume, she says. 7. It uses keywords like forecasting and patron saint of homework, strategic planning.
Many companies use some kind of screening process to identify the right candidates. You should include the portraits and observations keywords mentioned in the job posting throughout your resume. Identify the common keywords, terminology, and key phrases that routinely pop up in the job descriptions of your target role and incorporate them into your resume (assuming you have those skills), advises Augustine. This will help you make it past the initial screenings and on saint of homework to the recruiter or hiring manager. 8. Herbert Spencer's? It provides company descriptions. It's helpful for recruiters to know the size of the company you used to work for, advises Augustine. Being a director of a huge company means something very different than a director at a small company, she says. Saint Of Homework? You can go to the company's About Us section and rewrite one or two lines of the description. This should be included right underneath the name of the company. Essay? While the company size is helpful information, including the of homework company description will also let the hiring manager know what industries you've worked in.
For example, being an accountant in tech may be very different than being an accountant in the hospitality industry. As with most things on a resume, the essays on diaspora of india company description should be tailored based on the professional's goals. If you're looking to switch industries, your focus may be on patron the company size Ђ” assuming it's similar to your goals Ђ” and less on discussing the various products your company sells. 9. Herbert? It does not list achievements in dense blocks of text. Recruiters receive so many resumes to scan through at a time, so make it as easy as possible for saint of homework them to understand why you're perfect for the job. Dense blocks of text are too difficult to read, says Augustine.. Of Critical In Nursing? 10.
Instead, achievements are listed in two to five bullet points per job. Under each job or experience you've had, explain how you contributed to saint, or supported your teamЂ™s projects and initiatives. As you build up your experience, save the bullets for your bragging points, says Augustine. Quantify your major accomplishments and contributions for each role, Augustine tells us. This can include the money you saved or brought in for your employer, deals closed, and projects delivered on time or under budget. Do not use any more than three to five bullet points. 12. Accomplishments are formatted as result-and-then-cause.
A good rule is to essay counter, use the result BY action sentence structure whenever possible. For example: Generated approximately $452,000 in annual savings by employing a new procedure which streamlined the business's vendor relationships. 13. Saint? White space draws the reader's eyes to important points. Recruiters do not spend a lot of time scanning resumes, so avoid dense blocks of write a essay, text. The key is to format the information in a way that makes it easy to scan and recognize your job goals and patron, relevant qualifications, Augustine tells us. 14.
It doesn't use crazy fonts or colors. Essay Letter? Stick to black and white color, says Augustine. As for saint font, it's best to stick with the basics, such as Arial, Tahoma, or Calibri. Augustine says you should never write your resume in portraits and observations capote, third person because everyone knows you're the one writing it (unless you go through a professional resume writing service). Instead, you should write it in first person, and do not include pronouns. It's weird [to include pronouns], and it's an extra word you don't need, she says. You need to streamline your resume because you have limited real estate. Saint? Avoid adding any embedded tables, pictures, or other images in your resume, as this can confuse the knee prothesis applicant-tracking software and jumble your resume in patron saint of homework, the system, says Augustine. 17. It doesn't use headers or footers. It may look neat and concise to display your contact information in the header, but for t he same reason with embedded tables and charts, it often gets scrambled in an applicant tracking system, says Augustine.
18. Of Critical Thinking? Education is listed at the bottom. Unless you're a recent graduate, you should highlight your work experience and move your education information to the bottom of your resume, says Augustine. Never include anything about your high-school years. 19. Patron Saint Of Homework? It doesn't say references upon request. Every recruiter knows you're going to provide references if they request it so there's no reason for you to include this line.
Again, remember that space on your resume is crucial so don't waste it on a meaningless line, Augustine tells us. Now watch how to ace an interview: SEE ALSO: What Recruiters Look At During The 6 Seconds They Spend On Your Resume. NOW WATCH: The 9 Worst Mistakes You Can Make On Your Resume. Recommended For You Powered by Sailthru. 19 Reasons Why This Is An Excellent Resume.
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Naked picture leak! WWE Victoria Melina latest Fappening 2.0 nude victims. It seems the steady stream of naked pictures is saint, going to keep coming and this morning two more WWE stars have become victims of essay The Fappening 2.0. We reported earlier this week that actress Katie Cassidy and Mamma Mia star Amanda Seyfried had their phones hacked and saint of homework, naked images of them spread across the internet. X rated videos were also uploaded online. KIM KARDASHIAN ALLEGEDLY SPENDS $100,000 A YEAR TO EMPLOY A ‘PROFESSIONAL SELFIE RETOUCHER’
11 Reasons To Be Grateful For The Founder Of Yoga-Pants. ‘Yoga pants’: Are leggings and other tight trousers indecent? DOWNLOAD FAPPENING 2.0 – CELEBRITIES HACKED. Here’s What ‘The Most Beautiful Girl In The World’ Looks Like Now. Playboy model angers Maori with nude shoot on portraits and observations the essays capote, sacred mountain. After the tragedy in Jimmy’s hometown of saint Las Vegas, he sends love to everyone affected, talks about the write on corruption in india, major gun violence problem we have in this country, calls out the saint, senators who are in the pocket of the NRA, and asks for common sense and action from our elected officials to ensure that something like this doesn’t happen again. Jimmy Kimmel on Mass Shooting in counter, Las Vegas. When it comes to mean tweets, no one can touch Donald Trump but that doesn’t mean there aren’t those who try. From time to time we shine a light on of homework, the trolls by asking famous people to read the spencer's, not-so-nice things people write about them. We’ve done it again for our 11th edition of celebrities reading #MeanTweets featuring Gal Gadot, Emma Watson, Jake Gyllenhaal, Elisabeth Moss, John Lithgow, Dave Chappelle, Jeffrey Tambor, Gwyneth Paltrow, Jennifer Aniston, Jim Parsons, Nikolaj Coster-Waldau, Jennifer Lawrence, Kristen Bell, Bob Odenkirk, Michael Keaton, Alec Baldwin and patron saint of homework, Kumail Nanjiani. Felix Baumgartner freefall from 24 miles from ground Earth.
GoPro: Red Bull Stratos – The Full Story. With years of prothesis experience from all over the world are our fully customized Cindrones highly effective high-end production tools in saint of homework, everything from feature films to TV broadcast. Our custom design makes it possible to bring Cinedrones into extremely challenging environments and have them operational in a short amount of time. This is herbert spencer's, one of the saint, feature that makes our Cinedrones an awesome tool! This is a selection of knee prothesis productions from the patron, past year. Russia’s leading opposition politician, Aleksei Navalny, can’t get airtime on state TV or Russia’s private (but pro-Kremlin) TV stations — so he set up his own on Youtube.
Navalny LIVE broadcasts from a Moscow business center, and its videos can reach millions. Studio Dror’s Dramatic Plan to Give Istanbul More Green Space with “Parkorman” 360 View | First Stage Landing on Droneship. They’re cute, cuddly and one of China’s most instantly recognisable symbols. The humble panda is loved the world over. They’ve become a tourist attraction, generating huge revenues each year. Remembered Rhythms Essays On Diaspora Music. And a diplomatic tool, doled out by China to countries in exchange for favourable trade deals. But with efforts to boost the wild population facing numerous challenges, are pandas destined to patron saint survive only in captivity as cute national symbols? 101 East ventures deep into the mountains of northwest China and joins the portraits, search for patron saint of homework, the elusive wild panda.
Saving China’s Pandas: Is keeping pandas in captivity harmful? Giant Life Size Dinosaur attacks Ryan ToysReview Pretend Play! Bad Magic Toys transformation and Superhero Kid In Real Life! Ryan’s Family had a family fun time playing dress up with Ryan accidentally transform toy dinosaur into real life dinosaur T-Rex with Elsa’s Magical wand! Dinosaur with magical powers used superhero Spiderman, the hulk, iron man and throw at spencer's, Ryan! Giant Life Size Dinosaur attacks Ryan Bad Magic Toys transformation Pretend Play Superhero Kid. Ken Jeong uses the power of Twitter to answer some common medical questions. Ken Jeong Answers Medical Questions From Twitter | WIRED. How to open a bottle of Champagne with a knife/sword. How to open a beer with ?10 note, and how to patron of homework open a bottle of wine with a ribbon. To celebrate reaching 100,000 subscribers I wanted to share some of my favorite life hacks for opening a bottle.
While attending Everness Festival in a essay on corruption in india, Hungary we were invited by artist Istvan Sky Kek Egto to visit his Surya Sangita Asram. There four beautiful souls met together and by patron saint, improvising created the musical adventure you are witnessing now. Music made by Collaboration of: Istvan Sky Kek Eg, Estas Tonne, Pablo Arellano, Indre Kuliesiute. Video made by Geri Dagys. More info about artists. The Song of the essay, Butterfly [Hungary 2014] HD. This short film is my animated autobiography. I spend most of my life swearing at the computer because it’s crashed or isn’t working. Here, well known digital symbols are turned into something analogue and playful.
The result is an homage to patron saint all the lost time we collectively spend in digital limbo in the hopes of spencer's essay sudden development on our screen. The news is breaking. What did panda do when zookeeper cleaning the leaves? Urbanature’s folding garden planter and stand takes urban gardening to new heights. Patron Saint Of Homework. I’m always on the hunt for history of critical thinking, small space garden products that an urban gardener can easily store out of place when not in use, then unfolds to fit the particular space. Vertical Garden That Folds For Storage. Jorg Brachmann’s design not only saint of homework, makes it easy to history grow vegetables in a confined space like a balcony, but at of homework, the end of the a essay, season, it just folds together flat for easy storage. Inspired by patron of homework, one of those scissoring foldable laundry dryers, the height varies according to whim, depending on how much you unfold it and your particular space constraints.
It’s lightweight solid wood (oak, walnut, ash) frame accepts up to six galvanized steel, white powder coated planter boxes. Now, get planting and portraits the essays of truman, watch your garden unfold. Urbanature Garden Planter Unfolds Like Scissors. The New York subway has fascinated street photographers for generations, never more so than in patron saint, the 1970s and 1980s. Gritty and essay letter, tinged with danger, a subway ride was always an patron saint, exercise in caution. In fact, in 1979, 250 serious crimes a week were reported on remembered essays and the music, the NYC subway.
It’s within this context that we view the saint of homework, work of essay letter Swiss photographer Willy Spiller, who was living in New York and documented the subway system for seven years starting from patron 1977. Remembered Rhythms Essays. Traversing the city with the curious eye of an saint of homework, outsider, his photos tell the story of the graffiti filled New York subway. Vintage Photos Reveal the Gritty NYC Subway in the 70s and 80s. Back in remembered rhythms essays on diaspora and the of india, 2011, a young French model, Thylane Blondeau, was dubbed as “the most beautiful girl in patron of homework, the world.” But that’s just what she was, a girl, and the topic of child models has always been a point of controversy. She participated in a Vogue photo shoot six years ago that raised concern in the public about the use of history of critical thinking child models and as to whether or not the job would negatively affect them in patron saint of homework, the future.As for Blondeau, here’s how — and what — she’s doing now. Her parents — a pair of rhythms essays on diaspora and the music French celebrities: football star athlete Patrick Blondeau and patron of homework, actress Veronika Loubry — got her into child modeling almost instantly at of critical in nursing, the age of four. In 2005, she participated in patron saint, the Jean Paul Gaultier fashion show and walked down the history of critical thinking, runway. With her piercing blue eyes and patron saint, photogenic face, it was clear from the rhythms essays on diaspora and the music, beginning that she was going to grow up to be a beautiful woman. But some people wonder if the patron, world of modeling is really where a young girl should be. Some countries have banned models under the age of sixteen to history of critical thinking in nursing walk the patron, catwalk because they feel that the world of fashion is too sexualized for children.
Not to mention that the stress of the high-pressure job of being a model can take a huge emotional toll on knee replacement, a person. Even young models are expected to prioritize their physical appearance over their health. In Blondeau’s early years of her modeling career, however, there was very little controversy. That is patron saint of homework, up until at ten, she participated in an editorial for counter, Vogue . Unfortunately, the shoot received more uproar than praise when everyone agreed that young Blondeau looked too sexualized. Most people agreed with psychologist Emma Grey when she said, “This picture is the antithesis of what childhood in our society should be; a child being exposed to a world she is saint of homework, not yet equipped to deal with solely to serve the needs of the adults around her.” Numerous opinions were being offered from write on corruption in india various publications and commentators, with the one from the Mother’s Union standing out. “We have grave concerns about the of homework, modeling agency who represent Blondeau, which clearly does not know if it represents a child or an adult,” said a spokesperson for the Christian charity. In response to counter the criticism, Blondeau’s mother said, “I admit I myself was shocked during the photo shoot. Saint Of Homework. But let me be precise: the only thing that shocked me is that the necklace she wore was worth €3 million!” “I turn down at least three-quarters of the things we’re offered,” Loubry insisted. “For the moment, she’s leading a normal life.” Being so young back then, Blondeau didn’t really get the opportunity to say much on the controversial debate she unintentionally created.
As she grew up, however, she remained a popular model and slowly began growing even more popular on rhythms on diaspora music, Instagram. When she was 14, she was featured on the books of IMG Models (an international modeling agency). “My favorite part of the job is meeting new photographers and makeup artists. Patron. I love to try on history, the clothes, too!” she told Teen Vogue in 2015. But Blondeau’s interest wasn’t only in modeling…
She also aspired to be an of homework, actress like her mom, and starred in the French film Belle Sebastien: The Adventure Continues in 2015. In a later interview, she was asked what it was like being a model at such a young age. Her response was surprisingly simple and didn’t even refer to any of the controversial debate she started. “Well, Kate Moss started modeling at herbert spencer's essay, the age of fifteen, and that was a little while ago,” she said. “So, no. I’m not too young.
If you have a good agency and people who take care of you… it’s perfect.” In October 2016, she attended Paris Fashion Week and did an interview with W magazine, and of homework, was asked what she would be doing after the event was over. She gave a practical answer, “Going home to get some rest and going to the essays of truman school.” She’ll be turning 16 this year, and she seems to have a good head on her shoulders along with that pretty face. Before long, the saint of homework, childhood controversy that once surrounded her may be totally overshadowed by other accomplishments. Here’s What ‘The Most Beautiful Girl In The World’ Looks Like Now. Vincent Pflieger, alias Streetadelic, nous emmene dans un Paris noir et blanc, loin du romantisme cliche des beaux quartiers. Dans un scenario nostalgique et brut, il dresse le portrait de la vie dans le metro de la capitale, peuple de personnages etranges et solitaires, dans un chaos silencieux invisible a la surface. Black and White Journey in Paris by Streetadelic PHOTOGRAPHY. Michael Thompson , aka Freestylee , is a graphic designer and in nursing, artist, from in Jamaica , who currently lives in Easton, Pennsylvania , in the United States. Embracing positive ideas, messages, and saint of homework, outside the box solutions.
Freestylee’s poster art are a constant reminder that art can help spark change. Michael uses his art effectively with social media to write a essay in india stimulate awareness globally; to patron saint of homework engage conversation about the pressing issues affecting mankind; clean water crisis, war, poverty, migration, inequality, the essay, environment and many more. He also design posters celebrating and patron of homework, promoting the positive impact Jamaican popular culture. just over a year ago, turkish artist ayd?n buyuktas turned the history thinking, streets of istanbul upside down to patron saint of homework form surreal city scenes for the essays capote, his series ‘flatland’. now, having recently returned from a trip to the united states, buyuktas has completed a second installment in the series that completely warps american landscapes and defies the laws of physical existence. Patron Of Homework. drawing from the satirical novel ‘flatland: a romance of history many dimensions’ by patron of homework, edwin abbott — which tells the history in nursing, story of a two-dimensional world occupied by geometric figures — the artist has once again distorted viewers perception of space and dimension. the locations included in saint of homework, buyuktas’ ‘flatland II’ series took more than two months to scout and plan. over the course of another month, buyuktas shot the photos over about 10,000 miles of land in the united states. using between 18-20 photos, the artist then carefully created digital collages that stretch into the sky and fold backwards onto themselves. rolling landscapes and cow farms seemingly double over, while baseball and football stadiums appear to reverse the remembered rhythms essays on diaspora and the music, laws of gravity. ‘the idea that I could depict surreal places that I saw in my dreams and thought of in saint of homework, my childhood gradually started to occur in my mind,’ buyuktas describes. ‘during my childhood and replacement, adolescence, I read science fiction series of writers such as isaac asimov and H.G. wells and scientific and patron, technical journals. these books made me question issues such as wormholes, black holes, parallel universes, gravitation, and the bending of space and and the music, time. while I was reading ‘hyperspace’ by patron, michio kaku, I was obsessed with the idea of a black hole occurring in the place we live, and how it would bend space, time and history of critical thinking in nursing, place.’ Ayd?n Buyuktas bends brains with dizzyingly distorted views of american landscapes.
Focus on Gleb Tarro , an patron of homework, American photographer r enowned and recognized for the quality of its images. With simple and stunning nature images, it manages to on diaspora and the of india exploit his talent. A selection of visuals to discover later in the article. Tour de France 2014 photos in black and white. Amazing pictures from the cybersphere. Cheer on the riders at the Palio di Siena bareback horse race, which takes place in Siena twice each year: on July 2nd and August 16th. Stroll through the peaceful Renaissance gardens of the Villa d’Este in Tivoli. Watch a performance at La Scala, Milan’s world-renowned opera house. Sip a Super Tuscan wine straight from the patron of homework, sprawling vineyards of herbert spencer's Tuscany.
Marvel at the enormous Colosseum in Rome. Take a dip in the natural spas of Saturnia in Tuscany, where gorgeous hot springs flow freely. Gaze up at Michelangelo’s Sistine Chapel ceiling. Although it’s technically in patron, Vatican City, any trip to and observations the essays capote Rome wouldn’t be complete without seeing this esteemed artwork. Tour the gorgeous Palladian villas of the Veneto, which were designed by Renaissance architect Andrea Palladio. Throw a coin into the Trevi Fountain, and legend has it you’ll be sure to return to Rome again. Explore the medieval city of San Gimignano, a walled city within Siena. Bask in the sun at the beaches of Rimini. Attend the of homework, Eurochocolate Festival to artificial knee replacement celebrate the city of patron saint of homework Perugia’s world famous chocolate. Re-enact the famous Shakespearean scene on Juliet’s balcony in Verona. Take a gondola ride through the magnificant canals in in india, Venice.
Explore Cascata delle Marmore, a massive, man-made waterfall dating back to the ancient Romans. Climb to the top of patron saint of homework Florence’s iconic Duomo for spectacular views of the city. 17 Places You Need To Visit In Italy. The Land of knee prothesis Lava and Ice – Photography from Iceland by Kimmo Savolainen. Minimalist Posters Depict The Architecture Of 9 Classic Films.
C’est dans les Alpes Italiennes au Monte Piana durant le Highline festival que des aventuriers et athletes ont experimente ces vertigineux hamacs : Des toiles suspendues en file indienne a plus de 2000 metres de hauteur par une corde reliant les deux montagnes et supportant une vingtaine de personnes. Un projet a decouvrir dans la suite. Olimpia Zagnoli est une illustratrice basee a Milan qui fait des illustrations pour differents magazines et marques. Du New York Times , au Washington Post en passant par Rolling Stone, Vanity Fair, The Guardian et Taschen , elle livre des illustrations tres pop et colorees qui montrent de jolies scenes et compositions. Olimpia Zagnolis Editorial Illustrations. chicago-based bike company peace bicycles have launched ‘the dreamer’, a new con cept for commuting on saint of homework, two wheels, combining the upright position and of critical in nursing, full protection from the patron, elements found in a classic dutch-style urban commuter and the comfort ride of a typical american beach cruiser.
conceived as vintage style, fully-loaded comfort commuter bikes, both styles come equipped with a standard 7-speed transmission, pot-hole friendly balloon tires and an upright-riding-position frame design. in addition, a spring-loaded saddle and a riser handlebar adds to of critical thinking in nursing the already extremely comfortable ride. the dreamer: ultimate commuter for the style conscious. the dreamer straight-bar features modern styling, up-right seating position, and comes fully equipped. Patron. a vintage-style string spoke guard adds that vintage look, and comes available in two classic bold colors. the dreamer step-through is artificial knee, modeled after the classic dutch bike. the dreamer comes standard fully loaded with clothing protection accessories (fenders, chain guard, plastic spoke guard on step-thru or string vintage spoke guard on patron saint of homework, straight bar model), safety features such as battery-powered front and rear lights and utility parts like chrome-plated steel rear rack with spring clip, tool pouch hinges on and observations the essays capote, the saddle. the pedals, which also feature reflectors, have slip-resistant rubber pads for riding barefoot. the bikes weigh 34 lbs, which are lighter than most true dutch-style fully loaded bicycles.
battery-powered front and rear LED lights come standard. string spoke guard detail on the straight-bar model. peace bicycles 3D metal emblem detail. saddle engraved with the peace bicycles logo. The dreamer bike: a fully-loaded comfort commuter by peace bicycles. Le jeune designer turc Gunes Peksen a concu ce batiment blanc tres reussi reprenant les mouvements d’une vague. Avec une architecture simple et un travail sur les formes tres reussi, ce projet et ce rendu est a decouvrir sur son portfolio Projeqt en ligne ou dans la suite de l’article en images. Do you dream about living a freer life in patron, an off-grid mobile home? Photographer Andrew Waits traveled around the write on corruption, West Coast capturing amazing images of people that drifted away and now live happily in cars, vans, and campers with very few possessions. Waits’ moving “Boondock” photo series gives a glimpse into of homework a unique nomadic subculture that sees cars as more than a mode of transportation – they can also provide shelter and a sense of home.
People have been living in vehicles for ages, but Waits’ photo series explores the letter counter, reasons that his subjects chose to live a frugal life outside the system. Some of these wander ers are living on their pensions or savings, while other work as campground hosts or make crafts on patron, the way. Waits’ inspiring ph otos show that homes don’t have to be static places filled with possessions, and they suggest that freedom can by found by hitting the road and not looking back. See the rhythms on diaspora and the of india, full series, here. Inspiring Photos Reveal the Lives of saint of homework People Living in Tiny Off-Grid Vehicles. Totally achievable balcony makeovers (maybe with a little help from IKEA). Balcony Chic Vol II : The Big, the Medium and history of critical, the Tiny.
HOW HIKING CHANGES THE BRAIN, BASED ON SCIENCE. JUST ADD TONIC: THE BEST GINS UNDER $20. Meat, Cheese, Bread: The Ultimate Charcuterie Picnic. The Best Wines to Pair With Chocolate. THE 5 MOST AWESOME YACHTS IN THE WORLD. LA To NYC In Under An Hour, Hyperloop System Will Let You Travel At 4,000 MPH. Jimmy Kimmel on Mass Shooting in patron, Las Vegas October 3, 2017 How to avoid the afternoon slump October 3, 2017 How to create life’s big moments October 3, 2017 Watch the last song and gig that Tom Petty ever played October 3, 2017 Over 50 dead, 400 injured in Las Vegas after deadliest shooting in modern US history October 2, 2017 Breaking News : ‘El Chapo’ found dead in artificial knee prothesis replacement, prison cell September 29, 2017 Here’s how Mexican cartels actually operate in patron saint of homework, the United States September 29, 2017 Members of ‘Los Piojos’ get 30 years in prison September 28, 2017 El Chapo betrayed this cartel kingpin, then hired his lawyer September 28, 2017 FBI arrests Fausto Isidro Meza-Flores, who allegedly leads the Meza-Flores drug cartel in portraits and observations of truman capote, Mexico’s Sinaloa state September 28, 2017. When physicist and renowned author Jeremy Bernstein (born December 31, 1929) penned a terrific piece on patron saint, 37-year-old burgeoning director Stanley Kubrick for The New Yorker, the story gained so much attention that Bernstein was commissioned to write an even more elaborate profile of the legendary filmmaker.
Normally Kubrick would have flat-out refused, however, he agreed due to the fact that he shared a common passion with Bernstein — chess. Rhythms Essays And The. When Bernstein travelled to Oxford, England for saint, the conversation on November 27, 1965 it was also captured on portraits and observations capote, tape. The interview remains to this day one of the most profound conversations with Kubrick ever recorded, and saint of homework, you can listen to spencer's it in full below. Listen To A Rare 1965 Recording Of Stanley Kubrick’s Most Profound Interview. Keith Kenniff – Helios. Helios – Hope Valley Hill (Arms and Sleepers Remix) Mac DeMarco // “Brother” (OFFICIAL SINGLE) “People react primarily to direct experience and patron, not to abstractions; it is very rare to rhythms on diaspora find anyone who can become emotionally involved with an saint of homework, abstraction.”
November 27, 1965: A Rare Recording of Stanley Kubrick’s Most Revealing Interview. Excerpt from Orwell’s fantastic 1946 essay outlining his 11 “golden” rules of tea / George Orwell on how to write in india make the perfect cup of tea. Yesterday TE EN DAZE released a new mixtape which you can stream and download by patron saint of homework, visiting ThePlayground.co.uk . Artificial Knee. The 8-track collection provides a perfect ambient backdrop for patron, pretty much any situation, but the crown jewel of the letter, mixtape is unquestionably Harald Grosskopf’s brilliant track “Synthesist”. Harald Grosskopf’s 1979 Masterpiece “Synthesist” Is 7 Minutes Of Pure Amazingness. October 2017 (5) September 2017 (53) August 2017 (16) July 2017 (28) June 2017 (24) May 2017 (83) April 2017 (84) March 2017 (149) February 2017 (77) January 2017 (31) December 2016 (1) November 2016 (9) October 2016 (21) September 2016 (54) August 2016 (15) July 2016 (94) June 2016 (94) May 2016 (106) April 2016 (25) March 2016 (29) February 2016 (73) January 2016 (31) December 2015 (19) November 2015 (26) October 2015 (56) September 2015 (47) August 2015 (128) July 2015 (173) June 2015 (135) May 2015 (110) April 2015 (88) March 2015 (216) February 2015 (135) January 2015 (244) December 2014 (285) November 2014 (342) October 2014 (388) September 2014 (381) August 2014 (370) July 2014 (253) June 2014 (215) May 2014 (228) April 2014 (237) March 2014 (233) February 2014 (223) January 2014 (258) Urbanature’s folding garden planter and saint, stand takes urban gardening to new heights. I’m always on the hunt for small space garden products that an urban gardener can easily store out of place when not in use, then unfolds to a essay fit the particular space. Vertical Garden That Folds For Storage. Jorg Brachmann’s design not only makes it easy to grow vegetables in a confined space like a balcony, but at the end of the season, it just folds together flat for patron, easy storage.
Inspired by one of those scissoring foldable laundry dryers, the height varies according to whim, depending on how much you unfold it and knee, your particular space constraints. Patron Of Homework. It’s lightweight solid wood (oak, walnut, ash) frame accepts up to six galvanized steel, white powder coated planter boxes. Now, get planting and watch your garden unfold. Urbanature Garden Planter Unfolds Like Scissors. The New York subway has fascinated street photographers for generations, never more so than in the 1970s and 1980s. Gritty and tinged with danger, a subway ride was always an exercise in caution.
In fact, in 1979, 250 serious crimes a week were reported on the NYC subway. It’s within this context that we view the work of Swiss photographer Willy Spiller, who was living in history thinking in nursing, New York and documented the subway system for of homework, seven years starting from prothesis 1977. Traversing the city with the curious eye of an patron saint of homework, outsider, his photos tell the story of the graffiti filled New York subway. Vintage Photos Reveal the essay counter, Gritty NYC Subway in the 70s and 80s. Back in 2011, a young French model, Thylane Blondeau, was dubbed as “the most beautiful girl in the world.” But that’s just what she was, a girl, and the topic of saint of homework child models has always been a point of knee prothesis replacement controversy. She participated in a Vogue photo shoot six years ago that raised concern in the public about the use of child models and saint, as to whether or not the remembered, job would negatively affect them in the future.As for patron saint of homework, Blondeau, here’s how — and what — she’s doing now. Her parents — a pair of French celebrities: football star athlete Patrick Blondeau and actress Veronika Loubry — got her into child modeling almost instantly at the age of four. In 2005, she participated in prothesis replacement, the Jean Paul Gaultier fashion show and saint, walked down the runway. With her piercing blue eyes and photogenic face, it was clear from the beginning that she was going to grow up to portraits and observations the essays be a beautiful woman. But some people wonder if the world of modeling is of homework, really where a young girl should be.
Some countries have banned models under the age of sixteen to walk the catwalk because they feel that the world of fashion is too sexualized for children. Not to mention that the a essay in india, stress of the high-pressure job of being a model can take a huge emotional toll on patron saint, a person. Even young models are expected to prioritize their physical appearance over their health. In Blondeau’s early years of her modeling career, however, there was very little controversy. That is up until at ten, she participated in an editorial for on corruption in india, Vogue . Unfortunately, the shoot received more uproar than praise when everyone agreed that young Blondeau looked too sexualized. Most people agreed with psychologist Emma Grey when she said, “This picture is the antithesis of what childhood in our society should be; a child being exposed to a world she is not yet equipped to deal with solely to patron serve the needs of the adults around her.” Numerous opinions were being offered from various publications and herbert essay, commentators, with the patron, one from the rhythms music, Mother’s Union standing out. “We have grave concerns about the modeling agency who represent Blondeau, which clearly does not know if it represents a child or an patron saint, adult,” said a spokesperson for the Christian charity. In response to the criticism, Blondeau’s mother said, “I admit I myself was shocked during the photo shoot. But let me be precise: the only thing that shocked me is that the necklace she wore was worth €3 million!” “I turn down at least three-quarters of the portraits and observations, things we’re offered,” Loubry insisted. Patron. “For the history, moment, she’s leading a normal life.”
Being so young back then, Blondeau didn’t really get the opportunity to patron saint of homework say much on the controversial debate she unintentionally created. As she grew up, however, she remained a popular model and slowly began growing even more popular on Instagram. When she was 14, she was featured on essay counter, the books of IMG Models (an international modeling agency). “My favorite part of the saint, job is meeting new photographers and makeup artists. I love to try on a essay on corruption, the clothes, too!” she told Teen Vogue in of homework, 2015. But Blondeau’s interest wasn’t only in modeling… She also aspired to be an actress like her mom, and starred in remembered on diaspora music of india, the French film Belle Sebastien: The Adventure Continues in saint of homework, 2015. In a later interview, she was asked what it was like being a model at such a young age.
Her response was surprisingly simple and didn’t even refer to portraits the essays of truman capote any of the controversial debate she started. “Well, Kate Moss started modeling at the age of fifteen, and of homework, that was a little while ago,” she said. “So, no. I’m not too young. If you have a good agency and people who take care of on corruption you… it’s perfect.” In October 2016, she attended Paris Fashion Week and did an patron saint of homework, interview with W magazine, and was asked what she would be doing after the event was over. She gave a practical answer, “Going home to get some rest and going to school.”
She’ll be turning 16 this year, and she seems to have a good head on her shoulders along with that pretty face. Before long, the childhood controversy that once surrounded her may be totally overshadowed by other accomplishments. Here’s What ‘The Most Beautiful Girl In The World’ Looks Like Now. Vincent Pflieger, alias Streetadelic, nous emmene dans un Paris noir et blanc, loin du romantisme cliche des beaux quartiers. Spencer's Essay. Dans un scenario nostalgique et brut, il dresse le portrait de la vie dans le metro de la capitale, peuple de personnages etranges et solitaires, dans un chaos silencieux invisible a la surface. Black and White Journey in Paris by Streetadelic PHOTOGRAPHY. Michael Thompson , aka Freestylee , is a graphic designer and artist, from in saint of homework, Jamaica , who currently lives in Easton, Pennsylvania , in prothesis, the United States. Embracing positive ideas, messages, and outside the box solutions. Patron Saint. Freestylee’s poster art are a constant reminder that art can help spark change. Michael uses his art effectively with social media to stimulate awareness globally; to portraits and observations of truman engage conversation about the pressing issues affecting mankind; clean water crisis, war, poverty, migration, inequality, the environment and many more.
He also design posters celebrating and saint of homework, promoting the positive impact Jamaican popular culture. just over a year ago, turkish artist ayd?n buyuktas turned the streets of istanbul upside down to form surreal city scenes for his series ‘flatland’. now, having recently returned from a trip to the united states, buyuktas has completed a second installment in the series that completely warps american landscapes and defies the essay, laws of physical existence. drawing from the patron of homework, satirical novel ‘flatland: a romance of many dimensions’ by and observations, edwin abbott — which tells the story of a two-dimensional world occupied by of homework, geometric figures — the in nursing, artist has once again distorted viewers perception of space and dimension. the locations included in patron of homework, buyuktas’ ‘flatland II’ series took more than two months to of critical in nursing scout and patron of homework, plan. over the course of another month, buyuktas shot the photos over about 10,000 miles of land in history thinking in nursing, the united states. using between 18-20 photos, the artist then carefully created digital collages that stretch into the sky and patron, fold backwards onto themselves. rolling landscapes and letter counter, cow farms seemingly double over, while baseball and football stadiums appear to reverse the laws of patron saint gravity. ‘the idea that I could depict surreal places that I saw in my dreams and write in india, thought of in patron saint, my childhood gradually started to occur in my mind,’ buyuktas describes. ‘during my childhood and adolescence, I read science fiction series of writers such as isaac asimov and H.G. wells and scientific and technical journals. these books made me question issues such as wormholes, black holes, parallel universes, gravitation, and the bending of space and time. Knee. while I was reading ‘hyperspace’ by michio kaku, I was obsessed with the idea of of homework a black hole occurring in the place we live, and how it would bend space, time and place.’ Ayd?n Buyuktas bends brains with dizzyingly distorted views of american landscapes. Focus on history thinking in nursing, Gleb Tarro , an American photographer r enowned and recognized for the quality of patron saint of homework its images.
With simple and stunning nature images, it manages to exploit his talent. A selection of visuals to discover later in remembered essays music of india, the article. Tour de France 2014 photos in black and white. Amazing pictures from the patron saint, cybersphere. This site was originally created as a protest that One Direction was not scheduled to come to Alberta on a essay in india, the WWAtour, and then as a record of the WWATour OTRA Tour. I will occasional stray and post about other topics. I like to re-blog other fans posts about 1D :-)
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Essay on the performance of the chip and clock frequency. The performance of the chip, in synchronous blocks, is saint of homework, directly proportional to the frequency of the clock signals as it is the most active and longest network. The maximum clock frequency on write in india which a chip operates is determined by saint of homework, the longest path the clock net takes between the clock source and its terminating sink. This is called the critical path of the clock net and it has to write on corruption in india be routed with great precision. Several factors such as the saint capacitance and resistance of the metal masks, the essays on diaspora music type is sink that is driven by the clock nets, cross-talk and noise between the nets are to patron be considered to design a clock distribution network. The difference in replacement, the arrival of the clock signals at different sinks, which is defined as the clock skew, must also be considered. In addition to these, placement of the buffers to reduce the skew between the signals and to retain a distortion-less clock signal must also be considered in the clock distribution problem.
This necessitates different buffer sizes, which adds to the total power consumption of the design and the total area occupied by patron, the clock distribution network on the chip with an increased transistor counts. Manual routing of the clock nets would seem to be an exhaustive task keeping the design constraints and the tape out time in mind. Hence various algorithms have been developed to tackle the above problems and to synthesize the clock distribution network. The distribution of the clock network can be done using two structures namely clock tree and clock mesh. Clock tree – This is organized in spencer's, a similar fashion as that of a tree, branching from the clock source to various terminating points of the design which form the clock sinks. When we examine the clock tree structure, it can be seen that a common path exist only near the buffers or on the path of the clock source. Hence path sharing of the sinks while tracing back to patron of homework the clock source is very less. The buffers are placed in every launch nodes, branching from the essay main path as the tree goes lower towards the sink. Patron Of Homework? Hence the clock tree has great depth for buffer placement. The buffer placement depth increases the path sharing between the clock sources and the sinks reduces. With the increase in the path sharing of the sinks to the source there is reduction in spencer's essay, the on patron chip variations on the distribution as there is no effect of skew between different sinks on the same path due to process variations.
Clock tree is adversely affected by this as the number of sinks having a common path to the source is very low. Clock Mesh- The structure of the clock mesh is in the form of a grid which maybe organized in either a uniform or a non-uniform fashion. A window which is formed from the interconnecting grid contains clock sinks which may be grouped based on write a essay on corruption in india various factors such as capacitance, resistance or both. The non-uniformity is due to the uneven grouping of the sinks in saint, the window based on a constraint. The buffers are placed at the nodes of the clock mesh, which are distributed based on the density of the sinks in and the of india, the window. As it forms a grid structure the patron of homework path sharing of the sinks to the source is more as a node is connected to every other node.
Thus the buffer depth is very shallow, maybe a single stage. Hence there is very less induction of skew due to the process variations. The clock tree consumes less power when compared to the cock mesh as there is increase in the wire length and hence total wire capacitance of the mesh which amounts for higher power consumption. Essay? But as the technology node reduces and the logic becomes denser, the patron saint of homework skew due to the process variations becomes more predominant in clock tree rather than in in india, clock mesh. Hence in deep sub-micron technology clock mesh is preferred. In this work we study the following aspects of the clock mesh synthesis for deep sub micron technologies-
The formation of a non-uniform clock mesh with respect to a given target capacitance of the clock sinks inside every window of the mesh. Connection of the clock sinks with the nearest edge of the clock mesh window using stubs and calculating the wire total length for saint of homework different target capacitances. Placement of the buffer of different sizes with respect to the total sinks capacitance in a given window. Varying the voltage and of critical in nursing, the frequency probed to of homework the mesh and calculating the total skew in the mesh. The rest of the paper is prothesis, sectioned as follows:- The first section will contain the algorithm to saint of homework form the non-uniform mesh and the connection of the clock sinks using stubs. The second section will contain the procedure for the placement of the buffers. The third section will contain the study of the mesh for differential voltage and frequency. The fourth section will contain the simulation of the mesh to obtain the skew and the power consumed. In our study we have used the XXXXXXX benchmark of Intel based on the 45nm technology.
The traditional methodology of forming a mesh structure involved forming a uniform mesh and iteratively increase the number of mesh windows until a negligible skew was obtained. History Thinking In Nursing? Further the edges of the mesh are slid in such a way that the lengths of the stubs connecting the mesh edges are minimized. Patron Saint Of Homework? These above approaches structure the mesh wires only with respect to any given skew and not the cluster density of the sinks, even though it forms a non-uniform mesh. This increases the total wire length of the mesh increasing the mesh capacitance and hence increasing the remembered on diaspora and the of india total power consumed. Hence a more efficient structuring technique of considering the cluster density of the sinks is patron saint, used in this paper.
Here the sinks are clustered inside a mesh window by considering the a essay on corruption in india sum of the capacitances of the sinks less than a certain predefined target capacitance. In this paper we have considered various target capacitances ranging from 25fF to 150fF to form non-uniform mesh windows. The structuring of the patron of homework mesh is done in MATLAB. The whole procedure follows a DIVIDE and CUONQURE principle. This algorithm takes the entire benchmark plot into consideration and takes the sum of the capacitances of the sinks. If the sum of the capacitance of the considered area is greater than a predefined capacitance, the entire area is divided into four equal windows or quadrants and the sum of the capacitances are noted again and the procedure follows until a window has a total capacitance less than the predefined capacitance. To start with, the extreme co-ordinates of the herbert essay bench mark plot are considered, namely Xmax, Ymax, Xmin and Ymin.
These are the boundary conditions for which the sums of the capacitances of the sinks which lie inside these co-ordinates are calculated. Initially it spans the entire benchmark plot. If found that the sum of the capacitances are greater than the predefined capacitance value, the plot is divided into four quadrants or windows. Next the boundary co-ordinates are updated in patron saint, such a way that it forms an spencer's, extremity to any one of the four quadrants formed. This forms the DIVIDE phase. It is seen that the window area is not more than 0.3mm. If this exceeds the window is again subdivided in to four quadrants again such that the total capacitance inside the patron saint window is less than the predefined value. Accordingly this procedure continues in artificial knee prothesis replacement, all four quadrants until a stage reaches where the sum of the capacitances of the sinks if equal to or less than that of the target capacitance. This forms the CONQURE phase. Of Homework? After the end of the procedure, a non-uniform mesh is formed wherein every window contains sinks whose total capacitance is knee prothesis, less than the target value.
It should be noted that even though the formation of the mesh is according to sink capacitances, the densities of the sinks vary in each window. The above observation brings us to the next part of the algorithm which is the of homework connection of the sinks to the nearest mesh edge using stubs. This is a essay on corruption, done by calculating the distance between the four edges of a window from every sink using the distance formula and connecting the sink to the edge with the least distance using a wire called a stub. Saint? It is to artificial be noted that the distance considered is the actual distance and not the manhattans distance. Once the formation of the clock mesh and the connection of the stubs to saint of homework the sinks are done, the total length of the mesh wire is artificial, calculated.
This distance is calculated from a certain origin point of the mesh to patron saint of homework the end of the stub that is the sink. The algorithmic flow chart of the structuring of the essays on diaspora of india mesh is shown in the figure. Buffers are required three purposes. The first is the patron saint of homework integrity of the clock signal being maintained. A Essay On Corruption? Next is to reduce the load capacitance seen by the clock source. Lastly, which is of great importance to us is the reduction of the skew by inducing equal delay to the sinks. To have an almost zero skew by inducing delays in the clock path to the sinks, buffers of different sizes must be used depending on of homework the capacitance of the sinks.
To have such a layout it is necessary to form a buffer table with varying buffer sizes according to total sink capacitance in its path ( here the spencer's sum of all the skin capacitances inside a mesh window is considered) . A small sized buffer is patron of homework, placed at the node of the mesh window inside which the thinking sum of the sink capacitance is less than a certain minimum value and a relatively larger sized buffer is placed where the sink capacitance is patron, between certain values of capacitance which is stored in the buffer table. We have considered eight buffers of different sizes in accordance with certain predetermined capacitance values to form the buffer table. The placement of buffer is also done in MATLAB. The procedure is history of critical thinking in nursing, as follows. The Centroid of saint a mesh window is calculated using the values of the sink capacitances inside the mesh using the essays of india formula given below:
After the value of the Centroid is calculated the buffer is placed at the mesh node closest to the coordinates of the patron saint Centroid. The sizes of the buffers to be placed are taken from the buffer table which was formed earlier, by comparing the capote values of the total capacitance inside a mesh with that of the predefined values stored in the table. Hence if the sum of the capacitance is less than 25pF then buffer B1 is saint, placed on the mesh node nearest to the centroid co-ordinates. If the capacitance was found to be between 25pF-50pF of 50pF-72pF buffers B2 and B3 are placed and so on. If there were a case wherein the history of critical thinking co-ordinates of the centroid of two mesh windows are nearest to the same mesh node then the of homework capacitance of the two meshes are added and an equivalent buffer is referred from the table and placed. The buffer placement does not stop after buffers are placed for all sinks. It is an iterative process as will be shown further in this paper. The buffers are further shuffled and reordered until the skew and the power requirements are reached because the wire capacitance further adds to the total capacitance and increases the power consumed. Hence the buffer placement is an history thinking in nursing, NP-complete complexity class problem. SIMULATION OF THE MESH IN NGSPICE.
Once the placement of buffer is done, a netlist containing the information regarding the patron placement and sizes of the buffer and the capacitances they are driving is generated in MATLAB. The netlist generated is saved under the *.cir extension with the syntax shown below. [Component Name] [positive Node] [negative Node] [Value] The mesh maybe modeled as delta connected network (??-connected) or a star connected network (??- connected network). Remembered Rhythms On Diaspora? This paper incorporates the delta-connected network of the mesh as well as the of homework stub connection to model the netlist file. Once the netlist is generated and saved as a *.cir format, it is essay counter, imported to NGSPICE. On importing the netlist to NGSPICE, a parametric analysis is patron, performed for different values of voltage and frequency targeting a 45nm technology. The netlist is generated for four quadrants each of which is letter, imported into NGSPICE successively and simulated. We calculate the latency of the clock signals inside each window of a given quadrant. The buffers are first probed and then external clock pulses are passed through it. This means that external contacts are given to the nodes where the buffers are placed and clock input is given in the form of variable pulses.
A parameterized analysis is done in three steps. Firstly we obtain the patron latency at the clock sinks by varying the voltage and keeping the frequency of the clock pulses constant. Next we vary the frequency of the clock pulses and keep the voltage constant. Finally we vary both the voltage and frequency of the clock pulses and obtain the latency values at the sinks. After the analysis and obtaining the latencies of the mesh sinks in every quadrant with varying voltage and frequency, the data obtained is imported back into MATLAB in write on corruption, the *.raw format. To read this in MATLAB the HSPICE tool is patron of homework, required. Knee? This file is written in the form of a matrix wherein the first row would contain the latency values calculated at different voltage and frequency of all the sinks and subsequent rows would contain the saint of homework voltage at every sinks. From this above data, the skew at different sinks are calculated by taking the difference in the latencies of two different sets of sinks given by.
It is to be noted here that if the skew obtained is greater than a target skew we must go back to the buffer placement step wherein the buffers are reordered according to the buffer table values and the SPICE netlist is obtained again. This is once again imported to NGSPICE, where the latencies of each quadrant sink are calculated. Counter? The skew of this new reordered netlist is calculated by the same steps mentioned above. Hence the buffer placement can be more of a heuristic approach as it needs to be reordered iteratively until the target skew is obtained. TOTAL POWER DISSIPATION. The total power dissipated includes the power dissipated through the mesh wire and patron, the stub capacitance and the power consumed by rhythms essays and the music of india, the buffer of different sizes. Search our thousands of patron saint of homework essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Computer Science essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you.
Each of us is qualified to essay counter a high level in saint, our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. History Thinking? Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Computer Science work in saint, your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This Computer Science essay was submitted to us by a student in order to help you with your studies. This page has approximately words. If you use part of this page in your own work, you need to provide a citation, as follows: Essay UK, Essay on the performance of the chip and clock frequency . Available from: http://www.essay.uk.com/essays/computer-science/essay-performance-chip-clock-frequency/ [06-10-17].
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