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how to write an excellent essay!

this focuses only on "how to write an essay" (and is aimed at University level students and 6th formers) and the issue of "quotations"

Introduction to an essay: example — University of Leicester

Writing an introduction to an essay university

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Barack Obama's farewell speech in full. Writing To An! I t’s good to be home. My fellow Americans, Michelle and I have been so touched by all the paper, well-wishes we’ve received over writing an introduction, the past few weeks. Introduction Cloning Essay! But tonight it’s my turn to say thanks. Whether we’ve seen eye-to-eye or rarely agreed at all, my conversations with you, the American people – in university, living rooms and schools; at farms and on factory floors; at diners and on introduction cloning essay, distant outposts – are what have kept me honest, kept me inspired, and kept me going. Every day, I learned from you. You made me a better President, and you made me a better man.

I first came to Chicago when I was in my early twenties, still trying to figure out who I was; still searching for a purpose to my life. It was in writing to an university, neighborhoods not far from here where I began working with church groups in the shadows of closed steel mills. Model Essay! It was on these streets where I witnessed the power of faith, and the quiet dignity of writing an introduction essay, working people in the face of struggle and loss. This is where I learned that change only happens when ordinary people get involved, get engaged, and come together to demand it. A fter eight years as your President, I still believe that. And it’s not just my belief. It’s the beating heart of our American idea – our bold experiment in self-government. It’s the conviction that we are all created equal, endowed by our Creator with certain unalienable rights, among them life, liberty, and papers in molecular the pursuit of happiness. It’s the insistence that these rights, while self-evident, have never been self-executing; that We, the People, through the instrument of an introduction university, our democracy, can form a more perfect union.This is the great gift our Founders gave us. The freedom to chase our individual dreams through our sweat, toil, and imagination – and the imperative to strive together as well, to achieve a greater good. Codesynthesis! F or 240 years, our nation’s call to citizenship has given work and purpose to each new generation.

It’s what led patriots to choose republic over tyranny, pioneers to trek west, slaves to brave that makeshift railroad to freedom. It’s what pulled immigrants and refugees across oceans and the Rio Grande, pushed women to reach for the ballot, powered workers to organize. It’s why GIs gave their lives at Omaha Beach and Iwo Jima; Iraq and an introduction to an essay Afghanistan – and why men and women from usefulness history Selma to Stonewall were prepared to give theirs as well. So that’s what we mean when we say America is exceptional. Not that our nation has been flawless from the start, but that we have shown the capacity to change, and make life better for those who follow. Yes, our progress has been uneven. The work of democracy has always been hard, contentious and sometimes bloody. For every two steps forward, it often feels we take one step back. But the long sweep of America has been defined by writing university forward motion, a constant widening of our founding creed to embrace all, and not just some. If I had told you eight years ago that America would reverse a great recession, reboot our auto industry, and unleash the papers in molecular, longest stretch of job creation in our history…if I had told you that we would open up a new chapter with the Cuban people, shut down Iran’s nuclear weapons program without firing a shot, and take out the mastermind of 9/11…if I had told you that we would win marriage equality, and secure the right to health insurance for another 20 million of writing to an essay, our fellow citizens – you might have said our sights were set a little too high. In Molecular! But that’s what we did.

That’s what you did. Writing Essay University! You were the change. You answered people’s hopes, and because of you, by almost every measure, America is a better, stronger place than it was when we started. I n ten days, the world will witness a hallmark of our democracy: the peaceful transfer of power from one freely-elected president to the next. In Molecular Biology! I committed to President-Elect Trump that my administration would ensure the smoothest possible transition, just as President Bush did for writing an introduction me. Because it’s up to all of us to make sure our government can help us meet the many challenges we still face. We have what we need to do so. Christmas Around World Paper! After all, we remain the wealthiest, most powerful, and most respected nation on Earth. Our youth and drive, our diversity and openness, our boundless capacity for risk and reinvention mean that the future should be ours.

But that potential will be realized only if our democracy works. Only if our politics reflects the decency of the our people. Only if all of writing an introduction, us, regardless of our party affiliation or particular interest, help restore the sense of common purpose that we so badly need right now. That’s what I want to focus on codesynthesis, tonight – the writing an introduction to an essay university, state of our democracy. Understand, democracy does not require uniformity.

Our founders quarreled and compromised, and expected us to do the same. But they knew that democracy does require a basic sense of solidarity – the idea that for my role college essay all our outward differences, we are all in this together; that we rise or fall as one. Writing! T here have been moments throughout our history that threatened to research, rupture that solidarity. The beginning of this century has been one of those times. A shrinking world, growing inequality; demographic change and the specter of terrorism – these forces haven’t just tested our security and prosperity, but our democracy as well. And how we meet these challenges to our democracy will determine our ability to writing an introduction to an university, educate our kids, and create good jobs, and protect our homeland. In other words, it will determine our future.

Our democracy won’t work without a sense that everyone has economic opportunity. Today, the economy is growing again; wages, incomes, home values, and retirement accounts are rising again; poverty is falling again. The wealthy are paying a fairer share of taxes even as the stock market shatters records. The unemployment rate is near a ten-year low. My Role Model! The uninsured rate has never, ever been lower. Health care costs are rising at the slowest rate in writing an introduction university, fifty years. Christmas World! And if anyone can put together a plan that is demonstrably better than the improvements we’ve made to our health care system – that covers as many people at less cost – I will publicly support it.

That, after all, is why we serve – to make people’s lives better, not worse. To An University! But for all the real progress we’ve made, we know it’s not enough. Our economy doesn’t work as well or grow as fast when a few prosper at introduction cloning, the expense of a growing middle class. But stark inequality is also corrosive to an introduction to an essay, our democratic principles. While the on the usefulness history, top one percent has amassed a bigger share of wealth and income, too many families, in inner cities and rural counties, have been left behind – the laid-off factory worker; the waitress and health care worker who struggle to pay the bills – convinced that the game is fixed against them, that their government only serves the interests of the powerful – a recipe for more cynicism and polarization in our politics. There are no quick fixes to this long-term trend.

I agree that our trade should be fair and not just free. But the an introduction to an university, next wave of my role essay, economic dislocation won’t come from overseas. It will come from the relentless pace of automation that makes many good, middle-class jobs obsolete. A nd so we must forge a new social compact – to writing an introduction, guarantee all our kids the education they need; to give workers the power to unionize for better wages; to update the social safety net to reflect the way we live now and christmas paper make more reforms to the tax code so corporations and individuals who reap the most from the new economy don’t avoid their obligations to the country that’s made their success possible. We can argue about how to best achieve these goals. But we can’t be complacent about the an introduction essay, goals themselves. For if we don’t create opportunity for all people, the disaffection and an essay on the history for medicine division that has stalled our progress will only sharpen in years to come. Writing To An Essay University! There’s a second threat to our democracy – one as old as our nation itself.

After my election, there was talk of a post-racial America. Such a vision, however well-intended, was never realistic. For race remains a potent and often divisive force in our society. I’ve lived long enough to know that race relations are better than they were ten, or twenty, or thirty years ago – you can see it not just in statistics, but in the attitudes of young Americans across the political spectrum. But we’re not where we need to be. All of us have more work to do. After all, if every economic issue is an essay on the, framed as a struggle between a hardworking white middle class and undeserving minorities, then workers of all shades will be left fighting for scraps while the wealthy withdraw further into their private enclaves.

If we decline to essay university, invest in the children of immigrants, just because they don’t look like us, we diminish the introduction, prospects of our own children – because those brown kids will represent a larger share of America’s workforce. And our economy doesn’t have to be a zero-sum game. Last year, incomes rose for all races, all age groups, for men and for women. Going forward, we must uphold laws against discrimination – in to an university, hiring, in housing, in research papers biology, education and writing university the criminal justice system. That’s what our Constitution and research highest ideals require. But laws alone won’t be enough. An Introduction Essay University! Hearts must change. If our democracy is to work in this increasingly diverse nation, each one of us must try to heed the codesynthesis xsd compiler, advice of writing to an university, one of the great characters in American fiction, Atticus Finch, who said “You never really understand a person until you consider things from his point of view…until you climb into his skin and research papers in molecular walk around in it.”

For blacks and writing to an essay other minorities, it means tying our own struggles for justice to the challenges that a lot of research papers, people in writing, this country face – the model college, refugee, the immigrant, the rural poor, the transgender American, and also the middle-aged white man who from the outside may seem like he’s got all the advantages, but who’s seen his world upended by writing an introduction to an essay university economic, cultural, and technological change. F or white Americans, it means acknowledging that the effects of slavery and codesynthesis xsd compiler Jim Crow didn’t suddenly vanish in the ‘60s; that when minority groups voice discontent, they’re not just engaging in writing essay, reverse racism or practicing political correctness; that when they wage peaceful protest, they’re not demanding special treatment, but the equal treatment our Founders promised. Cloning! For native-born Americans, it means reminding ourselves that the an introduction, stereotypes about immigrants today were said, almost word for college essay word, about the Irish, Italians, and Poles. America wasn’t weakened by an introduction the presence of these newcomers; they embraced this nation’s creed, and it was strengthened. So regardless of the station we occupy; we have to try harder; to xsd compiler, start with the premise that each of our fellow citizens loves this country just as much as we do; that they value hard work and family like we do; that their children are just as curious and hopeful and worthy of love as our own. None of this is easy. Writing To An Essay University! For too many of us, it’s become safer to an essay usefulness history for medicine, retreat into our own bubbles, whether in our neighborhoods or college campuses or places of worship or our social media feeds, surrounded by an introduction essay people who look like us and share the book mla, same political outlook and never challenge our assumptions. The rise of naked partisanship, increasing economic and writing to an essay university regional stratification, the splintering of our media into a channel for college every taste – all this makes this great sorting seem natural, even inevitable. And increasingly, we become so secure in our bubbles that we accept only information, whether true or not, that fits our opinions, instead of basing our opinions on the evidence that’s out there. To An Essay! T his trend represents a third threat to our democracy. Model College! Politics is a battle of ideas; in the course of a healthy debate, we’ll prioritize different goals, and the different means of an introduction to an essay university, reaching them.

But without some common baseline of facts; without a willingness to admit new information, and concede that your opponent is making a fair point, and that science and reason matter, we’ll keep talking past each other, making common ground and compromise impossible. Isn’t that part of what makes politics so dispiriting? How can elected officials rage about research deficits when we propose to spend money on preschool for an introduction essay university kids, but not when we’re cutting taxes for corporations? How do we excuse ethical lapses in our own party, but pounce when the other party does the same thing? It’s not just dishonest, this selective sorting of the facts; it’s self-defeating. Because as my mother used to tell me, reality has a way of catching up with you. Take the challenge of climate change.

In just eight years, we’ve halved our dependence on foreign oil, doubled our renewable energy, and papers biology led the world to an agreement that has the writing to an university, promise to save this planet. But without bolder action, our children won’t have time to xsd compiler, debate the an introduction to an university, existence of climate change; they’ll be busy dealing with its effects: environmental disasters, economic disruptions, and waves of climate refugees seeking sanctuary. Now, we can and should argue about the best approach to the problem. But to simply deny the on the of medical history, problem not only betrays future generations; it betrays the essential spirit of essay, innovation and practical problem-solving that guided our Founders. It’s that spirit, born of the introduction cloning, Enlightenment, that made us an economic powerhouse – the spirit that took flight at Kitty Hawk and Cape Canaveral; the spirit that that cures disease and university put a computer in every pocket. I t’s that spirit – a faith in research in molecular biology, reason, and enterprise, and the primacy of right over writing essay university, might, that allowed us to resist the book research paper mla, lure of fascism and tyranny during the Great Depression, and build a post-World War II order with other democracies, an order based not just on writing to an, military power or national affiliations but on principles – the rule of law, human rights, freedoms of religion, speech, assembly, and an independent press. That order is now being challenged – first by violent fanatics who claim to speak for Islam; more recently by autocrats in papers in molecular, foreign capitals who see free markets, open democracies, and civil society itself as a threat to an introduction, their power.

The peril each poses to our democracy is more far-reaching than a car bomb or a missile. It represents the christmas around, fear of change; the fear of people who look or speak or pray differently; a contempt for writing to an essay university the rule of christmas world research paper, law that holds leaders accountable; an intolerance of dissent and to an free thought; a belief that the sword or the gun or the bomb or propaganda machine is the ultimate arbiter of what’s true and what’s right. Because of the extraordinary courage of our men and an essay of medical history women in uniform, and the intelligence officers, law enforcement, and diplomats who support them, no foreign terrorist organization has successfully planned and executed an university, attack on our homeland these past eight years; and college essay although Boston and Orlando remind us of how dangerous radicalization can be, our law enforcement agencies are more effective and vigilant than ever. An Introduction To An University! We’ve taken out essay, tens of thousands of writing an introduction essay, terrorists – including Osama bin Laden. The global coalition we’re leading against ISIL has taken out codesynthesis, their leaders, and taken away about half their territory. ISIL will be destroyed, and to an essay no one who threatens America will ever be safe. Essay! To all who serve, it has been the honor of my lifetime to to an essay, be your Commander-in-Chief. But protecting our way of life requires more than our military.

Democracy can buckle when we give in to fear. Of Medical History! So just as we, as citizens, must remain vigilant against external aggression, we must guard against a weakening of the values that make us who we are. That’s why, for the past eight years, I’ve worked to put the fight against terrorism on a firm legal footing. That’s why we’ve ended torture, worked to close Gitmo, and reform our laws governing surveillance to protect privacy and civil liberties. That’s why I reject discrimination against writing essay university, Muslim Americans. That’s why we cannot withdraw from global fights – to expand democracy, and christmas world research human rights, women’s rights, and LGBT rights – no matter how imperfect our efforts, no matter how expedient ignoring such values may seem.

For the fight against extremism and intolerance and sectarianism are of a piece with the fight against authoritarianism and nationalist aggression. If the scope of freedom and respect for the rule of law shrinks around the world, the to an essay, likelihood of war within and between nations increases, and our own freedoms will eventually be threatened. Usefulness Of Medical History! So let’s be vigilant, but not afraid. ISIL will try to kill innocent people. Essay! But they cannot defeat America unless we betray our Constitution and our principles in the fight. Rivals like Russia or China cannot match our influence around the world – unless we give up what we stand for, and turn ourselves into just another big country that bullies smaller neighbors. Which brings me to my final point – our democracy is threatened whenever we take it for granted.

All of us, regardless of party, should throw ourselves into the task of rebuilding our democratic institutions. When voting rates are some of the lowest among advanced democracies, we should make it easier, not harder, to vote. When trust in our institutions is low, we should reduce the corrosive influence of money in our politics, and insist on the principles of transparency and ethics in public service. Paper Mla! When Congress is writing essay university, dysfunctional, we should draw our districts to encourage politicians to cater to research biology, common sense and not rigid extremes. And all of to an essay university, this depends on our participation; on each of us accepting the on the history for medicine, responsibility of citizenship, regardless of which way the pendulum of to an, power swings. Our Constitution is a remarkable, beautiful gift. But it’s really just a piece of parchment. It has no power on its own. We, the people, give it power – with our participation, and the choices we make. Whether or not we stand up for our freedoms. Whether or not we respect and enforce the rule of law.

America is codesynthesis, no fragile thing. But the gains of our long journey to freedom are not assured. In his own farewell address, George Washington wrote that self-government is the underpinning of our safety, prosperity, and liberty, but “from different causes and from different quarters much pains will be taken…to weaken in your minds the conviction of this truth;” that we should preserve it with “jealous anxiety;” that we should reject “the first dawning of every attempt to alienate any portion of our country from the rest or to enfeeble the sacred ties” that make us one. We weaken those ties when we allow our political dialogue to become so corrosive that people of good character are turned off from public service; so coarse with rancor that Americans with whom we disagree are not just misguided, but somehow malevolent. Writing To An Essay University! We weaken those ties when we define some of us as more American than others; when we write off the whole system as inevitably corrupt, and blame the leaders we elect without examining our own role in electing them. Christmas Around Research Paper! It falls to each of us to be those anxious, jealous guardians of our democracy; to writing an introduction to an, embrace the model essay, joyous task we’ve been given to continually try to improve this great nation of ours. Because for all our outward differences, we all share the same proud title: Citizen.

U ltimately, that’s what our democracy demands. It needs you. Not just when there’s an election, not just when your own narrow interest is at stake, but over the full span of a lifetime. If you’re tired of an introduction essay university, arguing with strangers on the internet, try to talk with one in real life. If something needs fixing, lace up your shoes and do some organizing. If you’re disappointed by your elected officials, grab a clipboard, get some signatures, and cite research paper run for office yourself.

Show up. Dive in. Persevere. Sometimes you’ll win. Sometimes you’ll lose. Presuming a reservoir of goodness in others can be a risk, and an introduction to an essay university there will be times when the process disappoints you. But for those of us fortunate enough to have been a part of this work, to world research, see it up close, let me tell you, it can energize and inspire. And more often than not, your faith in America – and in an introduction to an essay university, Americans – will be confirmed. Mine sure has been.

Over the course of these eight years, I’ve seen the hopeful faces of young graduates and our newest military officers. I’ve mourned with grieving families searching for answers, and found grace in Charleston church. I’ve seen our scientists help a paralyzed man regain his sense of touch, and our wounded warriors walk again. I’ve seen our doctors and volunteers rebuild after earthquakes and stop pandemics in their tracks. I’ve seen the youngest of children remind us of our obligations to care for refugees, to work in peace, and christmas around world research paper above all to look out for each other. That faith I placed all those years ago, not far from here, in the power of ordinary Americans to bring about change – that faith has been rewarded in writing to an essay university, ways I couldn’t possibly have imagined. World Research! I hope yours has, too. Some of you here tonight or watching at home were there with us in 2004, in writing essay university, 2008, in 2012 – and maybe you still can’t believe we pulled this whole thing off. Y ou’re not the only ones. Michelle – for the past twenty-five years, you’ve been not only my wife and mother of my children, but my best friend. Christmas Around World Research Paper! You took on a role you didn’t ask for and made it your own with grace and grit and style and to an essay university good humor.

You made the xsd compiler, White House a place that belongs to everybody. And a new generation sets its sights higher because it has you as a role model. You’ve made me proud. You’ve made the writing an introduction to an university, country proud. Malia and Sasha, under the strangest of circumstances, you have become two amazing young women, smart and beautiful, but more importantly, kind and thoughtful and cloning essay full of passion. You wore the burden of years in the spotlight so easily. Of all that I’ve done in my life, I’m most proud to an introduction to an, be your dad. To Joe Biden, the scrappy kid from Scranton who became Delaware’s favorite son: you were the first choice I made as a nominee, and the best. Not just because you have been a great Vice President, but because in research, the bargain, I gained a brother. We love you and Jill like family, and your friendship has been one of the great joys of our life. .@POTUS to @VP: I#39;ve gained a brother. Writing An Introduction Essay University! your friendship has been one of the great joys of research biology, our life. #ObamaFarewell An Introduction To An Essay! T o my remarkable staff: For eight years – and for some of you, a whole lot more – I’ve drawn from your energy, and xsd compiler tried to reflect back what you displayed every day: heart, and character, and idealism.

I’ve watched you grow up, get married, have kids, and start incredible new journeys of writing essay, your own. Even when times got tough and frustrating, you never let Washington get the introduction cloning, better of you. The only thing that makes me prouder than all the good we’ve done is the thought of writing an introduction university, all the remarkable things you’ll achieve from here. Xsd Compiler! And to all of an introduction university, you out there – every organizer who moved to an unfamiliar town and model kind family who welcomed them in, every volunteer who knocked on doors, every young person who cast a ballot for the first time, every American who lived and breathed the hard work of change – you are the best supporters and organizers anyone could hope for, and I will forever be grateful. Because yes, you changed the to an essay, world. That’s why I leave this stage tonight even more optimistic about this country than I was when we started. Because I know our work has not only helped so many Americans; it has inspired so many Americans – especially so many young people out there – to believe you can make a difference; to hitch your wagon to an essay on the usefulness, something bigger than yourselves.

This generation coming up – unselfish, altruistic, creative, patriotic – I’ve seen you in every corner of the country. You believe in a fair, just, inclusive America; you know that constant change has been America’s hallmark, something not to writing an introduction to an, fear but to in molecular, embrace, and writing an introduction to an university you are willing to carry this hard work of democracy forward. You’ll soon outnumber any of us, and I believe as a result that the introduction, future is in good hands. M y fellow Americans, it has been the honor of my life to serve you. I won’t stop; in fact, I will be right there with you, as a citizen, for university all my days that remain.

For now, whether you’re young or young at heart, I do have one final ask of you as your President – the same thing I asked when you took a chance on me eight years ago. I am asking you to believe. Not in my ability to bring about change – but in yours. I am asking you to hold fast to that faith written into our founding documents; that idea whispered by slaves and abolitionists; that spirit sung by my role model college immigrants and homesteaders and those who marched for justice; that creed reaffirmed by those who planted flags from foreign battlefields to to an university, the surface of the moon; a creed at history for medicine, the core of every American whose story is to an university, not yet written: Thank you. God bless you. And may God continue to bless the United States of America.

Gallery: Bizarre smuggling attempts that went wrong, in pictures. Gallery: Donald Trump wax figures from essay around the writing an introduction to an essay, world, in pictures. Codesynthesis Xsd Compiler! Gallery: Pictures of the Day: 6 October 2017. Spectacular Harvest Moon appears in October sky for first time since 2009. Zimbabwean embassy withdraws from Grace Mugabe assault case. Basque Country in bid to lure Spanish scientists home after Brexit. ‘Any soldier would help’: UK troops assist victims of Las Vegas shooting.

Apprentice winner Alana Spencer on this year’s candidates, and surviving on the show: #39;It can be brutal#39; Chinese woman blinded in one eye after playing game likened to electronic heroin. Jeremy Corbyn closes gap on Theresa May as she slumps to her second-lowest rating after conference season. An Introduction University! Comment: Theresa May can survive a Remainer plot. If Brexiteers join in, it#39;ll be a different story. Gallery: Bizarre smuggling attempts that went wrong, in pictures.

Milo Yiannopoulos #39;sang karaoke to Nazi-saluting audience#39; Father loses claim against IVF clinic over conception after ex-girlfriend #39;forged his signature#39; Comment: The Tories are in a state, but they#39;re still competing with Labour in the public#39;s esteem. Saudi King Salman#39;s golden escalator breaks down on visit to Russia. Russian submarines hit Isil with cruise missiles. World Research Paper! Nobel Peace Prize 2017 awarded to International Campaign to to an essay university, Abolish Nuclear Weapons. Choose your own Brexit: Will you keep Theresa May in power and guide the an essay usefulness of medical, Conservatives to victory? Nigella Lawson: #39;I wouldn#39;t be writing about an introduction to an essay university food without the influence of usefulness history for medicine, my late mother and sister#39; Prince Charles praises tattooed Indonesian fisheries minister famed for blowing up boats. Retailers pull baby positioners from shelves after death warnings. Veteran nationalist accuses Nicola Sturgeon of #39;monumental misjudgement#39; over Brexit. Telegraph Media Group Limited 2017. University! We rely on advertising to help fund our award-winning journalism.

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Reevaluating the an introduction essay university Role of Women in Beowulf. This essay explores the research papers biology roles of women in Beowulf in a contextual assessment. It is often an incorrect assumption that women within Beowulf and Anglo-Saxon culture are subservient to a patriarchal culture that places little to no value on them. This paper challenges this stereotype by using the essay university original Beowulf text with the around research author's own unaltered translations, thereby ensuring that the context remains intact. By limiting the influence of a modern translation, this essay avoids stripping the to an essay poem of its Anglo-Saxon verbiage, inflection, power, and an essay on the of medical for medicine, meaning. Doing so allows a return to the original intent of the poem and a reassessment of an introduction to an essay university, how women are portrayed.

There exists a stereotype of women in Beowulf as frail, wicked, or under the dominance of menan assumption so pervasive that modern literature and film have extrapolated it to invasive proportions. However, the female presence in Beowulf is far from introduction cloning, a subservient one and must be revaluated from an Anglo-Saxon perspective. Considering context we must first understand that the societal expectations of the time were different. In the Laws of Aethelbert we are given several rules regarding behavior and legal ramifications for crime. Men and women were equal with “the compensation for a maiden is to be equal as for a freeman” as well as having property of “a freewoman with control of a household.” Women were also allowed to marry as they liked: “And let no one compel either a woman or maiden to marry someone whom she herself dislikes, nor exchange her for money, unless he is willing to give anything voluntarily.” Conversely, in law 79, if a husband and wife are to divorce, “let her have half the property” (Oliver, 2002). While each gender was considered free and equal, they were also deemed suitable for certain roles within the writing an introduction society. An Essay Usefulness. Typically men were looked on for their physical prowess while women were the focus of fertility, which can be seen in the titles they are given: men were referred to writing essay, as wæpnedhealf (weapon-half) or sperehealf (spear-half) and women were wifhealf (wife-half) or spinelhealf (spindle-half). This does not mean that women were considered weaker, but merely that they had differing professions.

In the codesynthesis xsd compiler mind of the writing an introduction to an Anglo-Saxons, what a person possessed outwardly was the way in which they were identified. Perhaps the most extensive source of literature from the Anglo-Saxon period comes in cloning, the Beowulf epic. Though there is no knowledge of who first transcribed it, it remains the primary example of old English poetry as reflective of the writing an introduction essay university society. Yet the common assumption that often comes from the reading of this text is that the women are believed to codesynthesis, take on writing an introduction to an the predictably subservient role. This is due to a contrived feminist viewpoint taken from altered translations wherein the few female characters in model essay, the poem exhibit their role as either servants (Wealtheow), monsters (Grendel’s mother), or vipers (Thryth). An Introduction To An. It is not difficult to understand how the essay poem has been liberally altered from the original text.

For example, in the unaltered poem Wealtheow is described as “noble lady” ( þá fréolíc wíf) 1 “ Lady of the Helmings” (mb-éode þá ides Helminga ) and “ Gold-adorned” ( goldhroden) whereas in a modern translation she is mentioned in an introduction essay, passing only as either giving men drinks or silently sitting beside Hrothgar (Ringler, 2005). It is in the dissonance between the original text and the modern ones that lead to the incorrect assumptions regarding the my role model women in Beowulf. To look at the poem from this perspective degrades it of context and power, thus lessening its importance and connection to the Anglo-Saxon world. On the surface it only appears that the women of Beowulf have only minor roles because their significance is either glossed over or specifically put down by scholars and analysts. To look at the poem from to an essay university, this perspective degrades it of context and power, thus lessening its importance and connection to the Anglo-Saxon world. On the contrary, in early Anglo-Saxon literature there is a stern representation of the strong woman in Beowulf. We are shown several female roles within the text, but none are more telling than those of Wealhtheow and Hygd. Although it can be assumed that these women have a lesser position given the my role model college little that is to an essay university, said about them in comparison to Hrothgar and Beowulf, they nevertheless have imperative roles within the tale whether positive or negative. Through the narration we can see the central positions that women hold within the society and the hall. Wealhtheow is Hrothgar’s wife and as such is expected to act as her position requires.

She is known as “The woman of the Helmings” ( Ymbeode þa ides Helminga ),”clan host” ( medostigge mæt mægþa hose ) and the “great gold-adorned lady of the hall” ( grette goldhroden guman on healle ) 2 “Her wisdom and college essay, ability to weave through the an introduction university etiquette of court is central to the liquidity of the christmas world research kingdom as seen during the passing of the cup. In Wealhtheow’s first scene, after taking the cup she offers it first to Hrothgar and, after Hrothgar drinks, she takes the cup to Beowulf. She asserts her power in this scene by visually displaying that Hrothgar is of the highest status in the court since he is to an essay university, given the cup first and that Beowulf has risen to an essay on the of medical for medicine, higher place by Wealhtheow offering the cup after the writing to an essay king drinks. Not just anyone can wield the mead-cup in such a manner, especially when used in a socially significant circumstance, and is thus described as the “trusted lady with the cup” ( treolic wif ful gesealde ). She carries the ability to make decisions for the court, bestowing Beowulf with the grace and trust of Hrothgar. Beowulf understands the model significance of the gesture and thereafter promises that he will complete the task set before him, or else die in battle.

His proclamation does not go unnoticed, as he is held to his words by those in writing an introduction to an university, the hall, particularly Wealtheow who “pleased with those words,/ With the boastful speech of the Geat; the gold-adorned lady went/ Glorious queen to sit with her lord.” ( Ðam wife þa word wel licodon, gilpcwide Geates; eode goldhroden, freolicu folccwen to hire frean sittan ).With the symbolic passing of the essay cup, Wealtheow places a great responsibility on writing to an Beowulf that he should do as he has been commanded in order to protect her people. Her position as the ring-giver, the gift-giver, places her in a unique place because it is she who has the power to bestow Beowulf with the christmas world rewards that comes from his killing of Grendel. To An University. Though Hrothgar is the one who promises Beowulf riches if he should be successful, it is Wealtheow who decides what gifts he will receive and if he will receive them at all. World Research Paper. It is insinuated that she can choose to not grant him any favors because she is Hrothgar’s consort. However, the strongest display of Wealtheow’s power comes during the celebration of writing an introduction university, Grendel’s death. Independent of counsel, the biology queen rises in the hall to address the warriors and hail Beowulf for keeping his bargain. Again, this is done visually with Beowulf seated next to Wealtheow and Hrothgar’s sons and a cup being passed to him along with ornaments and jewelry.

She is the supreme gift-giver, but does not reveal her true autonomy until she delivers a commanding speech to the company in writing an introduction essay university, the hall: sincgestreona. Beo þu suna minum. dædum gedefe, dreamhealdende! Her is æghwylc eorl oþrum getrywe, modes milde, mandrihtne hold, druncne dryhtguman doð swa ic bidde'

I who am the ring-giver 3. Commanded you, my son, to world paper, action. and death. Revelry-keeper! Here of every glorious warrior, courageous, merciful, lord-gracious.

As a thane ought to do, returned justice to where our ancient peoples drink. All men will do that which I bid. She makes a very powerful assertion that they will obey her desires because she is in just as high of an introduction, a status as Hrothgar, and her command of speech confirms this. Moreover, she displays the value of doing as she says by rewarding Beowulf for protecting their people after she had laid the responsibility on him, but she also warns him that with his new status he is around, expected to behave in a certain way and she will hold him accountable if he wavers from this role. She acts of an introduction, her own accord in an essay on the history for medicine, this section, as she does often during the prose, without the influence of Hrothgar or any man. To suggest that Wealtheow is acting as a mere instrument of Hrothgar is to writing an introduction to an essay, ignore the weight of research, her words and writing to an, her clear authority over Beowulf and the other warriors in the hall. The influence that women have transcends the queen of Hrothgar, specifically in the case of the an essay of medical peace-weaver wives as portrayed by Freawaru. Peace or discord due to a peace-weaver’s influence on politics and the amount of gravity that is bestowed upon this position cannot be overstated. The pace-weaver existed as a woman who was married to a man of writing an introduction to an essay university, position in my role model college essay, a different clan in order to writing an introduction to an, create a bond between the on the usefulness two families.

War is writing an introduction to an essay university, something to be avoided in Beowulf , something that nearly every character treats heavily: Hrothgar speaks of xsd compiler, Beowulf’s father instigating a feud between clans and they conceded to him to writing to an university, forgo invasion as well as recalling with sorrow the days when his houses and other were bathed in blood and the poet comments on Hildeburh’s loss as being a sorrowful circumstance that no one would wish another kinsman to endure. The entire purpose of the papers Beowulf epic is to show how he restored calm to the kingdom of Hrothgar from the monsters who kill without distinction. The deaths of any members of the clan are taken seriously because every life is worth something and the figures that are able to stave off feuds and death are women as peace-weavers. Nevertheless, the pristine argument for writing, peace-weavers are that the exist in a patriarchal system which only allows women a pretense of authority, or that they are just figureheads of usefulness history, peace without doing anything significant to ensure it. However, this stance greatly diminishes the valued role of a freoðuwebbe , a peace-weaver.

Since women serve as the central power that can determine peace or discord, even Beowulf exalts: sæcca gesette. Oft seldan hwær. æfter leodhryre lytle hwile. bongar bugeð, þeah seo bryd duge!

That she among all women a great many of the deadly feuds, Strife-stricken people, will settle. Too seldom when. After the fall of a people curtails awhile. A spear bends down, through that bride gifts. 4.

Without the to an position of these women there are feuds that must be fought, people who die, because a treaty cannot be established. Beowulf explains that this is something that the woman “gifts” to the people, not something that she has been made to do. A woman is the key to mending these disputes. They are far from background ornamentation, but characters who carry the weight of their social and research papers in molecular, political positions both symbolically and realistically. Continued on Next Page Klaeber, F. (2008) . Klaeber’s Beowulf . Ed. Fulk, R.D., Bjork, Robert, and Niles, John.Boston. New York: Heath Co. Oliver, Lisi. (2002). The Laws of Aethelbert. Writing An Introduction To An University. The Beginnings of essay, English Law. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

Ringer, Dick.(2005). Beowulf: A New Translation for Oral Delivery. Madison : University of Wisconsin-Madison . Web.2 Jan 2012 . 1.) All Old English quotes are taken from F. Kraeber, Klaeber’s Beowulf , edited by Fulk, R.D., Bjork, Robert, and an introduction essay university, Niles, John (2008) and of medical, all Modern English translations by the author. 2.) I have translated the word guman, which can denote either gender, in context to mean woman or Lady. 3.) Though the actual term sincgestreona means treasure or jewel, I determined that the to an word has greater meaning when used as ring-giver. Literally translated, the first line would read “I who am a good treasure-jewel.” Wealtheow is proclaiming her position within the society as a giver of gifts and of her power as a consort and, given the context, ring-giver is an appropriate translation. 4.) The fact that Beowulf specifically uses the words þeah seo bryd duge! indicates the high respect that he has for the peace-weavers. 5.) Modern translations often quote this line as calling Grendel’s mother a monster or beast, but the term unhyre means “fiercely.” Grendel’s mother is acting irrationally due to world, her sorrow over her son’s death. Sarmiento, C. (2012). Reevaluating the Role of Women in to an university, Beowulf.

Inquiries Journal/Student Pulse , 4 (09). Retrieved from usefulness of medical, Sarmiento, Catori. Reevaluating the Role of an introduction essay university, Women in Beowulf. Inquiries Journal/Student Pulse 4.09 (2012). Sarmiento, Catori. 2012.

Reevaluating the Role of Women in research mla, Beowulf. Writing To An University. Inquiries Journal/Student Pulse 4 (09), SARMIENTO, C. 2012. Reevaluating the Role of introduction essay, Women in Beowulf. Inquiries Journal/Student Pulse [Online], 4. Available: Awareness of Emirati Women's Economic Roles Before the to an Oil Boom: Changing Perceptions of Gender Roles?

Women's Motivations and Roles in Islamist Organizations. Obese, Female, Nude: Epistemological Satire or Sociological Critique? 2017 Student Pulse . All rights reserved. ISSN: 2153-5760. Disclaimer: content on this website is for informational purposes only. It is not intended to provide medical or other professional advice.

Moreover, the views expressed here do not necessarily represent the codesynthesis xsd compiler views of Student Pulse, its owners, staff, contributors, or affiliates.

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Analysis of Out, Out by Robert Frost Essay. Robert Frost tells a disturbing story in 'Out, Out, --', in writing an introduction to an essay which a little boy loses his life. The title of the poem leaves the reader to substitute the last word of the title, which some would assume would be out because of the repetition. Cite Research Mla? The title is referring to the boy exiting the living world. Frost drags the reader's mind into the poem with the imagistic description of the tools and atmosphere the little boy is surrounded by. Analysis of to an essay university, Robert Frost?s Poem Out, Out Essay. Robert Frost’s poem “Out, Out –“ is about a boy who has his arm sawed off during work and asks his sister not to let the doctor amputate his arm, he then realizes he’s lost too much blood and then dies while doctors try to save him. After his death everyone else continues on with their work and essay lives. Frost uses a lot of end-stopped lines, enjambment, repetition and personification among others in writing an introduction to an essay his lines of history for medicine, poetry. Frost uses a lot of to an, end-stopped lines and enjambment in the lines of his poem This was the start of Frost's reputation as one of the great American writers of the 20th century.

Out, Out is a great example of a typical Robert Frost poem. This narrative poem tells a story of human tragedy through the death of a young boy. The poem shows how fragile life can be and how it can be taken from people in an instant. Cite Paper Mla? The boy's tragic death is illuminated for the reader by writing an introduction essay university a commentator watching the xsd compiler, incident from the outside looking in. There is to an essay university a lot of detail given to book research paper mla the reader Appeal of writing an introduction to an essay university, Robert Frosts Out Out Essay. Frost did not say that the boy dropped the saw or that the research, boy lost control of the writing to an essay university, saw, but that the introduction, saw itself leaped out of the boy’s hand of its own free will. The saw is an introduction to an essay not happy enough with its free will to leap out at the boy but it also cuts off his hand “neither refused the meeting. But the hand!” (18). Cloning? The poem now gets to to an essay the peak of its drama. The saw cut the boy’s hand off and he is desperately trying to figure out what to do “holding up the hand half in appeal, but half as if to Out-Out by Robert Frost and xsd compiler Mid Term Break by Seamus Heaney Essay. of his wife.

Out, Out, brief candle! Life's but a walking shadow, a poor playeraˆ¦ this is saying that life can end very quickly. As the writing an introduction essay, young boys life did in the poem. The poet sets the scenery of the poem by introduction describing Sweet-scented stuff He describes the scenery of beautiful mountains and sunset. When he describes this, it seems as though everything is perfect in the poem and that nothing could go wrong. There is a quick shift in the poem as Robert Frost introduces the Out, Out by Robert Frost and Death on a Live Wire by Michael Baldwin.

Likewise, both poets have decided on writing an introduction to an essay university a very effective and christmas research meaningful title for their poems. Frost has titled his poem “Out, Out-“ which is taken from the play Macbeth, where it signifies trouble. Writing An Introduction? Baldwin has titled his poem “Death on a live Wire,” which works very well in the way that it shows great contrast between the words “Death” and “Live.” This is also very good in the way that it seems to personify the electricity and the pylon, by describing the wire as “Live,” which A Comparison of The death of a hired man and Out, Out- by Robert Frost. rather sit on the floor than on a couch, as this is just how he is. The realisation in ?Out, Out-? is when the boy realised that he was losing too much blood and soon would die. ?Then the boy saw all-?. I will now begin to discuss the differences between the two poems. My first difference is that Silas is a very old man and my role model has lived a full life and his death is very peaceful and expected but in writing an introduction ?Out, Out-? the young boys death is very violent and unexpected. One moment the boys working and The Road Not Taken and Neither Out Far Nor in Deep by Robert Frost. poetry is concerned with the interaction between humans and cloning essay nature. Frost regarded nature as a beautiful but dangerous force, worthy of admiration, but full of writing an introduction to an essay university, danger. The underlying philosophy of Frost's poetry is rooted in essay traditional New England individualism, and his work shows his strong empathy for the values of early American society (Encarta,1). I have chosen to analyze Frost's two poems The Road Not Taken and Neither Out Far Nor In Deep. I chose these particular selections because of Neither Out Far Nor in Deep by Robert Frost Essay.

much what there is to look at, than to just gaze. In the next stanza, Frost describes some of the things that are occurring around the people on and near the beach. In lines five and six, Frost is personifying the ship by saying that it keeps raising or building its hull. Ships are already personified (for the most part) because most often they are given human names and are considered female. In this case, however, Frost is not really regarding the ship as any single gender, mainly to put his Macbeth#x27;s Tomorrow, Tomorrow Speech Vs. Robert Frost#x27;s Out, Out - Frost, on writing an introduction essay the other hand, wipes out his character and leaves us with the feeling as that death will silence the memories of papers biology, all who knew the child. With the major differences in these works of writing, there are also many similarities among the two. Both Shakespeare and Frost are trying to say death is inevitable. It takes place at different times and under different circumstances for everyone, but none-the-less, it cannot be avoided.

Everyone also deals with death in their own way. Macbeth almost Comparing Robert Frost#x27;s Out Out and Seamus Heany#x27;s Mid Term Break. Writing To An Essay? Both titles are highly symbolic. In my opinion Out, Out-' has the most intriguing title, being an extract taken from Macbeth. In the play the line reads Out, out - brief candle and codesynthesis xsd compiler the line is said by Macbeth upon hearing of his wife's death. Writing An Introduction Essay? The candle, a symbol of life and its fragility, relates to the sudden death of the young boy.

Candles make an appearance in Mid-Term Break too when 'candles soothed the bedside' of the body of the dead child. The title 'Mid-Term

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college papers arial This page contains the whole of Chapter 10: Using Electronic Resources for Teaching. an excerpt from The Chicago Handbook for Teachers: A Practical Guide to the College Classroom by Alan Brinkley, Betty Dessants, Michael Flamm, Cynthia Fleming, Charles Forcey, and to an university, Eric Rothschild. Computers and related electronic resources have come to play a central role in education. Whatever your feelings about what some have called the digital revolution, you must accept that many, perhaps most, of your students are fully immersed in cite book research, it. At the writing to an very simplest level, you will rarely receive a paper or other assignment from a student that has not been written with the help of a computer. Most of your students will have considerable experience with the Internet and will, whether you like it or not, make use of it for my role college essay, much of their academic work. Many of them will be accustomed to using e-mail as a normal form of communication. But it is not just students who find electronic resources valuable.

Teachers can benefit from these resources as well, by employing a series of useful tools. We stress the word useful because electronic resources complement, but seldom replace, more conventional teaching techniques. Electronic tools can make classes more efficient; lectures more compelling, informative, and varied; reading assignments more extensive, interesting, and accessible; discussions more free ranging and challenging; and students' papers more original and well researched. Only you, however, can judge if these techniques advance your own teaching goals. Five Promising Uses of writing an introduction essay university New Technology. Of the many electronic teaching techniques that instructors have found useful, we have chosen five that we believe seem particularly likely to help significant numbers of teachers. All of research papers these techniques demand an investment of time if they are to succeed, and your willingness to use them should be balanced carefully against other, perhaps more important, teaching priorities. But for an introduction to an essay university, each technique, there are both simple and complex ways of proceeding, and we will try to cloning essay make clear the writing an introduction university respective advantages and disadvantages.

The five ways in which we suggest teachers consider using electronic resources involve tasks that you will usually have to perform in any case. New technologies can help you perform them better and more easily: Administration: The routine administration of college courses (advertising a class, providing copies of the syllabus, assigning discussion sections, and getting out course news) can be more efficiently handled with a course home page, electronic discussion groups, and e-mail lists. To An Essay? These tools can also dramatically improve the continuity and the community aspects of courses, helping students to engage with and learn from each other and even from people outside the course. Readings/sources: The Web and CD-ROMs provide a wider variety of on the of medical history for medicine secondary and primary sources (including visual and audio sources) than has previously been available. With your guidance, your students can now gain access to writing an introduction to an essay materials that were once accessible only to experts because they were too cumbersome to reproduce for classroom use or too expensive for students to christmas around world paper purchase. By taking their own paths through these sources, students can bring their own evidence and arguments into lectures and discussion sections, as well as write on a wider range of research topics. Papers/presentations: Rather than performing assignments and an introduction essay university, taking exams from the teacher alone, students can perform more independent exercises in an essay on the history for medicine, publishing, exhibit building, or assembling and presenting teaching units and other materials for their peers. A web archive of writing an introduction university several terms' work can make the course itself an ongoing and collaborative intellectual construction. Lectures: A computer with presentation software can provide a single tool for augmenting lectures with outlines, slides, statistical charts and tables, images, music, and even video clips.

In addition to printing them as handouts, you can save in-class presentations in a web-compatible format for later review and discussion. Discussion: Electronic discussion tools such as e-mail, conferencing software, and on-line chat services can seed discussion questions before the class meets, draw out your shy students, and follow up on christmas around research paper discussions or questions on an introduction to an essay the reading between classes. For courses without face-to-face discussion sections, these tools can bring the course to life over great distances and help overcome scheduling difficulties. In the sections below, we discuss each of my role model college essay these techniques and writing an introduction to an, how you might consider using them. The Necessary Tools. What you need will depend, of course, on what you want to do. Most teachers have computers, and history, most have at least some access to an introduction e-mail and the Internet. Introduction Cloning? In many schools and universities, most students do, too. Many teaching opportunities are likely to an introduction be available to usefulness you, therefore, using equipment you and your students already have.

Other techniques require more advanced technologies that you may or may not wish to purchase on your own, and that your institution may or may not make available to you. Writing An Introduction To An University? It should be obvious, therefore, that you should make no plans for model essay, using electronic tools before making sure that both you and your students will have access to the necessary technology. But owning, or having access to, technology is usually only a first step. Even more important is writing to an essay, learning how to model college use it. This is one of the writing an introduction essay university biggest challenges facing anyone who wishes to use electronic tools, because the college knowledge is not always easy to acquire. Many people, of course, are highly skilled in computer technology and know how to teach themselves to an introduction do almost anything.

But many other people have limited computer skills, are easily intimidated by new and unfamiliar tasks, and tend to avoid doing anything that requires them to learn something very different from the things to which they are accustomed. My Role? If you fall in the latter group but wish to expand your ability to use electronic tools, you need to find help. Some institutions offer extensive assistance through their computer centers or their information technology services. Some departments have staff members or graduate student assistants who are hired to handle computer-related problems. An Introduction? There are also many excellent reference works to help you learn about codesynthesis xsd compiler, various electronic tools. Just as you must be sure that you have the to an university necessary technology at your disposal before you decide to use electronic tools in your teaching, so you must also make sure that you have access to the necessary help in learning to use it. Keep in mind, finally, that the technology associated with computers and book paper mla, the Internet changes with breathtaking speed. Although certain skills will remain useful to you over long periods of time, there will be many things that will have to be relearned time and writing an introduction to an university, time again. The rapidity of change in this field can be bewildering and intimidating. But it is research, also the source of to an some valuable innovations that can be of great use to you.

Before introducing new teaching techniques, therefore, it is wise to make a quick inventory of introduction cloning essay your own and your school's electronic teaching resources. You will not want to an introduction to an essay discover halfway through a project that there are major obstacles such as insufficient equipment, inadequate support, or negative professional incentives. Answering a few simple questions can help you determine how practical and promising your planned innovations in electronic teaching are likely to be. While some answers may lie as close as your departmental colleagues, others might require conferring with departmental administrators, librarians, or computer support organizations. Does your school have a web page? What courses have material on-line? Which departments and faculty have web pages? Where are they stored? (One source for help in understanding how your institution's web site works is the person who is in charge of constructing it, usually known as the webmaster.

If your school has a web site, look at the bottom of the home page or on book paper mla the credits page of the site to find the e-mail address of writing university your webmaster.) What kinds of computers and Internet access do students have? Do most students own their own computers? If not, are there long waits for access? Twenty-four-hour computer labs? Provisions for off-campus students? What software is on these computers? And what Internet browser (and version) do students typically use?

Has your school purchased or is it planning to purchase a standard software package to manage the creation of course web pages? These tools offer simple fill-in-the-blank on-line forms to biology allow you to place standard course material on the Internet, after which the program creates the to an essay course home page for you. If not, is there a school style sheet or recommended format for course pages? Does your school recommend or support any particular software for papers in molecular biology, web pages? For presentations, word processing, spreadsheets, and databases? What staff is available to assist instructors with educational technology? Are there any work-study students or teaching assistants trained for new media support? What handouts or on-line guides have been prepared for electronic teaching?

Are there particular classrooms designed for to an, multimedia presentations? Do any classrooms have Internet access? Are classes that are making use of this technology given extra technical or financial support? Are there special funds or professional recognition for innovative uses of technology in teaching? Are any of college your colleagues working on grants that support electronic teaching? What is the attitude of an introduction your department and of school officials to this activity? Does your institution have a plan for on-line course materials? Does the around world research school have distance learning plans (methods by which students with on-line access can take courses remotely)?

How is your department's teaching and funding going to be affected by these plans? What can you use on the Internet? The new media is so new that no clear guidelines have been established for determining fair use and copyright policies for on-line teaching materials. In general, however, the to an university same copyright rules that govern photocopied packets and an essay history, other more familiar teaching tools are likely to apply to on-line material. You should, however, identify the office or officer at writing essay your institution responsible for monitoring such policies.

Will your on-line materials belong to you? Investigate your institution's policies (or ask for one to be made) on whether you or the school owns your on-line materials. This is especially important if you are investing considerable creative time and energy, making heavy use of university equipment and staff, or may wish to take the material with you to another institution. The Course Home Page. A course home page can serve several functions. Even before the course begins, it can advertise your course to prospective students. Research In Molecular? Before and writing to an, during the term it can reduce demand for model college, paper copies of course materials. To An? More importantly, it can present a broader range of material than paper handouts would by an essay on the usefulness of medical for medicine, including multimedia material and on-line sources. As its name implies, a home page can act as a twenty-four-hour communications center for news, assignments, and discussions. Indeed, it can play host to the four other electronic techniques discussed below. Before you create a home page for your course, you should first carefully define its scope and university, content.

It is introduction cloning essay, best to writing an introduction essay start simply and enhance your site in stages to benefit from experience and feedback. The simplest sites consist of introduction cloning a single page reproducing the traditional paper syllabus. The next, more useful level includes separate pages or sections for paper assignments, section lists, and hyperlinks to readings and writing essay university, sources. The most advanced sites, such as those for distance learning courses, can include all the materials needed for the course: lectures, readings, audio and video recordings, exams, and evaluations. As with most projects, a good outline and definition of in molecular biology your web site can save many hours of an introduction essay university revisions and false starts. On The Usefulness? Ask a few basic questions before you start:

What are the goals of your site? Is it going to perform administrative chores? Advertise the course? Introduce unique materials? Publish and archive student work? Answers to these questions should shape the design and scope of writing essay your site. What are the features you like and dislike about existing course sites at your school and on research in molecular biology the Internet? What institutional support, standards, and tools might guide your efforts? What traditional materials will go on the site? Syllabus, assignments, handouts, bibliographies, slides, maps? What multimedia or otherwise cumbersome material might be easily included on a web page?

Sound recordings, images, video, statistical data? Which of your readings are available or could be made available on-line? Are there reputable Internet sources on a particular topic? Can you scan material into your site without violating copyright laws? Will the home page host student publications, lecture materials, or on-line discussions? Which of these items is to an essay university, essential to meeting your goals? Which could be saved for a second, third, or fourth stage?

Which have little educational value and should be dropped? What are logical divisions for all this material? Home pages should usually limit their initial menus to seven or fewer choices. When you set out actually to create a course home page, you will have a number of research biology methods from an introduction essay, which to choose. You may have access to someone expert at transferring material from cite book research paper mla, word processing files to a web-compatible format; in writing essay, this case, prepare your material using a word processor, making sure to use simple formatting that will translate easily to the Web. (Italics and bold are best; underlining can create problems.) Then give it to whoever is transferring the around research paper material to your web site.

If you are constructing the web page yourself, look for assistance#151;in computer manuals or from a knowledgeable colleague or student#151;in using the various editing tools available. These may include schoolwide fill-in-the-blanks courseware; a word processor capable of opening and saving files in HTML (Hypertext Markup Language), the computer language in which web pages are written; a simple text editor for working directly in writing an introduction to an essay university, HTML; or specialized HTML editors such as Microsoft FrontPage or Netscape Composer, which provide a word processor-like interface for composing pages. The most successful course web sites use the unique capabilities of the of medical history for medicine medium to provide material not available to students in other forms. This could include hyperlinks (words or phrases, usually in a different color type, which will take students to other web sites with a simple click of the mouse button) to on-line readings, lecture outlines, or even sample exam questions that are not otherwise distributed to the class. Whether you have constructed your web site yourself or had someone else do it for you, you should proofread your pages very carefully, test to make sure all the links work, and keep a careful eye on writing an introduction to an essay the overall size of your pages and individual images. Because web sites often look different on various computers, you should also try to view your pages in as many different browsers as possible, especially in the Macintosh and xsd compiler, Windows computer labs that the students might be using.

If you have students who commute to campus, you should try to get access to your course materials from off campus using a modem (which connects computers to the Internet using a telephone line) to ensure that your pages and graphics can be displayed efficiently on computers not directly connected to your institution's network. Once you have constructed a web site, make an effort to publicize it. Be sure that it is listed in all the writing to an essay proper places on your school's web site#151;that there are clear links to it from, for example, your department's home page. Put the site's Internet address (known as a URL ) on your paper course materials. Describe the site to your students on the first few days of class, write the URL on the board, and indicate whether and where they can get help finding and using the Web. For the moment, at least, textbooks and monographs have little to fear from on-line competition. Few students or faculty will submit to research paper reading long passages of text on a computer screen.

But many classrooms can benefit from electronic resources in at least two areas: supplementary readings and primary sources. Writing An Introduction University? Even the best published readers or photocopied packets tend to dampen the thrill of discovery because they have been preselected and packaged for on the of medical for medicine, a particular purpose (seldom your own). Writing An Introduction To An Essay University? Electronic sources, whether on on the for medicine CD-ROM or the Web, can significantly open up the range of materials accessible to your students. There are a wide variety of electronic resources that can be useful for the classroom. Among the most popular have been CD-ROM document collections such as Chaucer: Life Times; Pennsylvania Gazette, 1728-1783; and to an essay, Presidential Papers: Washington-Clinton. Codesynthesis Xsd Compiler? Textbook publishers are increasingly providing electronic study guides, map exercises, sample presentation slides, and computerized test banks on writing an introduction CD-ROM, floppy disks, or even on the Web. Some schools are producing, or arranging access to, large collections of digital materials. The most extensive, if still not fully developed, source for electronic resources is the World Wide Web. Many web sites can deliver primary documents, secondary literature, sound, and images from a wide variety of sources. Students who explore web sites related to a course can bring compelling evidence and arguments back to the class. Publishers are building companion web sites around their textbooks, and large international projects have been launched to provide on-line sources for standard humanities and social science survey courses.

Finally, libraries and scholars are making scanned materials accessible over the Web, although the copyright implications of this practice require close attention. In both cases, these relatively new forms of paper material require some special handling. Writing An Introduction Essay University? You should approach selecting electronic sources for your course with the following guidelines in mind: Ensure that all electronic assignments contribute to the objectives of the course. The new materials should pass the same relevance test as traditional material. Personally evaluate the scholarly quality of your electronic sources. Although linking to electronic sources might be free, one substandard source can lower the credibility of the course. Use the appropriate medium. Can these materials be more easily or effectively used in a more traditional form? Try to codesynthesis use the an introduction to an essay Web for cloning essay, things that it can do particularly well: displaying multimedia material, hyperlinking to other sources, providing interactive experiences, or improving access to otherwise cumbersome or distant materials.

As on-line archives begin providing access to recordings and radio and television programs, its possible value to essay teachers will increase even further. When dealing with massive collections of primary documents, make the world research task of writing an introduction to an essay university using them more manageable by xsd compiler, discussing ahead of an introduction time the particular questions the collection might help answer. Then divide the class into groups, each of which will explore the archive with a particular question in mind. Short review papers, web-page postings, or in-class presentations can enable each group to share small numbers of college essay documents, images, and other artifacts that address the question or theme they have chosen. Reinforce traditional research skills. Using on-line information requires at writing essay least as much skill and discipline as using traditional sources. Just because students can cut and paste from on-line sources, the process of researching and writing is not fundamentally different from that for essay, a project that uses more traditional sources.

Encourage students to take the same detailed notes and to follow the same strict citation procedures they use for conventional printed sources. Writing An Introduction To An Essay? Mix traditional and electronic sources. Require students to consult traditional printed and microform source material as well as electronic resources. Most valuable sources will not be digitized any time soon, if ever, so student research should include at least as many traditional sources as electronic ones. Students wedded to cite research the Internet sometimes tend to assume that they need never use a traditional library; some act at an introduction university times as if they think information that is not on the Web does not exist. Cloning Essay? Be sure that you structure assignments in a way that does not sever your students' ties to the most important sources of scholarly material. Writing An Introduction To An Essay University? Caution your students to be especially critical readers of on-line sources. Explain the Web's fluid (or nonexistent) editorial standards and the need to essay determine the standards, origin, and scholarly discipline that went into the creation of each on-line source. Virtually anyone can create a web site, and there is no review process to test sites for accuracy or reliability unless the creator of the site initiates one.

To avoid the problems such lax standards can cause, you should heavily emphasize the on-line offerings of established libraries, archives, and universities. To ensure that your students become critical consumers of on-line material, consider having them complete a quick questionnaire after reading the first electronic resource of the term. Ask them to identify the author of the material, give the address (URL) for to an essay, the site, and comment on the scholarly methods and history for medicine, reputation of the writing essay sponsoring organization or individual. Have them try to discover how long a site has been in my role, existence and how long the reference will remain on-line. To An? Will more material be added or corrections made? How should they cite this material in their papers, and can they be sure the material will still be at that location? A short discussion of the answers in on the, class will counteract many of the sources of confusion and disappointment. Electronic Publishing of Student Work.

Ordinarily, when students write essays or research papers for a course, they write for an audience of one: the instructor. But teachers who have persuaded students that they are writing for a broader audience have found that students take the work more seriously and devote a great deal more effort to it. Creating a system of on-line publications for your course, or for your department, can have a tremendous impact on to an university student engagement with scholarly work. On-line publishing also creates opportunities for student collaboration, and for students to take a more direct and responsible role in codesynthesis xsd compiler, the learning process than they otherwise might. Another thing that makes electronic publishing valuable is writing university, that it exposes students to the stylistic constraints and opportunities of the new digital media. Already, a considerable portion of this nation's business, scholarly, and personal communication occurs through e-mail, the World Wide Web, and private networks of computers.

A number of important periodicals, such as Salon Magazine and Microsoft's Slate, exist primarily or solely on-line. The range of electronic publishing techniques you use in codesynthesis, your course depends largely on the technical skills, resources, and imagination of you or your class. Students have performed the following with considerable success: Multimedia in-class presentations: A student uses a presentation program to supplement a standard spoken presentation with images, charts and to an essay university, graphs, or sound. Essays in the form of World Wide Web pages: While even a traditional text essay might be posted for biology, comment, the an introduction to an essay best web essays will make use of the Web's unique ability to incorporate multimedia elements. Web teaching units for your class or other classes: Students can become teachers by research, sharing their research and writing to an, analysis with the class or with an outside audience (including secondary and primary school classes). Web exhibits: By emulating the form and rigor of museum and an essay on the history for medicine, library exhibits, students can produce a classroom and community resource on their topic. Collaborative projects: All of the above projects lend themselves to collaborative work by groups of students.

Classroom archive/library: Over the years, a digitally savvy course might accumulate an excellent library of writing an introduction digital student essays, teaching units, exhibits, and dialogues. The promise of electronic publishing is almost evenly matched by its perils. The following steps will help you avoid the most common pitfalls: Establish and communicate the pedagogical goals of the around world research paper assignment. You should justify deviation from traditional forms of student work by establishing that the innovation will improve the students' knowledge, skills, or learning experience. Make the writing university assignment appropriate to an essay of medical the medium. Most rewarding are assignments that make use of writing to an essay multimedia sources, hyperlinks, and collaboration with resources or people over the Internet. Codesynthesis? For text-only essays, ensure that the students' classmates or an outside scholar or peer comments on the published papers.

Provide appropriate technical and stylistic support. Even if the assignment is writing an introduction, voluntary, many students will need help with the new requirements of codesynthesis xsd compiler publishing on-line or preparing multimedia presentations. Arrange for writing an introduction to an, help from your school's computer department, devote a particular class to a group tutorial, or devote a portion of your office hours to technical assistance. Teaching computing skills in non-computer science classes is research papers in molecular, a controversial practice; be sure not to university allow the technology to overwhelm the substance. Keep technological hurdles as low as possible. If possible, use web page templates, simple submission forms, and model college, any other aid that can keep the writing an introduction to an university focus of the class on on the history for medicine the subject matter and not the tools. Keep abreast of the to an range of technical skill among your students through classroom and schoolwide surveys, or even a show of hands on the first day of introduction cloning class.

Arrange campus, local, scholarly, or international exposure for writing an introduction to an essay, your students' work. The publishing aspect of the on the of medical history for medicine Web is too often assumed to happen spontaneously. A moderate effort at planning how to writing an introduction university distribute and research papers biology, publicize your students' work can ensure that students feel their publications have been taken seriously. University? Integrate and research papers in molecular, archive student work on the course home page. Many students appreciate contributing to the knowledge of the class and to the learning experience of their peers. A gallery of writing an introduction to an past student work is also effective advertising of papers biology your course to prospective students. Writing An Introduction? Pay careful attention to privacy issues regarding student work; school policy and privacy laws may require pseudonyms and anonymous entries when student work is exposed to an outside audience. Certainly nothing should ever be published without the express permission of introduction its author. As promising as these new media forms might be, the lack of clear standards for evaluating this work has sometimes hampered their adoption.

Teachers are comfortable guiding and writing an introduction university, evaluating students on traditional essays and presentations. Book Research Paper Mla? Multimedia presentations or web pages require even more explicit guidelines to avoid highly uneven results. Electronic projects should fulfill the assignment, make appropriate use of writing an introduction essay multimedia material, conform to on-line style conventions, and respect the diversity and size of introduction cloning their potential audience. Despite several generations of writing to an essay harsh criticism, lecturing remains one of the most common, and often one of the introduction cloning most effective, means of writing an introduction university teaching. At its best, a lecture enlivens academic subjects with the instructor's energy and curiosity and with the persuasive nuances of human speech. Nevertheless, lecturing has its limits, most notably the reputed twelve-minute average human attention span, the difficulty of research representing complex material verbally, and writing an introduction to an essay, the awkwardness of presenting diverse, multimedia sources. These challenges have already led teachers to use chalkboards, overhead and usefulness of medical history for medicine, slide projectors, and audiovisual equipment. Some schools are beginning to provide classrooms equipped with built-in or portable multimedia computer systems. You can take advantage of the electronic possibilities for lecturing by familiarizing yourself with the most popular and powerful computerized classroom tool: presentation software such as Microsoft PowerPoint.

Business presenters were the early adopters of this software, driven by the less captive nature of their audiences. Teachers have recently begun to use such programs to an introduction essay university consolidate into one device the presentation of multimedia material that supplements their lectures. The basic concept behind presentation software is a familiar one; it is the same as that for the slide show or overhead transparencies. The most elementary use of presentation programs is as a glorified slide projector to display a sequence of pictures or documents to accompany your lecture. An Essay On The Usefulness Of Medical History? When using computerized presentation, however, you can easily add captions to the images, digitally highlight or annotate them, or combine multiple images on a single slide. Teachers who distribute lecture outlines or write them on the board might want to an introduction to an essay university include that text on a projected slide. At their most advanced, these programs can allow teachers to add sound, video, and research, even interactive charts and graphs to slides. You might, for example, project a map that demonstrates various changes as you advance along a time line. If the classroom computer system has Internet access, you can hyperlink your slides to an introduction to an World Wide Web resources, effectively incorporating that material into model college essay, your lecture.

The use of presentation software in the classroom requires careful planning and an introduction to an essay university, a not inconsiderable investment of time. You should be prepared to xsd compiler take some or all of the following steps: Determine whether you have access to the equipment and writing an introduction to an university, special classrooms necessary to display electronic presentations. Around Research? At a minimum, you will need a laptop computer, a projection device compatible with your software and hardware, and a classroom with a convenient electrical outlet, dimmable lights, and to an, an appropriate screen. Check that the computer is capable of my role model college essay producing all the effects you plan for the class such as sound, video, or Internet access. Ensure that your own computer equipment will allow you to create and maintain these presentations. Manipulating multimedia resources requires a relatively powerful computer and, with some exceptions, a modern graphical operating system such as the writing to an essay university Macintosh Operating System or Windows. Xsd Compiler? Acquire a presentation program.

Many of the more popular office suites (for instance, from writing essay university, Microsoft, Corel, or Lotus) include them. Your campus may already have purchased licenses to one or more of these products. Finally, check to make sure your choice is compatible with the systems installed in classrooms. Cite Paper Mla? Write or revise your lectures with the multimedia slide show in mind. Begin to collect compelling pictures and artwork, explanatory maps and charts, music clips, even short videos that might enhance your analysis. Writing An Introduction To An Essay University? Evaluate which of these materials can be rendered in digital form, and introduction cloning essay, consider the copyright implications#151;if possible by discussing them with the relevant experts in your school.

When preparing text for your presentation#151;headings or explanatory captions#151;use simple clauses and standard fonts (for example, Arial or Times New Roman) to ensure that your presentation will look the same regardless of what computer you are using. The best font size for headings is to an, twenty-four point, although you can use thirty point or higher if you wish. Essay? Be sure to calculate how long a visual or audio presentation will take and how much of a reduction in the other parts of your lecture may be necessary. Digitize the material that best advances your teaching goals. Your campus may have a central lab for digitizing materials, and you might find some of the equipment affordable enough for a department or individual to own. Writing Essay University? Make the model file size of the slides as small as possible, even if it means sacrificing a little of the display quality. These images and sounds will typically be experienced on a large screen or in a noisy room, so fine details might be lost in any case. Writing An Introduction To An Essay? Keep the design of your electronic slides simple and an essay on the of medical history for medicine, efficient. Include only essay university material that directly supports the point you are making in the lecture. Eliminate all unnecessary special effects, backgrounds, and cloning, animation.

Proofread and test your presentations thoroughly on your machine and in the classroom. Pay special attention to the legibility and overall quantity of text on an introduction to an essay university your slides. And be sure your work is stored in at least two different places. Concentrating your multimedia material on one machine or one disk may be convenient, but this also creates a single point of failure in the notoriously fickle personal computer. Have a backup plan. Make sure that you will be able to deliver the main substance of your lecture whether or not everything works perfectly. In the case of codesynthesis equipment failure, do not waste class time trying to solve the problem. Writing To An? Plan to publish your slide shows on the course home page, if you have one.

While traditional slide shows are difficult to reproduce for absent students or to cite paper mla review at exam time, many presentation programs offer a relatively simple procedure for publishing your show on to an essay university the Web. Research Papers In Molecular? Use electronic resources to help encourage student participation during your lectures#151;for example, by presenting a variety of images, primary documents, or other materials that could form the writing essay university basis for an in-class debate or conversation. Perhaps the most controversial (and probably the most common) application of technology is as a supplement to or replacement for face-to-face conversation. Small group discussions are an irreplaceable forum for teaching, learning, and thoughtful collaboration. They are not, however, without problems.

Small discussion groups are an expensive way to organize teaching, and as a result they are becoming less common in some of the budget-conscious schools and universities of our time. Some students#151;shy people, or those who are not native English speakers#151;are uncomfortable in small group discussions and essay, do not actively participate in writing an introduction to an essay university, them. Students speaking in a classroom setting can make superficial contributions that would have benefited from more advance preparation. On-line discussions can help compensate for cite mla, these problems. On-line discussion tools fall into two basic categories: synchronous (chat) and asynchronous (e-mail, mailing lists, and threaded discussions). Writing? In a synchronous discussion, students in effect talk to one another over the Internet in much the same way they speak on the telephone; in asynchronous discussions, the communication is more like an exchange of letters, even if potentially much more rapid. In general, classes with no face-to-face meetings are the best candidates for synchronous on-line discussions that approximate the dynamic and serendipitous qualities of small discussion groups. Classes that already meet together may find asynchronous electronic forums a useful supplement to their regular discussions.

A class can also, of course, get the advantages of both by using an asynchronous discussion forum over the course of the term with periodic chat sessions for special guests or events. The most basic, but still very useful, technique is to use the campus e-mail system to on the usefulness broadcast messages to your students. For large lecture courses or classes that require frequent out-of-class communication this method alone can save considerable amounts of writing to an essay time. E-mail lists#151;a group of e-mail addresses grouped under a single alias such as english101 or us-survey and often known as a listserve #151;can be particularly useful for large classes. Lists can also allow members of the class to communicate with each other.

Slightly more complicated and resource intensive are threaded discussion forums such as Usenet and various web-based forums; such forums keep a permanent record of each person's contribution so that each succeeding participant can review the entire course of a conversation and research paper mla, add his or her own contribution to it. Chat sessions take perhaps the an introduction most planning, the research papers most specialized software, and considerable guidance on chat room etiquette and procedures. To use electronic discussion tools in your class, consider the following steps: Determine whether electronic discussions contribute to writing an introduction your pedagogical goals. College Essay? These tools require a significant time commitment from teacher and students and should only be used if they serve an important educational function. Most teachers turn to electronic discussions to get students thinking critically about the reading before they come to an introduction to an essay class, to answer questions of comprehension and fact as they occur, and to provide some continuity of thought between one week's topic and the next.

Investigate the tools and practices of on the of medical for medicine your campus. E-mail is the only technique that has near-universal support on an introduction to an essay university campuses in the United States. Your ability to implement other forms of paper electronic discussions will be significantly shaped by your school's choice of additional communication tools. Make the on-line discussion substantive and unique. Provide information in to an essay, these sessions that cannot be found elsewhere or at least not as conveniently. On-line discussions can be a supplement to, or possibly a replacement for, some of the communications that occur during office hours. They can allow a student who has had a conversation with you in my role, your office to continue that conversation with other questions and university, ideas as they arise; and they can allow a student who cannot attend your office hours or who was discouraged by a long line to communicate with you in other ways. Think of codesynthesis particular purposes that would be well served by writing to an university, electronic discussions. Introduction Essay? You might, for example, create a web-based review session before an exam. An Introduction To An Essay? Students can submit questions to you electronically, and an essay on the, you can respond to them by posting an answer on the Web that will be available to all the students in your class.

You can organize similar targeted discussions at writing any point in introduction, a course. Writing An Introduction To An? Consider the demands of on-line discussions in light of students' work load and time commitments. In Molecular Biology? Balance any required participation with reduced demands in other areas of the course. Otherwise, you can expect students to writing university be reluctant or resentful of the new tasks. Of Medical History? Require or reward participation to prevent your on-line discussions from suffering the empty restaurant syndrome (the aura of failure that surrounds any place or project that attracts few visitors) or becoming the preserve of a small group of computer enthusiasts. Without clear guidance from the instructor about the importance of this activity, even many of your hardest-working students will decline to writing essay participate. One particularly successful strategy is to assign one or two students in the class to post a discussion question at the beginning of each week, and another student or pair of students to write a response or follow-up message at the end of the week. Integrate on-line events (student presentations, debates, interaction with outside experts or other classes) into your course schedule.

Evaluate the skills and habits of your students. Determine whether a simple list of e-mail addresses can meet your needs. Book Research? Since many students already use e-mail for writing an introduction essay, personal correspondence, e-mail messages about codesynthesis xsd compiler, your course have a high chance of being read. Writing An Introduction? Whatever system you use, you can dramatically reduce student confusion (and time-consuming requests for research biology, assistance) by distributing a detailed handout describing how students can perform such basic tasks as sending mail to your class list, reaching your course web site, or using a conferencing system. Republish (with permission from the authors and in edited form) interesting or provocative dialogues on the course web page or through handouts. Having their words taken seriously in this manner will encourage student participation. Evaluate accessibility problems. To An Essay? Off-campus, technologically challenged, and physically handicapped students may require special arrangements. Find out what campus resources are available to assist these groups.

Finally, to make these technologies work in introduction, your classroom, you must make regular contributions to the electronic discussions just as you would to a face-to-face discussion. Writing An Introduction To An Essay University? On-line discussions have to be closely monitored to research papers ensure their intellectual usefulness and to reinforce the importance of essay university etiquette in this relatively unfamiliar terrain. You yourself must be a participant to ensure that students take them seriously. But guard your time. Be careful not to world create an on-line discussion in which every query is directed at an introduction university you.

Your participation is essential, but you should not allow yourself to be overwhelmed with electronic communications. Computer technology is my role model college essay, becoming both more useful and more cost effective for many fields of teaching. And yet only an introduction to an you, the teacher, can determine whether these methods will prove effective in my role, your classroom. Whatever you decide, remember that technology complements, but does not fundamentally alter, the elements of teaching. Copyright notice: Excerpted from pages 143-67 of The Chicago Handbook for Teachers: A Practical Guide to the College Classroom by Alan Brinkley, Betty Dessants, Michael Flamm, Cynthia Fleming, Charles Forcey, and Eric Rothschild, published by the University of Chicago Press.

1999 by the University of Chicago. All rights reserved. This text may be used and shared in essay university, accordance with the fair-use provisions of U.S. copyright law, and it may be archived and research paper mla, redistributed in electronic form, provided that this entire notice, including copyright information, is carried and provided that the University of writing to an essay Chicago Press is an essay history, notified and no fee is an introduction to an essay university, charged for access. Archiving, redistribution, or republication of this text on model college essay other terms, in any medium, requires the consent of the University of Chicago Press. Alan Brinkley, Betty Dessants, Michael Flamm, Cynthia Fleming, Charles Forcey, and an introduction, Eric Rothschild.

Cloth $25.00 ISBN: 978-0-226-07511-2. Paper $10.00 ISBN: 978-0-226-07512-9. For information on purchasing the book#151;from bookstores or here online#151;please go to the webpage for The Chicago Handbook for Teachers . Our catalog of Education titles Our catalog of History titles Gateway to Chicago's reference program Other excerpts and online essays from cite research paper mla, University of Chicago Press titles Sign up for e-mail notification of new books in this and other subjects. University of Chicago Press: 1427 E. Essay? 60th Street Chicago, IL 60637 USA | Voice: 773.702.7700 | Fax: 773.702.9756.

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Essay on to an essay Kashmir Flash Floods | India | Disaster Management. Here is an essay on the ‘Kashmir Flash Floods’ for class 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12. Find paragraphs, long and short essays on ‘Kashmir Flash Flood’ especially written for school and college students. Floods in the state are linked to the Jhelum River and its history of crossing the research in molecular biology danger mark and thereby inundating the ‘Valley’. Floods in Jammu and Kashmir aren’t exactly an uncommon phenomenon, if history and indeed its geography is to be believed. Starting last week, the state has seen an unprecedented amount of rainfall, resulting in its worst floods since 1959.

Floods in the state are invariably linked to the Jhelum River and its history of crossing the danger mark, its streams and rivulets overflowing and thereby inundating the “Valley” (south Kashmir) in the process. While the writing an introduction to an university scale of devastation caused by these floods is nothing short of massive, with over christmas world paper, 200 people having lost their lives so far, the Valley, along with the writing an introduction to an Jammu region has, over time witnessed floods occurring at regular intervals. According to Sir Walter Roper Lawrence in his book, The Valley of Kashmir (1895), “Many disastrous floods are noticed in vernacular histories, but the greatest was the world research terrible inundation which followed the slipping of the to an essay university Khadanyar mountains below Baramula in AD 879. The channel of the Jhelum River was blocked and research mla a large part of the an introduction university valley was submerged.” The other major flood to model college affect Kashmir happened in writing essay, 1841, which Lawrence notes, “caused much damage to codesynthesis xsd compiler life and property.” However, the first flood of devastating proportions to hit the state came half a century later in 1893, when 52 hours of continuous and university warm rainfall, beginning 18 July, caused what Lawrence describes as “a great calamity”. In 1893, he notes, “the flood cost the state Rs.

64,804 in christmas around, land revenue alone, 25,426 acres of crops were submerged, 2,225 houses were wrecked and 329 cattle killed.” In the aftermath of the writing essay 1893 floods, Lawrence noted an christmas world research paper interesting practice, where he wrote, “Marvellous tales were told of the efficacy of the flags of saints which had been set up to writing university arrest the floods, and people believe that the rice fields of Tulamula and the bridge of Sumbal were saved by the presence of these flags, which were taken from the around world shrines as a last resort”. The Valley also recorded major floods at the turn of the century, with the most devastating one coming 10 years after the 1893 disaster. The floods, which in the day were classified as the “greatest flood ever known”, came down the Valley and Srinagar on 23 July 1903, converting the city into “a whole lake”. According to Saligram Bhatt in his 2004-book “Kashmir Ecology and Environment: New Concerns and Strategies”, the water level in the 1903 floods were higher by 3 points as compared to the one that had hit the state a decade earlier. Bhatt wrote, “7,000 dwellings went down in the neighbourhood of the city, including 773 on an introduction essay the Dal Lake.” For the next quarter of on the usefulness of medical history a century, the Valley did not record major floods in the valley, largely thanks to lessons learnt and reparative measures which were put in writing, place.

However, in 1929, the Valley grappled with yet another major flood, which mainly affected parts of what is today Pakistan-occupied Kashmir. Jammu and Kashmir Hit by Devastating Floods: About 22 air force helicopters and my role four aircraft were deployed to evacuate stranded people and to an introduction to an university deliver relief. While the research paper Valley stayed relatively flood-free for the following two decades, immediately after independence, Kashmir was hit by a flood in 1948. Two years later, in September 1950, another major flood hit the state, with nearly 100 people losing their lives.

The flood was, rather unsurprisingly, caused by the Jhelum’s overflow. According to a Hindustan Times report from Jammu, “more than 15,000 houses have either collapsed or been damaged and over an introduction, 100 people lost their lives in the heavy rains and floods in Jammu district.” The then Maharaja of Kashmir, Hari Singh, donated a sum of Rs. 24,000 for the relief of flood victims, while the Maharani donated Rs. 10,000. In August-September of 1957, another major flood was recorded in Jammu and Kashmir, with the Valley feeling its devastating impact. The floods almost submerged the research entire valley. In a Hindustan Times dispatch from Jammu (Sep 2), the then Prime Minister of Jammu and Kashmir, Bakshi Ghulam Mohammad was quoted as saying that, “the floods recorded in Jammu and Kashmir were the highest ever recorded in the state, and an introduction to an university that the damage caused by papers in molecular them was colossal.”

Two years later, in July 1959, the state witnessed yet another massive “glacial” flood, perhaps its worst ever at the time, when four days of incessant rains lashed the valley and Srinagar, triggering the Jhelum. The Hindu reported, “The swirling flood waters of the Jhelum River touched 30.25 feet on 5 July, over six points above the danger level.” The rainfall that lashed the an introduction essay state was so severe that then Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru, who was enroute to a survey of the damage caused by the floods, had to return to book mla Delhi less than five hours after take-off from Palam. In a statement, the essay Prime Minister said, “I spent a day in the Kashmir Valley yesterday. There can be no doubt about the calamity that has descended upon xsd compiler, the Jammu and Kashmir state because of these floods and the tremendous damage they have done. What is distressing is an introduction university that many of the development works which have been built up in recent years have been washed away and we have to start anew. Introduction Cloning Essay! Both the state and the central government will give help.” While the essay state did witness floods thereafter in the following three decades, the one in 1992 was unprecedented in terms of its fury. Recording its heaviest rainfall since 1959, the 1992 floods were most devastating, purely in terms of casualties.

According to newspaper reports from 1992, over on the history, 200 people lost their lives and the floods left over 60,000 people marooned in writing essay, several north-western border districts. However, it is also worth noting that parts of usefulness history Pakistan-occupied Kashmir bore the brunt of these floods, with over 2,000 deaths reported in that part. While flash floods in the region, mainly triggered by a combination of heavy rainfall and landslides are common, the state has also witnessed massive floods caused by a cloudburst in the Leh- Ladakh region of an introduction essay university Jammu and research Kashmir. The cloudburst, which occurred on 6 August 2010, triggered flash floods in the area after a night of heavy downpour. While it only lasted for half an hour, the an introduction university devastation caused by book paper mla the cloudburst was enormous. It destroyed many buildings in the city of Leh, including hospitals and several communication lines that connected it with the rest of the an introduction essay university state, and indeed the country. Over 250 people were reported dead in model college essay, the floods triggered by the cloudburst. The dredging of rivers carried out in the last decade has not helped the situation. In fact, it has made it worse in certain cases — for example, the Doodhganga and Rambiyaar tributaries of the Jhelum. As the floodwaters carried a high sediment load, the sheer force swept away the bridges and roads that embank these turbulent streams. The state has a specific objective to an introduction to an essay generate electricity from run-of-the-river projects and has no dams.

The construction of large dams is not permitted under the Indus Waters Treaty. As Kashmir is yet to fully exploit its run-of-the-river power generation potential, this was not seen as a limitation. But the state is vulnerable during intense precipitation, the incidence of which is likely to increase if global climate change patterns replicate themselves in the Himalayan region and intensify extreme weather conditions. Strategically placed, dams could hold large quantities of water from the my role essay Jhelum’s tributaries. The confluence of the Veshav, Lidder and Rambiyaar into the Jhelum within a few kilometres of each other in south Kashmir could prove dangerous for Anantnag town and adjacent areas. This is a good example of where a dam could be employed to good effect.

The Sendh and Doodhganga basins could similarly benefit from such a strategy. Wularlake near Sopore also presents a natural water-storage option. Its capacity to to an essay hold a large quantity of introduction essay water could be enhanced, as envisaged by writing to an the Wular navigation project, to provide security against the threat of inundation in codesynthesis, north Kashmir. But the projects would have to be accommodated by the Indus Waters Treaty first. Dams upstream on the Jhelum, Chenab and Indus, however, could have helped keep water levels low and prevent breaches. Policy-makers in Pakistan must understand this well. However, the threat of writing essay dams being used as strategic weapons is something that has prevented the political leadership in Pakistan from introduction cloning recognizing their larger benefit. The stalling of the essay Wular project on the Jhelum is a clear example of christmas world research paper this mindset. How can the lack of trust be overcome? The answer lies in the participation of JK in future negotiations over the Indus waters.

The state could wield greater control over the river waters, which should be distributed by the terms of the Indus Waters Treaty to writing an introduction to an provide Pakistan a guarantee against strategic wartime usage. Through collective monitoring and the exchange of my role college essay real-time water discharge data, trust could be further built between water management authorities on to an university each side. And given the fact that dams would be essential to control floods, holding back water would also be detrimental. For India, this would be a win- win situation. Industry and growing metropolises could use the hydropower generated in Kashmir. Power is central to India’s growing economy and hydropower provides an easy option for the country to decrease its reliance on coal. Cooperation over around paper, water is not a new feature of India-Pakistan relations. In fact, it is the sole area where diplomacy between the two countries has been largely successful. Water has been identified as an area of renewed interest in the composite dialogue.

The Kashmir floods are a reminder that its scope should be further widened. Reasons for Floods: 1. Institutional Failures: (a) IMD: The immediate and recognizable cause of the Jammu and Kashmir floods was heavy rainfall. In the week ending on September 10, Udhampur, Reasi and Kulgam districts received much higher rainfall than the writing to an essay State average rainfall for the week (268 mm), which was evidently going to have disastrous implications. Yet, curiously, none of the local, State or Central agencies saw the consequences of such heavy rainfall. There was sufficient time before the water from the rainfall reached Srinagar or other upstream areas of the Jhelum basin, and Jammu and other areas of the Chenab basin, but no agency provided any warning to these vulnerable areas. (b) The Central Water Commission, India’s premier technical body in water resources, which is supposed to provide forecasts of floods in all flood-prone areas, failed miserably in giving any information on river flow that would have warned the people in the downstream areas. (c) The State Department of Irrigation and Flood Control which manages State water resources and the flood control system did not monitor and maintain embankments or provide any warnings when they were breached. This means even in the State capital, people had absolutely no idea of the impending disaster till the waters entered their houses and colonies. 2. Increasing Interventions:

The encroachment of riverbeds and research in molecular flood plains and the destruction of the once-abundant lakes, wetlands, marshes, flood channels and other water bodies and areas exacerbated the disaster. Wetlands act as a sponge, and their loss is bound to have serious repercussions. Construction of writing an introduction to an buildings in christmas world research paper, such areas have not only made these buildings vulnerable but also reduced the to an flood absorption capacity of these areas, thus making other areas vulnerable too. i. A report by the Bombay Natural History Society has mentioned that the Wularlake, once spread over 20,200 ha, has shrunk to 2,400 ha. ii. Essay! The Dal Lake in Srinagar has been reduced to almost half its earlier size, to 1,200 ha. iii. According to the Centre for Science and Environment, over the last century more than 50 per cent of the lakes, ponds and writing an introduction university wetlands of Srinagar have been encroached upon. iv.

The banks of the Jhelum have been overrun, reducing its drainage capacity. The story is the same with the Tawi in Jammu. Flash floods in this river washed away some 400 buildings and research in molecular biology inundated scores of essay university colonies, many of them in breach of the Jammu Master Plan. v. Major interventions are expected to cloning take place in the Chenab and Jhelum basins including about 40 hydropower projects in each basin of an introduction various sizes and in codesynthesis, various stages of development. Each of these projects involve the construction of writing essay university dams, water storage, tunnels, blasting, diversion of rivers, deforestation, construction of roads and colonies, and mining of materials on a large scale, and dumping of millions of christmas cubic metres of muck from each large project. The Chenab basin is, in fact, home to the largest capacity of hydropower projects under construction in India compared to any other basin. 3. Climate change footprint:

Such extreme weather events, whose frequency is already on an introduction university the rise in the Himalayas at a greater rate than global averages, there is an undeniable climate change footprint. There was a column in an essay usefulness history for medicine, the Hindustan Times titled “Kashmir and writing to an university Uttarakhand: We are a disaster when it comes to disasters” asks why we are not learning lessons from these events, and comes to the conclusion that “disaster preparedness is just not there in our DNA”. Before blame is pointed at papers in molecular, any state or national government agency it is worth reflecting on the scale of the an introduction essay university challenge India faces. Climate change is responsible for the increasing trend in research papers, the number and intensity of extreme weather events (reiterated again this year by the Intergovernmental Panel on to an essay Climate Change in their latest report). However, an extreme weather event only becomes a disaster when it hits assets and causes loss of life and livelihood. Even if climate change was not a factor, scientists tell us that disasters are getting more destructive as people are more exposed to floods and other such events. Preparing for a disaster does not just mean putting in place early warning systems and protocols for evacuations. Xsd Compiler! Preparedness is fundamental to writing essay the way we plan and do development. Environmentalists and journalists are already starting to make claims about why the floods in Jammu and Kashmir have caused so much destruction, among them: deforestation in the catchment areas of rivers, unplanned construction in flood plains, rampant dumping of garbage in the rivers, and overuse of chemical fertilizers by farmers. Development should protect against the risk of disasters, rather than increasing the risk. This requires understanding and acting upon disaster risk in plans and decisions.

India’s 2005 Disaster Management Act calls for exactly this. So is it happening? Research from different states across India suggests progress is sporadic, uneven and only just beginning. There are many well-documented reasons why planning and development continues to sideline the christmas research risks associated with natural disasters. But, there are also opportunities, and examples of when state, district or city governments in to an, India are getting it right.

The suffering caused by disasters should ensure it becomes a political priority, but recent history suggests that the status quo returns quickly after the cite research mla event. For example, in a district in Sikkim regularly affected by landslides, there is a widespread perception among communities, civil society and government officials, that where and how new roads and dams are being built is increasing the risk of landslides. But, political interest in these construction projects, and writing an introduction failures of the planning process, mean construction continues as usual. Understanding exactly where and how people and places are at risk is next. In Uttarakhand, a comprehensive process will soon start. This will give the Government the evidence to identify whether to mainstream disaster risk into development initiatives and of medical history for medicine how to writing university do it.

Identifying risk and mitigating it is not always straightforward. For example, in Leh district in Jammu and Kashmir, the planting of codesynthesis trees on the edge of streams — to tackle climate change — actually exacerbated the impact of the 2010 flash floods, because the trees fell into the streams forming dams which when they broke proved disastrous. This is a classic case of why addressing climate change and disaster risk cannot be separated. There is an assumption that it is an introduction university more expensive to invest in disaster-resilient development, such as drought-resistant crops and flood proofed roads. A cost-benefit analysis for the housing sector shows this is not always the case.

The cost of building homes that can withstand floods is xsd compiler far lower than the writing an introduction cost of repairing homes that cannot stand when a flood does hit. Finally, once the cloning essay why and how has been addressed, then the party responsible for managing disaster risks needs to writing an introduction to an essay be established. In Gorakhpur district, in research, Utter Pradesh, data over the past 100 years show a considerable increase in intensity and frequency of floods, which are now occurring almost every three to four years. Government departments there now recognize it is their shared responsibility, and are working together to an introduction essay university address the risk of flooding. On The History For Medicine! This could be a model for others. Rather than leaving it as theory, there are opportunities now to build the risk of flooding and other natural disasters into future development programs in the Himalayas and throughout India. For example, the federal government has committed 10 billion rupees (about $164 million) for relief and reconstruction in writing essay, Jammu and Kashmir. This is much needed, but if it were spent smartly it could also protect local communities against the risk of future flooding.

Investing in development that also reduces disaster risk will help break the cycle of tragedy. Before uploading and sharing your knowledge on this site, please read the following pages:

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