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It is writing for essays also true what they say: For someone to love you, you have to love yourself. Do what it takes to show yourself that you are worthy of a happy, fulfilling relationship. Whether it's getting into better shape, eating healthier, making new friends, or finally finishing school, do it! Your future self will thank you for it. Thesis Entry Are Closed! 3. Meet people.
I think people sometimes forget that humans are social creatures and that we need to interact with one another. Even the smallest gesture or interaction will satisfy these psychological means. Everyone has them, too. Even the writing cover, loners eventually find other loners to thesis entry are closed be loners with! Volunteer, join/start a book club, take a class, talk to people in on corruption in india, the grovery store and ask for recipes, talk to your parents, your waiter, and meet their friends. You will start meeting so many people it will make it easy to make new friends.
Remember not to thesis comments overwhelm yourself with all these new people. People have a way of weeding themselves out of our life so you don't have to, and the ones that stick around are the people you want anyway, so everything works out. Get out of your comfort zone! Even the smallest comment about anything in the environment can open the gate for a free-flowing conversation! Some people love to talk and will talk to anyone. I learned this firsthand. And it will greatly increase your confidence when you see it for yourself. One of the best books that I have read on this subject is Always Talk to essay questions for the Strangers (shown in Amazon.com capsule on right) . 4. Be proactive. Most people take a passive role when it comes to love. I think of thesis entry, it as a numbers game; if you are moving about in circles of people like you (same interests, values, etc.) the chances of letters for retail jobs, you meeting someone compatible with you grow exponentially.
I say exponentially because through every new person you may meet 3 more people -so meet 3 new people and that potentially means that you could meet 12 people total. And then those new people may introduce more! It is a chain reaction. I don't like the idea of thesis on this are closed, sitting back and waiting for something to happen. Leonardo da Vinci said, People of accomplishment rarely sat back and do my paper in india, let things happen to them, they went out and happened to things. This is the attitude that I agree to take with love. But for some, it is good enough to sit back and wait to see what the on this entry, current on life brings.
5. Be patient. You will need to show patience and master's, don't be discouraged if the first few dates or potential mates don't measure it. I have been single for almost 2 years now, and there is entry no prospect in the horizon, but that can always change! The best part is that it only takes one person to writing letters change your world and make everything else make sense. All the incompatible people from your dating history will not matter when you find a keeper. And there are plenty of keepers out thesis entry, there, trust me. The idea of there being a perfect for degree canada someone is a nice thought, but statistically impossible.
There is thesis comments on this are closed probably no one that matches you on every interest and level, but would you want that anyway? It may be boring. There are many people that you are compatibles in different dimensions like sense of humor, activities, books, politics, and family values. 6. Be truly open with the possibility of falling in love. I know a lot of people with issues they carry from paper in india past relationships. This is comments on this entry hard to recognize and admit for some people but can make or break the next relationship. If you are still fearful/hurt/angry/in love with the last relationship you had, you need to take time from the battlefield of love to a essay on corruption heal your wounds and get your psychological self in order again. Remember that what happened with the last relationships does not dictate what happens with the new ones- YOU DO. They are not the same people.
I have seen some of the relationships with the best potential gone down the thesis entry, drain because of a person's baggage from the last. This is also a two-way street: don't lead people on, purposefully hurt them, or cheat on them. This usually makes them jaded and makes it hard for them to trust again. Essay Questions Breadwinner! If you notice a pattern on are closed your past relationships, probably a link of reasons of why they are now past relationships, don't ignore them -explore them! Write about them, talk about them -anything to do my paper in india help you learn better for the next.
For example if you tend to go for comments the bad/dangerous type but always seem to get your heart broken, try dating other personality types. You may pleasantly surprised. Also this is a great way to get to master's degree creative know yourself: what you like and don't like in a person/date/situation/etc. 1. Comments Entry! Keep your feet on the ground and don't illusion yourself. At the letters, same time, enjoy the magic of thesis on this entry are closed, chemistry two human beings can create with one another. Stay realistic but hopeful. This is a perfect balance, just like in nature, and on corruption in india, can be difficult to comments on this entry accomplish. Questions For The Breadwinner! Luckily you have your friends and family to help keep you in thesis comments entry, perspective. Have them meet your partner and give you their honest opinion about them and if they are a good match for you. This is a priceless opinion because no one knows you better than your friends and family, plus they have an objective view.
You may be looking at them through the rose-colored glasses that love binds to your eyes. 2. Keep your individuality. This does not mean to be by techniques, yourself most of the entry are closed, time. It means to keep doing the things you want to do, even if your are in a relationship. If you love watching history documentaries, keep doing it! This is an opportunity for you and your partner. A Essay On Corruption! You will get to see if they like the same things as well as how they will react when you keep doing what you love. If they are loving and supportive great, but if not, that may be a red flag of trouble ahead. The ideal situation is thesis comments on this that you both can do the same things you like together.
But some alone time is also healthy. Origami History! If there is not much you enjoy doing together, there may not be more than the physical attraction holding you two together. Not always, but sometimes this is the case. 3. Thesis Comments Entry Are Closed! Keep your options open. Never settle for less than what you deserve. If this person matches everything you've been wanting in in india, a person, GREAT! But if there are doubts in your mind, remember that there is thesis comments are closed no need for a commitment right away! If things were meant to work out with you and your partner, they will. And if it ends because of something you or they did, it is probably for the best. Actions and feelings don't lie.
Never stay in a relationship just because you don't want to be alone. You were born with everything you need, and you've made some good friends since then, so you don't need anyone to validate your existence. This article was conceived during a discussion about love with great friends. It will be continued to essay questions breadwinner be revised as needed and please feel free to read my other logic-oriented articles. Thanks for reading!
Confusing Love With Obsession? Know the Warning Signs. by John Hollywood 9. Thesis Comments Entry! How People Fall Into and Out of Love. by John Coviello 18. Letters For Retail Jobs! How to Write a Romantic Love Letter for Your Wife or Girlfriend. by Sadie Holloway 0. Confusing Love With Obsession? Know the Warning Signs. by John Hollywood 9. Feeling Unloved? What Your Feelings Might Mean and How to thesis comments entry Cope. by Stephanie Hicks 112. How to Write a Love Letter a Man Will Appreciate. by Becki Rizzuti 20. Samantha Erickson 7 months ago.
True love is like love is in the air when you met your special someone , out there in writing techniques for essays, the entire world and you are waiting for thesis comments entry are closed your special someone to come to you. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners. Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners. HubPages ® is a registered Service Mark of HubPages, Inc. HubPages and Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on this page based on affiliate relationships and advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and others.
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New Comments Are Closed Filter Hooks for Thesis 1 7 - SEO Mofo
English 245: Film Form and Culture. Sound in the Opening Montage. “This is the entry are closed, end…” Actually, just the write, beginning, of Apocalypse Now . In class, I showed the opening scene of the film but didn’t say much about thesis on this are closed it. That’s because it’s a very well-known – and brilliant – use of sound in the film. It functions as an unconventional overture, as it introduces not only Captain Willard, the main character, but also some of the major themes in the film. Let me focus on the song for a moment. The song you hear on the soundtrack during the opening montage is “The End” by The Doors. Why a song about the end at the beginning of the film? Because it indicates the end of Captain Willard’s illusions about the war, and the end of America’s illusions as well.
The film was made in 1979, four years after the Vietnam War ended, and it was a bitter, soul-searching time – what President Jimmy Carter infamously called a time of “malaise” in the country. The United States had lost a war for the first time in its history; it’s technological prowess and superiority had been bested by write a essay on corruption a rag-tag communist liberation army. This opening scene is much more about 1979 than 1969 (around the time the film is set). If the director Francis Ford Coppola had chosen a different song, even a different song by The Doors, the effect and entry, the message would have been quite different. I should note that the film came out before popular music (rather than a composed score) became the norm for techniques for essays, movie soundtracks. This innovation in Apocalypse Now suggests that Coppola chose the song for the way it helped communicate the deeper meaning of his film. In your textbook, the authors write about the “use of sound to indicate character subjectivity” (236). They also mention that “often diegetic music reveals character traits” (237). All this is true of the use of the song at the beginning of Apocalypse Now . Thesis Comments On This? It takes us inside the boozy head of Willard in the hotel room. It reveals to us what Willard is thinking, in writing cover jobs all it surreal contours.
We hear other sounds mediated through Willard’s subjectivity in thesis entry this scene, such as the origami essay, distorted sound of a ceiling fan, which turns into the distorted sound of helicopter blades – the ubiquitous sound we hear throughout the film, and throughout most Vietnam War films (Korean War films too, such as Robert Altman’s M.A.S.H. ). Thesis Comments Entry Are Closed? These are sounds that Willard is degree creative writing canada, hearing. The fact that the sound is distorted tells us it’s coming from Willard’s subjective viewpoint. So, just as camera shots can be subjective (such as the shot of the reflection of the snow-globe at the beginning of Citizen Kane ), so too can sounds. One of the best ways to thesis on this entry, use sound to get into questions for the, the head of characters is the voice-over. As you know, there is thesis comments entry, plenty of origami, that in Apocalypse Now . Thesis Comments On This Entry Are Closed? The very first line that Willard utters in voice-over signals the unconventional use of this device in the film: “Saigon. Shit. . Techniques? . . Still in entry are closed Saigon.” In this one line, heard alongside the music of a marching band outside the window, Willard not only swears, but shows his utter revulsion in do my paper regards to comments on this are closed, the war, while at the same time showing that he can’t wait to get back to the jungle.
Like a lot of origami history, soldiers in Vietnam, and elsewhere in other wars, Willard hates the war but is lost and unmotivated without it. It gives his life meaning. I think you would agree with me (and disagree with the script-writing guru Robert McKee [of Adaptation ]) that, in Apocalypse Now , the voice-over is comments on this, vital, not only for presenting vital information about character and history essay, plot, but for taking us inside the comments on this are closed, head of the lead character, revealing to us his subjective take on the insanity of war. This is the famous scene where the cowboy-surfer Colonel Kilgore bombs a Vietnamese village “back to the Stone Age,” destroying a village in order to degree creative writing canada, save it. Thesis? He provides a soundtrack for his bombing raid: “The Ride of the Valkyries,” from a Richard Wagner opera. Your textbook authors explain: The choice of music is an intertextual reference to [D. W. Griffiths’s film] The Birth of a Nation , whose original score featured Wagner’s music accompanying the Ku Klux Klan’s triumphant charge.
Moreover, the choice of Wagner here is a historical reference to German fascism, as Adolf Hitler admired Wagner’s music and the composer’s anti-Semitic writing. (260). As the textbook authors note, there is parallel sound editing in this scene, as the choppers blaring Wagner alternate with shots of a quiet village, where only the sound of children can be heard, and then a relatively soft alarm bell. The sound of the loud choppers and music slowly builds in the shots of the quiet village, creating a sense of dread. The textbook authors explain that. The abrupt movement from loud to write a essay on corruption, soft shifts the audience’s identification, so that the excitement audiences might otherwise share with the thesis on this entry are closed, soldiers onscreen gives way to origami history, empathy for the villagers. Sound editor Walter Murch’s manipulation of comments are closed, volume in this scene puts audiences in the position of the essay, attacked, as well as the attacker. (260). This split identification not only defines the audience’s experience, but also the experience of the war on the “home-front,” with the American populace nearly split on the justness of the Vietnam War. The use of sound in this part of the film is thesis on this, also part of a larger sound design in the film, in which periods of quiet alternate with bombastic noise. Characters having to yell over the sound of shooting, bombing, and the cries of the for the, wounded (and the sound of a priest saying mass during the raid, and the sound of a cow being lifted by thesis on this entry a helicopter, etc.) – or use radio or megaphones – is not bad sound design. The noise is an inescapable part of modern, mechanized war. In the first half of the film, the audience is encouraged to identify the do my paper in india, noise with modern American society, and the quiet with rural Vietnam.
It illustrates this statement by your textbook authors: “Because dialogue tends to overwhelm sound effects, those rare moments when sound effects do compete with dialogue are particularly important” (251). In regards to sound in films, if it’s soft and hard to hear, it’s important. The quieter it is on the soundtrack, the harder you should listen. Let me illustrate the sound vs. silence rhythm in Apocalypse Now by focusing on a quiet scene that comes between the loud and disturbing opening montage, and the much louder Air Cavalry scene. Thesis Comments On This Are Closed? This is a scene that I discussed in class, where Willard meets with three men in the private quarters of a general, and is given his mission to essay questions for the breadwinner, kill Colonel Kurtz.
First, there’s the thesis comments entry are closed, background music in the scene (which you really have to origami essay, listen for). It’s what we would call “muzak,” or “easy-listening” music. It defines the general and the scene, in contradistinction to the way noise defines Kilgore and his Air Cavalry. It indicates that the general is thesis comments on this entry are closed, genteel, and a little prissy – or, at the very least, old (at a time when hippies and activists in the counterculture were urging young people “not to trust anyone over questions breadwinner 30”). To emphasize this, we see a number of close-ups of the thesis comments on this, general’s soft hands and fancy eating utensils, not to mention the delicacies they are eating during the questions, scene.
In this scene, we also hear Col. Kurtz for the first time, on thesis comments entry, audio-tape. It’s significant that Kurtz is introduced in the film via sound. Writing For Retail Jobs? It’s even more significant that what we hear are the ramblings of a madman. The tape really represents what the general and his adjutants want to hear. We hear a very different Kurtz later, when he reads from Time Magazine to impress upon the captured Willard that the military establishment is lying to the American people (and suggesting that mainstream publications like Time Magazine have become vehicles of comments on this, war propaganda). It was the “silent partner” that I concentrated on when we discussed this scene in master's degree creative class. The “silent partner,” unlike the thesis entry, other two men, is writing cover letters, wearing civilian clothes. Thesis Comments? He is most likely CIA. He does have one line, and it’s an important one: he says, “terminate with extreme prejudice.” What this basically means is: “do whatever you need to origami history essay, do to kill Kurtz.” With this one line, the CIA officer basically issues the order to WIllard to kill Kurtz.
In this, he shows that he is the real one in charge, even in “mufti” (civilian clothes). This is Coppola’s way of showing that the war was secretly run by are closed the CIA and other clandestine outfits, undermining the on corruption, traditional military command structure. Coppola does this by using soft sounds in the aural mise-en-scene. Thesis On This Entry Are Closed? Kilgore is techniques, bombastic in his conduct of the war, but it is the secretive CIA – the “silent partner” – that really runs things behind the scenes. Silence in comments on this entry the Temple of Horror. Much more could be said about sound in Apocalypse Now , particularly the music on the soundtrack used to define different characters and different scenes . Essay For The Breadwinner? There are a lot of synthesizers on the soundtrack, but they are not used the same way in every scene. Comments On This? The music soundtrack, instead, varies the music for different scenes. Writing Cover Letters Jobs? If you listen closely enough, you’ll hear one theme during battles, another theme when the on this, boat crew is at the French plantation, another theme when the boat crew approaches Kurtz’s compound, etc. For instance, the master's creative writing, Kurtz music is softer, more “Asian” in tone, with flutes and gongs, as opposed to the more dissonant and thesis comments are closed, industrial music heard when the boat crew is on master's degree writing canada, the river.
I also have to point out the thesis on this, brilliant and devastating use of sound in the scene where Clean dies. Writing Cover Letters Jobs? You’ll remember that when Clean was shot he was listening a recording tape sent to him by his mother, and on this are closed, it continues on writing techniques, the soundtrack as the crew on the boat deal with Clean’s death (with the exception of thesis comments are closed, Lance, who is more concerned with the missing puppy). We hear his mother say, basically, don’t get shot and on corruption in india, come back to us in one piece, while the thesis, dead, shot Clean lies on the deck of the writing for essays, boat. For the rest of this entry I would like to focus on the use of thesis on this entry, silence in essay the second half of the film. The first half of on this entry are closed, Apocalypse Now is much louder than the second, since the first half is set in war-zones and much of the second half is set in do my paper in india Kurtz’s compound in thesis on this entry the Buddhist temple. But I don’t want you to come to the conclusion that you, as a viewer, are meant to hate the American military establishment and the war (because it’s noisy), and sympathize with Kurtz (because he, and his temple, are relatively quiet). Rather, as in the scene in the general’s quarters, we should be suspicious of the quiet, because some people do terrible things under the master's writing canada, cover of silence. Case in point, Colonel Kurtz. Kurtz is a soft-spoken man who is thesis comments are closed, drawn to the contemplative quiet of the Buddhist temple where he resides. There he can read his poetry (mostly T. S. Eliot) in peace.
He is also prone to long rambling, one-sided philosophical discussions with Willard, who barely says a word while he is Kurtz’s “guest.” The nameless photojournalist, played by Dennis Hopper (“Jordy” Jr. in Giant ) constantly expresses his inability to articulate things the way Kurtz can. Questions? “I wish I had the words…” he says at one point. Thesis Are Closed? But inarticulation is history, also one of Kurtz’s preoccupations. During one of his monologues, Kurtz says: “Words can’t describe what is ‘necessary’ to those who don’t know what horror is.” Kurtz knows what horror is, and he knows it can’t be suppressed by silence. Thesis Entry? In fact, the horror whispers in the shadows of the compound. For instance, often times on the soundtrack you can hear flies buzzing. These are the flies that are feeding on the many corpses littering Kurtz’s compound. Master's Writing? The silence can’t block out the flies; instead, the silence makes the sound audible. Thesis Comments Are Closed? You would never be able to hear the flies during the battle scenes in the film.
Nor would you notice them if, instead, the for retail jobs, soundtrack played up the thesis on this entry are closed, cries of the essay, dead and dying in the compound. That would have been too obvious: it is the horror in the silence that Coppola wants us to hear. Eventually we come to realize that the quiet in the Buddhist temple is comments on this entry are closed, anything but peaceful. Writing Cover Jobs? It is part of Kurtz’s insane tyranny: he commands it. That’s why the people are so quiet there.
It’s one of the first things the viewer (or rather hearer) notices when Willard, in the boat, arrives at Kurtz’s compound. There are lots of entry, people there on the dock and the shore, but none of them utters a sound. In fact, they scatter when the quiet is disturbed by the boat’s siren. They’re inarticulate because they are not allowed to speak. Similarly, when Willard finally kills Kurtz, and exits the temple, he is origami history, greeted by a large, utterly silent, crowd.
Willard is the new chief, the new tyrant. Willard might be seduced by this deceptive silence, knowing that it’s a accoutrement of command and power, but instead he rejects it. He will instead return to the noisy, messy world. Apocalypse Now ends with Kurtz’s dying words: “the horror, the comments, horror.” They are whispered, barely heard, which is writing, appropriate since it is in the quiet that the horror manifests itself. That is, the film suggests that it’s the silence that brings out comments on this entry a person’s inner demons, not the bombast of war. War and its horrors are represented by origami history more than bombs bursting and voices booming over megaphones.
War is also represented – or cloaked – by quiet, by thesis comments on this are closed whispered conversations in silent temples, even by poetry. In the end, that’s what the Vietnam War means to letters for retail jobs, Coppola; it has infiltrated, even colonized, the silent interstices of the mind. Never again will war be known only by the sounds of explosions. It will also be known by the softer sounds of implosions, of minds going slowly mad. University of thesis comments on this entry are closed, Maryland. The Male Gaze in Alfred Hitchcock’s Psycho. Last week in class I mentioned that I planned to write a blog entry comparing Hitchcock’s Psycho with Michael Powell’s Peeping Tom , which came out the same year (1960). Like Psycho , Peeping Tom is a story about a psychopathic serial killer. I also mentioned that the reception of the two films was radically different. Hitchcock’s had a huge commercial and writing letters for retail, critical success with his film, whereas Powell’s film was a commercial flop and a critical disaster. Powell was practically “blacklisted” in movies for years afterward.
The purpose of my blog entry was to comments on this entry are closed, figure out why these two films did so differently in the movie theaters and in movie reviews. I have some ideas in this direction, but I decided that this was too much to take on right now. The Peeping Tom with his camera. I do want to write something on do my, Psycho , by itself, in relation to thesis comments on this are closed, what is called “the Male Gaze.” According to Glen Johnson, “the Male Gaze” (or “The Gaze”) is. a concept introduced by Laura Mulvey (“Visual Pleasure Narrative Cinema,” 1975) to characterize cinema as an instrument of male spectatorship. Classical cinema produces images of writing cover jobs, women reflecting male sexual fantasies. Thesis On This Entry? Mulvey went so far as to essay, suggest that the cinematic apparatus (the camera, as well as darkened theaters and other viewing practices) is coded as male. Feminist critics frequently consider filmic point of view (including reaction shots, showing who gets to look) as an indication of power or control within the movie.
Bob Bednar adds that Mulvey’s. essay outlines an idea about the “male gaze” in which men have the power to thesis comments on this, actively look upon passive female bodies. Women became objectified objects, symbols of castration with no agency or power. Cinema functions within in this by allowing women to always be on display for techniques, the male viewer. Thesis Comments? Obviously, this idea is problematic, for not all viewers of film are male, and not all females are represented as simply something scopophilic. Still, Mulvey’s idea about the in india, male gaze has some validity to it, which we find in Hitchcock’s films.
Simply put, the thesis comments on this entry are closed, Male Gaze refers to the idea that the point of writing techniques, view in Hollywood films is male, and that women are usually presented on screen for the sexual pleasure of men. Mulvey builds a whole Freudian, psychoanalytic apparatus around this, but I will spare you the details (you can go ahead and read it here, if you like). In my online research, I found quite a few articles on Hitchcock and the Male Gaze (as well as a few student blogs!). This is thesis comments are closed, not surprising, given that Hitchcock’s Rear Window is Mulvey’s textbook example of the Male Gaze at work. Other critics have examined the Male Gaze in other films by Hitchcock. This includes Psycho . (Besides Rear Window and Psycho , other Hitchcock films that have been studied in terms of the Male Gaze are Vertigo and Notorious ). The gist of many of these studies (including Mulvey’s) is that Hitchcock was a misogynist (someone who hates women) who exploited women for fun and profit. Scottie, with his camera, in Rear Window . For instance, in The Women Who Knew Too Much: Hitchcock and Feminist Theory , Tania Modleski describes how. in Film Studies, Hitchcock is often viewed as the archetypal misogynist, who invites his audience to indulge their most sadistic fantasies against the female. Writing Techniques? Some critics have even argued that Hitchcock’s work is prototypical of the extremely violent assaults on comments entry are closed, women that make up so much of our entertainment today. . . . As might be expected, such films are usually thought to appeal largely to males; women, it is claimed, can enjoy such films only by assuming the position of ‘masochists’. Rape and violence, it would appear, effectively silence and subdue not only the woman in the films – the one who would threaten patriarchal law and order through the force of her anarchic desires – but also the women watching the films: female spectators and female critics. (17).
But some critics, including feminist critics, refuse to damn Hitchcock as an inveterate woman-hater. The iconoclastic feminist cultural critic Camille Paglia (who wrote about Hitchcock in her controversial book Sexual Personae , and wrote a study of Hitchcock’s The Birds for the British Film Institute), said in a 1999 interview: From the techniques for essays, moment feminism began to thesis comments entry are closed, solidify its ideology in the early ’70s, Hitchcock became a whipping boy for feminist theory. I’ve been very vocal about my opposition to the simplistic theory of “the male gaze” that is associated with Laura Mulvey (and that she herself has moved somewhat away from) and writing for retail, that has taken over feminist film studies to a vampiric degree in the last 25 years. The idea that a man looking at comments are closed, or a director filming a beautiful woman makes her an object, makes her passive beneath the male gaze which seeks control over woman by turning her into mere matter, into “meat” – I think this was utter nonsense from the start. . . . It was an a priori theory: First there was feminist ideology, asserting that history is nothing but male oppression and female victimization, and then came this theory – the “victim” model of feminism applied wholesale to works of culture. I agree with Paglia that Psycho is not the film of a misogynist; quite the contrary. But the basis of paper, my defense is not feminist theory, but rather film theory. Let’s call it the “Self-Awareness Defense” (Note: Self-reflexivity, a term you’ve been introduced to and which will be important in the second half of the on this, course, is a term quite similar to “self-awareness”). That is, Hitchcock knows what he is doing, and he makes sure the viewer knows what he’s doing.
Hitchcock doesn’t leer at women in his films, neither does he encourage other viewers to leer; he instead exposes the machinery of misogyny, the workings of the Male Gaze, to the viewer. We can test my “Self-Awareness” thesis by looking at Psycho . The partially-clothed Marion Crane is degree, often on display in are closed Psycho . And she is origami, often watched by men. Travis Carr writes that. Before main character Marion Crane even reaches the Bates Motel she is being watched; she is questioned and then followed all the way to Los Angeles by a far-too-diligent cop after spending the thesis, night in her car on the side of an paper in india, isolated desert road. Comments On This Entry? The scenes involving the do my paper in india, cop are fairly obvious in their voyeuristic qualities, with the comments entry, cop intently watching Marion from across the street as she hurriedly buys a used car. But Marion was being watched even before that. In the opening scene, the long pan/zoom shot, the camera creeps into the window of a bedroom, the hotel room where Marion and Sam are having their tryst. Origami Essay? But making it seem so obvious, with the camera acting like a “peeping tom,” Hitchcock draws attention to it. He is self-aware about it, which means he tries to make the viewer aware of it.
Evangeline Spachis also notices that. throughout the first half of the thesis comments are closed, narrative, Marion Crane is the subject of a number of gazes, from the leering Mr. A Essay In India? Cassidy in the office, to the suspicious Police Officer and ultimately by Norman Bates. These gazes are represented both technically (camera angles, point of shot) and by thesis on this are closed the script and writing cover letters jobs, the representation of the characters. A number of critics, Spachis included, dwell upon the police officer: As a viewer who knows of Marion’s activities, we . Thesis Comments? . Degree Creative? . feel he is being overly invasive and therefore implicates us in the crime also.
The dark, opaque sunglasses the officer wears seem intrusive, aggressive and block the comments entry, viewer (and Marion) a chance to interpret his character via his eyes. In large part because of the writing techniques, sunglasses, the film viewer never really takes on the point of view of the police officer in this scene. The viewer doesn’t see what the police officer sees, but rather sees the thesis entry, police officer seeing. That is, Hitchcock shows us the officer leering – he exposes him – rather than let us share the officer’s leering point of view. This is another example of how Hitchcock is self-aware in breadwinner Psycho . The parlor scene is entry are closed, another example. There is a lot of looking and being watched in this scene. Spachis describes the a essay on corruption in india, scene: The parlor room in which they have lunch is filled with Norman’s stuffed birds, many frozen in full flight indicating perhaps the thesis comments on this are closed, action of capture and the bird’s all-seeing point of view on its prey.
Norman’s declaration to Marion: “You, you eat like a bird” reinforces the interpretation that Norman has an ‘eagle-eye’ view of Marion. Spachis reads the stuffed birds as extensions of Norman’s Male Gaze. But the Male Gaze becomes much more pertinent at writing cover for retail, the end of the scene, when Marion leaves and Norman peeks at her as she prepares to take her fateful shower. Thesis Entry Are Closed? Carr writes: After Marion leaves the parlor for her room, Norman watches her through a peep hole in do my the wall, the camera zooming in on his eye. This time, though, what Norman gazes upon is far more overtly sexual than anything previously; he watches Marion undress and prepare for a shower, and when the camera assumes the viewpoint of thesis entry, Norman the audience itself becomes an objectifying voyeur. The importance of this “peeping tom” moment is that we see that it is a “peeping tom” moment. Hitchcock makes sure we see it. Norman spies on Marion through a peep-hole hidden behind a painting. The light from Marion’s room illuminates Norman’s eye in profile nearing closer to the hole in the wall. The camera shifts to Norman’s point of view and instantly implicates the viewer in the voyeurism.
We are both shocked at his invasion of on corruption in india, her privacy and yet cannot turn away. Spying on Marion getting undressed invites us to witness the cause of Norman’s arousal and comments on this entry, the manifestation of his desire from behind a wall – forever kept apart from any possible sexual gratification. Origami History Essay? Moments later, the famous shower scene occurs. For both Carr and Spachis, the shot of Norman peeping at Marion implicates the on this, viewer as voyeur. Hitchcock is saying: “Look, you’re a voyeur too!” When you watch this kind of scene, and find pleasure in do my paper it, you are participating in a patriarchal system that treats women like sex objects. Alan Vanneman suggests something similar: For the fourth time, with Norman’s assistance, we will spy on Marion in a bedroom.
We are complicit with Norman here, thankful that he lets us see Marion undressed once more (though angry when he blocks our view). The extraordinary close-up of Norman’s eye, filling the comments on this are closed, screen, reminds us of the watchful camera (the first entrance into Sam and Marion’s hotel room, the for retail, tracking shots of the envelope stuffed with cash and the suitcase) and the relentless eyes of thesis comments on this entry are closed, Mr. Cassidy and the state trooper. I would just like to re-iterate something that Vanneman mentions: the writing letters for retail, viewer has seen Marion in a bedroom, in various stages of dress, three times before Norman peeks at her through the wall. During those three other times, we just accepted that we were watching Marion in the bedroom. We didn’t notice we were watching. But now, after we have briefly taken on Norman’s point of thesis on this entry, view as we peeped Marion, being in a bedroom is no longer innocent. Essay Questions For The Breadwinner? We are aware of what it means now.
Then there is the famous shower scene, when Norman in comments entry the guise of his mother attacks Marion with a knife. Some critics read this scene as the epitome of the Male Gaze, and see Norman’s attack as a pseudo-rape. Carr writes that this scene, all rapid cuts and write on corruption in india, screams, goes so far as to visualize the violent scopophilic rape that Laura Mulvey discussed in her article “Visual Pleasure and thesis on this entry are closed, Narrative Cinema”. It is an onscreen manifestation of the male’s desire to “rape” the a essay on corruption, female, and Marion’s murder (in which the audience is forced to, at times, assume the role of the murderer himself) is tantamount to that. On a side note, after her death, the on this, camera zooms in on her lifeless eye, furthering the notion of the gaze. Modleski argues that the shower scene is “an opportunity for the presumed male audience to see their deep-set sadistic desires played out on screen. This idea is emphasised in Laura Mulvey’s famous article ‘Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema’ (1975). Master's Degree Creative Writing? . . . If this scene was in reverse (as in, the camera viewpoint was from Marion’s perspective) the effectiveness of the scene would be lost.” Spachis notes all the thesis entry are closed, “allusions to the voyeuristic eye” in the scene: the cover letters, shower-head, the drain, Marion’s dead eye. Vanneman claims that. the brilliance of the scene is that it keeps us relentlessly in the very middle of a horrifying event – we feel as if we are seeing “everything,” far more than we want to see – without ever becoming merely sadistic or gruesome. To a very great extent the violence is implied, though we certainly have no sense of censorship.
In part, we are caught between two desires, the desire to see the naked body of a beautiful woman (Hitchcock has been teasing us with this for the whole film), and the desire not to see a brutal murder. But Hitchcock won’t give us the one without the other. But it’s not just a matter of Hitchcock making the viewer pay for are closed, his or her desire by forcing the him or her to witness a murder. Writing Jobs? It’s that he makes us witness a murder to show us the end result of desire. Are Closed? Hitchcock is self-aware about writing watching in the shower scene, and if the viewer follows his lead, the viewer will become aware too.
He ruins our enjoyment for the sake of a greater awareness of the way men, in particular, objectify women when watching films. The basic premise of what I’m arguing is that if Hitchcock were a vehicle for the Male Gaze, he would not be so obvious about it, pointing it out to thesis comments on this entry are closed, the viewing audience; he would make the experience of watching women for sexual pleasure seamless and origami essay, invisible. But instead he keeps reminding the viewer of entry are closed, what they are watching, how they are watching, and, to some extent, why they are watching. Hitchcock is self-aware so that we might be aware. If all this is still a little blurry, don’t worry. We’ll be talking much more about self-awareness in film in the second half of the course. University of Maryland. Bob Bednar, “Mulvey”, Alfred Hitchcock: A Visual Analysis (a website for COM 783: Visual Communication, a class at Southwestern University) Travis Carr, “Voyeurism the Male Gaze in Psycho (1960)”, Yahoo! Voices : Glen Johnson, “Feminist film theory,” MDIA-ENG 451: Hitchcock (course taught at Catholic University of America, Spring 2013) Modleski, Tania, The Women Who Knew Too Much: Hitchcock and Feminist Theory (New York: Methuen, Inc., 1988).
Evangeline Spachis, “Drawing back the shower curtain: Voyeurism in Hitchcock’s ‘Psycho’ (1960)”, Girl on Film (blog): Michael Sragow, “ The Savage Id” (Interview with Camille Paglia), Salon (website): Alan Vanneman, “‘Here’s Lookin’ at You, Kid!’: Alfred Hitchcock and Psycho ,” Bright Lights Film Journal. In your textbook, in the chapter on editing, there are a couple examples of editing in Psycho (there’s also an essay, at the end of the chapter, on editing in Alfred Hitchcock’s Notorious ). The first example analyzes the editing in do my the scene set in the parlor of the Bates hotel where Marion Crane gets to know (perhaps a little too much) about the reclusive Norman Bates.
It is an example of how timing in the cuts, and thesis on this entry, alternating camera placement within the cuts, is write a essay in india, significant. At the beginning of the scene, the timing and the camera angles, in the shot/reverse shot sequence, are fairly conventional. But as the conversation between Marion and Norman gets darker, the thesis comments are closed, timing changes to show emotional responses by both Marion and degree canada, Norman, and the camera angles become more distorted and disturbing. The second instance of editing in comments Psycho mentioned in the textbook is the short sequence that shows the murder of the private investigator, Arbogast, at the knife-wielding hands of Norman – or rather, Norman’s mother. Writing Techniques For Essays? This is an example of collage – encouraging “the audience to compare and contrast the cinematographic qualities of each shot” ( Film: A Critical Introduction 193).
The scene begins with a shot from high above the action, in the stair landing on the second floor, and then cuts to a close up of Arbogast, as he is being stabbed, and falling backwards down the stairs. The textbook authors quote Hitchcock himself to explain the significance of the editing here: The main reason for raising the camera [to an overhead shot] was to get the contrast between the thesis comments entry, long shot and the close-up of the big head as the knife came down on cover jobs, him. It was like music, you see, the high shot with the violins and suddenly the big head with the brass instruments clashing. The textbook authors say, of this quote, that it “suggests how the comments, director was acutely aware of the way abrupt changes in origami history essay camera positioning can evoke an emotional response.” The juxtaposition of shots also shows how editing gives the audience an opportunity to compare/contrast the distinctive mise-en-scene, and cinematography, of on this are closed, single shots cut together. Like the other formal film elements we’ve discussed in essay questions breadwinner class, editing usually works in conjunction with other formal film elements. The textbook authors don’t discuss Hitchcock’s use of the same overhead shot – though much more drawn out – a little later in thesis entry are closed the film when Norman carries his mother down-stairs. Since there isn’t a cut to something else, in this case, it would seem that Hitchcock was more than just trying to juxtapose two shots for aesthetic effect.
Hitchcock was also interested in do my in india distancing, and on this entry, disorienting, the in india, viewer, as he often does with his cinematography and editing. I should also mention that, in terms of cinematography, the shot of Arbogast falling down the comments entry, stairs is distinctive. It is an example of the origami history essay, “trombone” shot that Hitchcock made famous in Vertigo . Thesis On This Entry Are Closed? This unsettling shot involves focusing in on an object at the same time that the camera is moved backwards, or vice versa. It is writing techniques, optically confusing and causes discomfort and misapprehension in thesis entry the audience. (We see the same trombone shot, reversed, when Arbogast is history essay, walking up the thesis comments entry are closed, stairs.) In class, I showed you a few other instances of editing in Psycho . I began with the establishing shot at the beginning of the film, which is actually a number of zoom shots edited together, transporting the viewer into the hotel room where Sam and Marion have just finished having sex (it is implied). The shot/reverse shot editing in the hotel room show the intimacy between the two, before they begin discussing the difficult dilemma they are in (she has no money, and Sam has no money because of alimony payments, so they can’t get married), at do my paper in india, which point the comments are closed, shot/reverse shot shows distance between them. Degree Writing Canada? I will have more to say about the thesis are closed, intrusive camera in this scene, in another post.
Then I showed you an example of an eye-line match cut, in the scene where Marion is deciding whether she will steal the money, or not. Throughout the scene, the editing shows Marion glancing nervously at paper in india, the money, undecided but certainly tempted. Eventually, she decides to take the money; and thesis comments on this entry are closed, this sets up the most prominent “McGuffin” in the film (a McGuffin is a plot element that forwards the plot, though often misleading the audience as to the true direction of the plot, becoming a “red herring”). Then we looked at the sequence in which Marion flees Phoenix in her car, with the stolen money. Initially the writing techniques for essays, shot/reverse shot builds suspense by quick cutting between a distressed Marion and an obscured view of thesis comments entry are closed, a rain-drenched road.
Once Marion decides to stop her car at the side of the road to sleep, the editing slows significantly. Then we have the tense shot/reverse shot of creative, Marion and the policeman in sun-glasses, in comments on this entry are closed which camera angles are important: the policeman is degree creative writing canada, seen in an extreme close up shot from thesis on this entry a low angle, which, along with the fact that we can’t see his eyes, makes him an ominous figure. Meanwhile, we see Marion in medium close up from in india a high angle shot, which makes her look smaller compared to the policeman. This sequence is followed by another series of tense shot/reverse shots, as Marion drives down the road followed by the policeman. We see Marion, again distressed, with the police car behind her in the shot; and then, to emphasize Marion’s anxiety, the thesis comments are closed, camera cuts to shots of the police car in the rear-view mirror. I would have been deficient as a film professor if, in class, I hadn’t discussed the editing of the famous shower scene in Psycho . When we went over it in class, I demonstrated (by counting) how the do my paper in india, thirty or so cuts we see, once Marion steps into comments on this are closed, the shower, creates a sense of frenetic action and a feeling of disorientation in the audience, due to in india, the dizzying array of multiple camera angles and the variety of zooms (close-up, extreme close up). Let me add that, as the camera usually has a point of view, the editing in this scene subtly forces the audience to take on Norman’s crazed point of view. Thesis Are Closed? The frenetically-paced and confusing editing in the shower scene is by master's creative now quite common in horror and suspense films, but when Hitchcock did it, it was new and somewhat controversial. There are a couple other instances of editing in Psycho that I should mention. In the scene where Norman is thesis on this, watching Marion’s car – with all of Marion’s effects, including, unbeknownst to write a essay on corruption, Norman, the money Marion stole – the pacing of the editing of the shot/reverse slows down. Instead of creating suspense by speeding up the comments on this, cuts (as in questions breadwinner the scenes where Marion is fleeing with the thesis comments on this entry are closed, money, and in the shower scene), the longer shots in this scene, along with the more leisurely pacing of cuts, give us ample opportunity to see Norman’s anxiety, coupled with relatively long shots of a car that refuses to sink.
In this case, speeding up the cuts would undermine rather than enhance the suspense in the scene. One reason Hitchcock is so methodical and careful in this sequence is that the sinking of the car represents Norman’s psychological repression of the heinous deed that he, not his mother, perpetrated. According to this reading, the swamp represents Norman’s unconscious. While the final shot of the film, showing the car being dragged from the swamp (reversing the shot that shows it sinking), represents Norman’s crime coming to light. Finally, Hitchcock provides us with a good example of origami, parallel editing (cross-cutting) in the scene where Sam and Lila (Marion’s sister) go to thesis entry are closed, the Bates motel to essay questions, investigate. We have shots of Sam talking with Norman, stalling for time, and cross-cuts to Lila seeking Mrs.
Bates in thesis comments are closed the house. This, like much of the editing in the film (and like most instances of a essay on corruption, parallel editing), is done to create suspense. One of the interesting things about the comments, cross-cutting here is that while Sam rather aggressively interrogates Norman, accusing him of writing jobs, killing Marion to steal the thesis comments are closed, $40,000, Lila – by cover letters way of many eyeline-match cuts – finds ample evidence in thesis comments on this the mise-en-scene of Norman’s arrested development and insanity. Cover Jobs? That is, Sam is dead wrong in his approach, while Lila inadvertently gets to the bottom of thesis comments, things, just by closely observing the details in Norman’s home. Happy Halloween from Norman’s mom, three weeks early. Don’t eat too much candy so you can have pearly white teeth like mine!
Citizen Kane and essay breadwinner, Cinematography: Highlights. With it’s use of deep focus, strange shot angles, and impossible crane shots, the cinematography of Citizen Kane is thesis comments entry are closed, justly famous and has been hugely influential. The irony is that cinematographer Gregg Toland’s unsettling and idiosyncratic use of the camera may have been part of the reason why Citizen Kane was not a commercial or critical success when the film was first released. I’ve already posted the notes I took when I was watching the film only for the cinematography. Writing Canada? Here I will elaborate upon some of the more innovative uses of cinematography in Citizen Kane . 1. Snow globe reflection shot (2:40 – 2:46). Coming near the beginning of the film, this is comments on this, one of the more striking shots in the film. Using the broken snow globe that the do my, dying Kane held in his hand, Toland shot the reflection of a nurse entering the room.
It is comments are closed, a bizarre and yet artistic shot that reflects the distorted, subjective POV (point-of-view) of Kane at the moment of his death. 2. Mock newsreel cinematography (3:12 – 12:27). This montage, done in the style of film newsreels (which were shown before most feature presentations at writing canada, the time Citizen Kane was released), has a lot of inventive camera and film work. We see many low angle shots of the thesis comments on this are closed, buildings at Xanadu, Kane’s “pleasure palace.” We also see a couple extreme high-angle plane shots from master's creative writing canada far above Xanadu. Often, when the human figure is featured in comments on this entry are closed the shot, low angles denote the POV of a powerful figure in the frame and, conversely, high angles typically show a dominated figure. But sometimes, as is the case in the mock newsreel, both low and high angle shots are used to highlight something unusually large or extensive (Xanadu and the many things owned by Kane).
Both are used to communicate power. Note also the grainy look of the older film excerpts. This was done intentionally to give these excerpts the look of very old movies, by way of film processing, choice of film stock, and/or scratching the film itself. 3. Crane shot introducing Susan Alexander (14:25 – 14:58). I discussed this shot in class. Though it is made to look like one long crane shot, it is really three crane shots edited together using dissolves. Do My Paper? The famous crane shot in thesis entry are closed Orson Welles’s Touch of Evil is actually just one take, which makes it more impressive than three crane shots edited together (and shows the cover letters for retail jobs, advance of thesis comments entry, camera technology). The Susan Alexander crane shot repeats 1:25:19 – 1:25:36, and, reversed, 1:47:05 – 1:47:12. 4. The relationship of Kane and Thatcher (23:08, 24:48 – 27:15). At 23:08, we have a low-angle shot of Mr Thatcher towering over the boy Kane at his first Christmas in in india New York city.
We then have a montage of different newspaper headlines and the older Thatcher’s response to them; in the final instance of thesis, this, there is a dissolve that takes the viewer to a shot of cover letters, Kane and thesis entry are closed, Thatcher at Kane’s Inquirer office. During the scene, Thatcher cedes the foreground to Kane, and also diminishes in the shot. He begins, once again, by origami history towering over Kane, but by the end of the scene Kane is decidedly taller. Thesis On This? I wrote about figure placement and power dynamics in Giant . Similar dynamics are in play in this scene in for the breadwinner Citizen Kane . 5. Deep focus shot at Kane’s party (40:08 – 45:11). This scene begins with a trick shot that involves cinematography and editing. We see, reflected in a window, the logo of Kane’s rival The New York Chronicle superimposed upon Kane, Leland, and comments on this entry, Bernstein. The camera zooms in on a photograph of the ten “star” journalists working for the Chronicle . For Essays? Then the photograph comes alive and we are taken a couple years into the future when the ten journalists now work for thesis, Kane’s New York Inquirer . In the scene that ensues, at a party for Kane, there are many striking close-ups and deep focus shots. There is one sequence where we have an extreme close-up of Bernstein and Leland singing.
Then we have, from three different angles, a conversation between Bernstein and Leland. Some of these shots show Leland and Bernstein from the front, with Kane reflected in a window. As is often the case with deep focus shots, particularly in techniques Citizen Kane , the figures in entry are closed the foreground discuss the figure in techniques the background (in this case, Leland and comments on this entry are closed, Bernstein are in the foreground discussing Kane in degree writing the background). At one moment, Leland exhales smoke from a cigar and on this are closed, it covers over the figure of Kane in the window. Here the camera suggests Leland’s suspicion (later confirmed) that Kane’s principles are shallow: they are merely smoke and degree writing canada, mirrors. 6. Susan at thesis comments, the opera (1:17:26 – 1:17:31; 1:29:42 – 1:30:32). The scene in which Susan makes her opera debut is played twice in the film, once from Leland’s point of view, and then from Susan’s point of view. In the Leland POV shot, we see Susan on stage from the front, and origami essay, then the camera cranes up until we come to thesis on this are closed, two lowly stagehands high above the action, as Susan sings. One holds his nose to indicate what he (and Leland and just about everybody besides Kane) thinks about Susan’s singing.
When it comes time for Susan to narrate her opera debut, we see her from behind the stage. So, we have a front shot from the audience (Leland) and a back shot from the for essays, wings (Susan), to comments entry, indicate two different points of view. From Susan’s POV, we also get a shot of a shadowy Kane watching from high above the stage. This shows Kane’s dominance of Susan (from her POV). We see a similar shot shortly after this in which a shadowy Kane overshadows Susan (1:34:42). Right before this, there is an writing cover for retail, extraordinary montage (1:34:46 – 1:35:25) showing triple super-impositions of thesis on this entry are closed, newspaper headlines, Susan singing, and stage lights (eventually the stage lights are replaced by Kane). This is certainly creative shot-making, but the effect is due more to editing than cinematography.
7. The reporters come to Xanadu (1:51:18 – 1:56:35). Near the end of the film, when the reporter Thompson interviews Kane’s valet Paul, there is degree, a lot of interesting camera work. On This Entry? First, there is the eternal regression mirror shot that shows a reflection of a reflection of on corruption in india, a reflection ad infinitum of Kane . This summarizes not only Paul’s view of Kane, but also the view of the reporters trying to track down “Rosebud.” The image suggests that Kane is nothing but a series of reflections, without real substance. At the very end of the film, Thompson makes this explicit by saying that Kane is nothing but a jig-saw puzzle with pieces missing. This brings us back to the idea, suggested by thesis entry the fragmented narrative told by five narrators, that Kane is not only unknowing but unknowable. Writing Techniques For Essays? Following the infinite regression shot, there are a number of crane shots, deep focus shots, and zooms that show the huge spaces of Xanadu, filled with “loot,” after Kane’s death. All that is left are his possessions, and some of these – including Kane’s most cherished “junk,” such as his sled – are thrown on the fire. Thesis Comments Are Closed? This suggests the transience of things, which will pass away in time. And when they are gone, the owner will be lost to memory. Though the word Xanadu comes from the poetry of the British Romantic Samuel Taylor Coleridge, another poem by another Romantic poet, Percy Shelley, epitomizes Kane at the end of his life: And on the pedestal these words appear: ‘My name is master's creative writing canada, Ozymandias, King of Kings:
Look on thesis on this entry are closed, my works, ye mighty, and despair!’ Nothing beside remains. Round the decay. Of that colossal wreck, boundless and bare, The lone and techniques, level sands stretch far away’ (“Ozymandias”). University of Maryland. Citizen Kane and Cinematography: Film Viewing Notes. opening: crane shot up to show three different kinds of fence (3 shots edited) (repeated at end, but reversed: 1:56:43 – 1:56:56) opening: succession of shots that get closer and closer to xanadu.
snow globe shot (distorted POV) mock-newsreel cinematography (low angle shot of xanadu, plane shot, grainy film stock, pans, close ups, hand-held camera) crane shot to comments entry are closed, introduce susan alexander 14:25 – 14:58. (repeated 1:25:19 – 1:25:36) (repeated, reversed 1:47:05 – 1:47:12) kane and thatcher (movement foreground to background, low and high angle shots) kane sells newspapers (deep focus) from portait picture of ten journalists to “come alive” shot (Chronicle to Inquirer journalists) Kane’s party (deep focus) leland’s story (double exposure dissolve) kane political rally (long zoom, distance to object, low and high angle shots) leland’s view of opera house (beginning of shot susan from write a essay on corruption in india audience POV, crane shot up) susan’s view of entry, opera house (shot now from backstage, showing change to cover jobs, susan’s POV) kane’s view of susan at opera house (high angle shot) kane towers over susan. montage of thesis comments entry are closed, susan’s opera reviews (triple impositions) susan ill foreground, (deep focus foreground and background – foreground sedative and glass replaced by doctor’s black bag) kane infinite regress mirror shot. closing up xanadu (crane shots, deep focus, distance to objects, zoom out and in) The Controversial Wunderkind Orson Welles.
Before making his first film, Citizen Kane , Orson Welles was already considered something of a boy-wonder, having made a great success on Broadway and on the radio in his early twenties. Welles became a national sensation with his Mercury Theater radio broadcast of H. G. Wells’s The War of the Worlds on Halloween night in writing cover letters 1938. Thesis On This Entry? As a result, Gary Simmons notes, “Welles was almost universally regarded as a precocious and prodigious talent who was given free rein in the making of Citizen Kane —highly unusual at a time when films were largely controlled and shaped by the studio system” (139). In 1939, RKO Pictures courted the 24-year-old wunderkind and offered him a contract to direct films at RKO. Welles’s first project was to be Joseph Conrad’s Heart of Darkness , but this was abandoned when he went over pre-production budget. He was given final cut for Citizen Kane if he didn’t go over budget. This time he didn’t. The film was released according to Welles’s vision. Dennis Bingham argues that Citizen Kane “is the studio era’s outstanding anomaly, the work that subverts the system in almost every way while taking full advantage of the paper, resources of the on this are closed, studio – the first American mainstream art film” (50).
The Ballad of Hearst and Welles. Even before it was finished, the newspaper magnate William Randolph Hearst had heard the rumors swirling around Hollywood that Welles’s forthcoming Citizen Kane was a thinly veiled attack upon Hearst. Hearst very quickly marshaled his considerable forces in order to writing cover letters, destroy the film and Welles himself.Hearst attempted to buy the film negatives and all copies of Citizen Kane so that he could destroy them. He initiated a campaign in his newspapers demonizing the film and Welles. Hearst wouldn’t let his newspapers review Citizen Kane , and comments on this entry, refused to breadwinner, publicize RKO films. It might not have been just a personal vendetta: Hearst’s film production company, Cosmopolitan Pictures, produced the kind of “Great Man” biopics that Welles was parodying with Citizen Kane . All this is discussed in the 1995 documentary film The Battle of Citizen Kane . Largely as a result of Hearst’s opposition, after showing in a few movie theaters in big cities, Citizen Kane was locked up in RKO’s vaults and was unavailable until the late 1950s, only after which it was hailed by critics as one of the thesis on this entry, best films ever made. Since the 1960s, critics have been on the look-out for “Hollywood directors who managed to create interesting and innovative works of film art within the artistic constraints imposed by the studio system. Master's Degree Creative? The studio ‘factory’ was seen to have produced its auteurs against the grain of artistic standardisation and economic regulation” (Street 52). Welles is often consider something of thesis on this entry, a poster child (and cautionary tale) for the Hollywood auteur. The Martyrdom of Orson Welles. It wasn’t just Hearst that had it in for Welles.
In the history of Hollywood film, Welles is considered by some a tragic figure, an artist brought low by his own hubris and the envy of cover jobs, others. For instance, Welles did not have final cut for The Magnificent Ambersons (1942), the film he made after Citizen Kane . After it tested poorly in previews, largely because the ending was thought to be depressing, Welles’s producers at thesis on this, RKO cut an hour out writing of the film and thesis comments on this are closed, tacked on a happy ending. They also destroyed the footage they removed so that the film could not be reconstructed. This was done while Welles was in Brazil shooting a documentary. Many – Welles among them – consider this as the beginning of the cover for retail, end of Welles’s Hollywood career. He made most of his subsequent films outside of the United States, on shoe-string budgets, the money coming largely from his acting fees. There is good reason to believe that Welles the thesis on this entry, auteur was destroyed by the Hollywood studio system. This was because, according to techniques for essays, David Thomson, he was “a young man who intended to defy Hollywood, and on this, who could have spelled out why its factory was as bad for critical thinking and for the breadwinner, progress as the thesis entry are closed, New York Inquirer [Kane’s newspaper in do my paper Citizen Kane ). Welles was revolutionary and self-destructive, and he would be adopted by the many cultural anxieties that perceived Hollywood as a rotten place and a delusion” (45). Best Ever? Not Even the Best of thesis comments, 1941. For many film viewers and critics, it is a terrible scandal that Citizen Kane , supposedly the Greatest Film Ever Made, did not win the Academy Award for Best Picture (or many Academy Awards at all) in 1941.
Instead, the Academy awarded the Best Picture Oscar to How Green Was My Valley , a film adaptation of a British novel about Welsh coal miners, directed by John Ford (he didn’t just do film westerns). In retrospect, critics generally think Ford’s film was fine, but not the earth-shaking aesthetic statement that was Citizen Kane . But there are other reasons, besides artistic merit, that films are awarded a Best Picture Oscar. Often times, the Academy voters want to send a message, often a social message. The message in this case was a vote of confidence and solidarity with Great Britain, which was at that time barely fighting off Adolf Hitler and history, the Nazis in thesis comments on this are closed Europe. And the Award for the Greatest Film Ever Goes To… As already mentioned, between its run in 1941 and the mid-1950s, few people had seen Citizen Kane . Once RKO allowed it to be re-released and available for television syndication – and essay, particularly after French critics got a hold of it – Citizen Kane quickly rose to the top of critics’ lists. According to the influential Sight and Sound poll, taken every ten years, Citizen Kane was the Greatest Film Ever Made, for forty straight years. But last year (2012) Citizen Kane fell to thesis comments on this, the second spot in writing techniques for essays the poll. It was bested by comments are closed Alfred Hitchcock’s Vertigo . This is write a essay on corruption in india, what the comments on this are closed, British Film Institute (BFI), publishers of Sight and Sound magazine and the Sight and Sound poll, says about Citizen Kane: The use of write on corruption, deep-focus photography (keeping both foreground and background in focus) and abstracted camera angles, the non-chronological narrative structure and overlapping dialogue, were just some of the on this entry are closed, myriad formal innovations that Welles brought together for his groundbreaking debut.
Such novelty and controversy proved a curse for Welles, whose career never enjoyed such indulgence again. They also mention that the film goes “after the dark heart of the American dream.” And here is what BFI says about Vertigo : This classic from the master of suspense was so poorly received upon release that Alfred Hitchcock later withdrew it from distribution for several years. Its reputation has since grown and it is creative, now widely regarded as Hitchcock’s finest film, a haunting examination of male desire memorably filmed in real San Francisco locations. . . . Vertigo succeeds as a hallucinatory fable about the traps of desire. Thesis Comments? A thriller of dreamlike allure, it’s whipped to dizzying heights by essay questions Bernard Herrmann’s Wagner-influenced score. The displacement of Citizen Kane by Vertigo has been controversial. Some critics see dark forces at comments on this entry, work. History? For instance, Richard Rushfield at The Daily Beast blames the the current popularity of social networking: The last Sight and Sound poll was conducted in 2002, when the blogosphere was still in diapers. Social media was just a twinkle in a Harvard-bound honor student’s eye, and the idea of communicating in 140 characters was as unimaginable as a cure for the common cold. Thesis Comments On This? Once, however, all these forces were unleashed there was no way Kane could sit fat and content – innovative, visionary, ponderous – atop the field forever.
That is, because of the ubiquity and the ease of use of social networking platforms like Twitter and origami history essay, blogs, everyone can be a critic. According to Rushfield, this democratizing trend has led to backlash against intellectual film critics, who have been frightened into abandoning aesthetic standards and thesis comments are closed, forced to writing cover letters jobs, speak for the unwashed masses. Needless to say, the film critics who replaced Citizen Kane with Vertigo would vociferously disagree with Rushfield and, perhaps, point out that Vertigo is really not that popular outside critical circles and is admired for the same artistic reasons Citizen Kane is admired. University of Maryland. British Film Institute, “The Greatest Films Poll at Sight and thesis comments on this entry, Sound,” 2012. Dennis Bingham, Whose Lives Are They Anyway?
The Biopic as Contemporary Film Genre (Piscataway, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2010). Richard Rushfield, “‘Citizen Kane’ v. Writing? ‘Vertigo’: Why ‘Kane’ Fell in the Sight and comments on this, Sound Poll,” The Daily Beast (August 1 2012). Gary Simmons, “Smoke and Mirrors in Citizen Kane ,” Screen Education 51 (2008), 138-144. Sarah Street, “Film in Context: Citizen Kane ,” History Today 46.3 (March 1996), 48-52. Thomson, David. History Essay? “The Mark of comments on this, Kane,” Sight Sound 21.1 (2011), 44-48. Stanley Kubrick and his Conspiratorial Interpreters.
According to Angela Watercutter. Stanley Kubrick’s The Shining is arguably the most cerebral horror film ever made. The film is studied at universities, chronicled in books, and has generally inspired levels of academic analysis rivaled only by the work of Talmudic scholars. Cover Letters? But despite all the study, there are still few conclusive answers as to what Kubrick was actually trying to say with The Shining , opening the door for countless interpretations, Adam B. Comments Entry Are Closed? Vary adds that The Shining is “a film that has inspired perhaps more deep analysis, explication, and essay for the breadwinner, theorizing than pretty much any other major feature film of the thesis comments on this entry, last 40 years.” Watercutter and Vary made these remarks as part of do my, their respective reviews of Room 237 , a film documentary by Rodney Ascher that profiles five people who have come up with bizarre, even conspiratorial, interpretations of The Shining . Watercutter briefly looks at ten of the interpretations of these five people; Vary comes up with five additional interpretations.
There are quite a few other quirky interpretations of The Shining , as a search at on this entry are closed, YouTube will show. Jay Weidner, one of the five interpreters profiled in Room 237 , argues that The Shining is Kubrick’s cryptic confession that he was involved in origami history the supposed faked moon landing of 1969. He bases his interpretation, in part, on the fact that Room 237 was actually Room 217 in on this Stephen King’s novel. Watercutter explains Weidner’s thesis further: As evidence, [Weidner] points to the Apollo sweater young Danny wears, the fact that the moon is about 237,000 miles from Earth (it’s 238,855 on average) and the inscription on the room’s key: ROOM No 237. “There’s only two words that you can come up with that have those letters in them,” Weidner says. Do My Paper In India? “And that’s ‘moon’ and ‘room’ and so on the key, the tag, it says ‘moon room.'” (Those letters also spell “moron,” but that seems like more of a coincidence.)
One of the other Weidner theories mentioned by Watercutter is that Kubrick inserted sexual subliminal messages in his film, particularly in the scene where Jack interviews for the caretaker job in Stuart Ullman’s office. According to Weidner, Ullman’s paper tray closely resembles a phallus. Juli Kearns argues that the window in that scene does not exist in the floor plan on the hotel. On This Are Closed? She should know, because he made a detailed map of the rooms and passages of the Outlook Hotel. Kearns also proposes the interpretation that Jack is the Minotaur of classical mythology and the Outlook Hotel is the labyrinth (or maze) built by for essays Dedalus to contain the monster. Thesis Comments? As evidence, Kearns argues that Jack’s face gets progressively bull-like in the film. She also sees a minotaur in a sky poster in the film.
Her evidence is do my paper, quite circumstantial but it is not a stretch to comments on this entry, say that Kubrick meant to degree creative writing, allude to the myth of the minotaur and the labyrinth in the film. Vary discusses Ascher’s contention that the ski poster that Kearns focuses on also shows evidence of a secret CIA mind-control program called MKUltra (which went by code-name “Monarch,” a word prominently displayed on the poster). One of the more respectable interpreters (in that he is an academic historian) is Geoffrey Cocks, who has written a book on his theories concerning The Shining . Cocks argues that the comments are closed, film has a subtext that concerns the degree writing, Holocaust. Throughout The Shining Jack’s Adler typewriter goes from thesis entry are closed a light tan color to a grey-blue with no real explanation. Historian Geoffrey Cocks believes that the typewriter’s color shift has significance to essay, his theory that Kubrick’s film has “a deeply-laid subtext” about the Holocaust. “That typewriter, that German. typewriter – which by the way changes color in are closed the course of the film, which typewriters don’t generally do – is terribly, terribly important as a referent to that particular historical event.” This is flimsy evidence for such a controversial interpretation put forth by an academic historian (and unlikely to pass peer-review scrutiny). It doesn’t help Cocks’s case that he has equally far-fetched interpretations for essay for the breadwinner, what other people would call “continuity errors” (unnoticed mistakes in production) in The Shining . For instance, there is a chair that disappears in comments one scene, which Cocks (not a film critic) explains as Kubrick’s attempt to parody the horror genre.
Then there is the paper, disappearing Dopey which Cocks, again, refuses to attribute to continuity error. John Fell Ryan makes the case that The Shining , when run forwards and backwards, offers up many new meanings. Are Closed? He and write, Akiva Saunders actually translated Ryan’s ideas into concrete action, creating projection technology which allows people to see the film backwards and forwards. Ryan doesn’t really build a theory around this as much as play around with the film and deconstruct (or “hack”) it via technology. However, like the other four conspiratorial interpreters, Ryan has other theories about the film. For instance, he argues that in the scene where Jack, just arrived at the Overlook, waits for Ullman, he is thesis entry are closed, reading a Playgirl magazine (which featured naked men). Ryan links this to Jack’s abuse of Danny which Ryan (with little evidence) suggests was sexual abuse. Note that the figure on the cover of the master's writing, magazine is long-haired, most likely a woman (who would not be on the cover of Playgirl magazine). The magazine looks more like Cosmopolitan . Room 237 also features the thesis on this, interpretations of write on corruption in india, BIll Blakemore, an ABC News reporter.
Watercutter doesn’t say much about Blakemore’s larger theory that the film is entry, about the genocide of Native Americans. In an article he published online, he presents his evidence, which is not very convincing. Blakemore sees the traces of master's degree creative writing, Native Americans all throughout the film (and there is quite a bit of Native American art on the floors and the walls and, in one scene, on Wendy’s clothes), though he admits that no Native Americans are shown in the film – which is somehow evidence for the presence of Native Americans – and claims that Dick Halloran, a black character, is meant to be read as Native American. The Colorado Room, where Jack works, is entry are closed, full of Native American designs. Blakemore also goes for the sexual sublimation thing.
In the art deco design of the carpet in room 237, he sees penises and vaginas copulating. Do My Paper? Says Blakemore (quoted in comments on this are closed Watercutter): “The design on the rug shows basically – in geometric form with round curves – the act of intercourse itself, one after another after another after another. . . . Sort of history essay, like the picture of comments are closed, down through the generations of what produces life.” More “evidence” of write a essay in india, a sex-crazed Kubrick. In sheer number of theories concerning The Shining , Rob Ager should have – but did not – made the cut in Ascher’s documentary. Thesis Comments On This Entry? Most of his ideas are contained in an “in-depth” analysis of The Shining that he published online. You can also find a number of his analysis videos at YouTube, including the one where he contends that the two twin girls in the film are not Delbert Grady’s daughters, the one where he claims that there is something meaningful in the river of writing cover for retail, blood, and the one where he asserts that Kubrick inserted a secret message condemning the gold standard, in the photograph that we see at comments on this entry, the end of the writing cover letters jobs, film. Why are there so many wacky interpretations of The Shining ? Watercutter attributes much of this conspiratorial theorizing to thesis are closed, advances in technology. She writes: There was no internet when The Shining was released and it would be a while after it played in theaters that VHS really took off, so the capacity for obsessive watching and re-watching, frame-by-frame analysis, and sharing of theories online is only something that’s been around in the latter part of the film’s history. We can only guess what kind of theories will arise in an even newer technological moment, when anyone at anytime can stream the film, playing it forwards and backwards to their heart’s content. We are now in what writer Chuck Klosterman recently dubbed “Immersion Criticism”: the kind of in-depth interpretations of popular culture that can only come after watching a particular piece of media dozens of times. Essay For The Breadwinner? “It’s not just a matter of noticing things other people miss, because that can be done by anyone who’s perceptive,” Klosterman wrote about Room 237 at Grantland . “It’s a matter of thesis comments entry are closed, noticing things that the director included to indicate his true, undisclosed intention.”
Vary puts the onus on the director, Stanley Kubrick. Vary suggests that Kubrick seeded his film with a lot of for retail jobs, mysteries, which guaranteed his film continuous scrutiny. Vary quotes Tim Kirk, the thesis entry are closed, producer of Room 237 : “'[ The Shining ] doesn’t solve things even on a plot level. What happened in room 237? We don’t really know. Essay Questions For The? Rodney has pointed out that the thesis on this entry are closed, photograph at writing for essays, the end is played almost like a big reveal of ‘Aha!’ But it’s not really.
If anything, it just deepens the mystery’” (qtd. in Vary). Kubrick’s reputation as an auteur, an art film director, is also part of the equation. Again, Vary quotes Kirk, who says: “I think the understanding of Kubrick as this meticulous, obsessively detail oriented director does make you think that if you see something in a frame, then he put it there and there’s a reason,” says Kirk. “That is on this, a jumping off point for a lot of people. Degree Creative Writing? . . . The rest of thesis comments on this are closed, his movies are all so good and so close to perfection,” he adds, “that if you don’t get something . . . there’s a trust that it’s not that it’s a mistake, it’s that you didn’t figure it out.” All work and no play means too tired to notice obvious continuity errors… This is what I call argument by mise-en-scene. Writing For Essays? It’s an idea that I typically subscribe to: nothing in the shot (visual details) is an thesis comments are closed, accident. Do My Paper In India? But the thesis are closed, conspiratorial interpretations of The Shining certainly challenge this idea.
The Shining is a cautionary tale in regards to interpretations. That is, what you say the mise-en-scene isn’t necessarily so. A reading of a visual detail does not, alone, make for a viable interpretation. Many of the in india, visual details cited as evidence by the interpreters discussed in this post could just as easily be continuity errors. At the thesis, moviemistakes.com wiki page on The Shining lists 21 continuity errors found and posted by viewers. (It doesn’t list the one I discovered: in writing techniques for essays the scene where Wendy discusses Danny with a doctor, Wendy mentions that the abuse incident occurred five months before; but when Jack discusses the same incident with the ghostly barman, shortly after this point, he says the incident occurred three years before). “The horror! I will live on forever as a footnote in some crazy person’s conspiracy theory!” So now I present my own conspiratorial interpretation. I argue that Kubrick himself (before his death – or from the grave ) planted all the interpretations mentioned to cover up the fact that he was quite sloppy when making The Shining . He wanted people to be distracted from the fact that he messed up on the Grady daughters, the prop left in the river of blood shot, the changed typewriter, the on this entry, missing chair, the write a essay on corruption in india, missing Dopey, the floor plan of the hotel, and the changed room number.
How else to explain a film that is about the Holocaust, Native American genocide, a faked moon landing, America’s abandonment of the gold standard, AND a CIA mind-control program, all in the same film? The only possibility is that Kubrick floated those theories himself. And we have only scratched the surface of all the conspiracies Kubrick has floated. It’s only a matter of time before someone links The Shining to the assassination of President John F. Kennedy and the Mayan Apocalypse. I see all these future theories coming down on us like a river of blood.
Prepare yourself. Comments On This Entry? . . Essay For The? . I’m outta here (before they discover my interpretation is full of holes) Angela Watercutter, “The 10 Most Outrageous Theories About What The Shining Really Means”, Wired Magazine (March 29, 2013). Adam B. Vary. Thesis Comments? “5 Conspiracy Theories About ‘The Shining’ That Aren’t In ‘Room 237.’ Buzzfeed Entertainment (March 28, 2013).